What to watch on jobs day: The unemployment rate continues to climb but not equally for all demographic groups

In April, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that 20.5 million jobs were lost and the unemployment rate rose faster than ever before, hitting 14.7%, the highest unemployment rate since the Great Depression. May’s unemployment rate is expected to be far higher. Initial unemployment insurance claims suggest an excess of 10 million more people lost their jobs between mid-April and mid-May, the reference period for tomorrow’s report.

In advance of tomorrow’s jobs data from BLS, let’s take a minute to look more closely at the unemployment rate across various demographic groups and consider the extent of economic pain missed in the official count of the unemployed. Because of the use of the microdata in our calculations, the numbers in the figure below are not seasonally adjusted and therefore do not match the topline seasonally adjusted data released by BLS. The microdata, however, allow us to measure the unemployment rate and calculate the adjusted unemployment rate across a variety of groups not reported by the BLS.

The official unemployment rate is in dark blue in Figure A below. As you can see, the unemployment rate is incredibly high across the board. Except for those with an advanced degree, the unemployment rate of all groups has exceeded the highest level the overall unemployment rate hit at the height of the Great Recession, when it reached 10.0% in 2009 (and all groups have exceeded their group’s highest unemployment of the Great Recession). Even though jobs were lost across the board, the data indicate that job losses were particularly stark for black and brown workers, those who are less likely to be able to economically weather the storm. Historically higher unemployment rates and lower liquid savings make job losses even more devastating for African American workers and their families.

Read more

Release incarcerated Ohioans to flatten the coronavirus curve

Ohio Governor Mike DeWine acted quickly and decisively in March to flatten the curve of COVID-19 infections in this Midwestern state, closing schools, restaurants, and other gathering places. He also took action by postponing the March primary to slow the spread of the virus, protect vulnerable populations, and keep hospitals from being overwhelmed.

Although not without controversy, these steps appear to have kept hospitals from being overwhelmed in the early months of the pandemic. And while the death toll is still rising, its climb has not been as steep as some models had predicted.

Gov. DeWine has not given the same attention to protecting incarcerated Ohioans and the workers who guard and serve them. At the end of May, the Marshall Project reported that Ohio’s state prison system has reported more deaths of incarcerated people than any other state system in the United States and more than the federal prison system. Ohio’s system has the third-highest per capita death rate among incarcerated people, behind Michigan and New Jersey.

No matter where we live or what we look like, we all want to make sure our loved ones are safe and healthy.

That’s why it’s important to call out the governor’s lack of action to save lives in Ohio prisons, which has a potentially disproportionate impact on black Ohioans. Of the nearly 48,000 people in Ohio prisons, approximately 47% of the men and 74% of the women are black; in contrast, 12% of the state’s total population is black. Black people are disproportionately represented among corrections officers as well, making up 18% of Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (ODRC) staff in that role.

Read more

Close to one in four workers are either on unemployment benefits or are waiting to receive them: Congress must take action

Over the last week, I have been consumed with pain and anger over the police murders of George Floyd and so many other Black people—murders rooted in a long history of white supremacy and lynchings in the United States. That long history of white supremacy has profound effects on the labor market. For example, recessions hit Black workers harder than white workers because of dynamics like occupational segregation, discrimination, and other labor market disparities rooted in systemic racism. In this post, I am going to talk about today’s release of unemployment insurance data. These data highlight the deep recession we are now in—a recession that will exacerbate existing racial inequalities by causing greater job loss and income declines in Black households than white households.

Last week, 2.2 million workers applied for unemployment benefits. This is the 11th week in a row that initial unemployment claims have been more than twice the worst week of the Great Recession.

Of the 2.2 million who applied for unemployment benefits last week, 1.6 million applied for regular state unemployment insurance (UI), and 0.6 million applied for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA). PUA is the new federal program for workers who are out of work because of the virus but who are not eligible for regular UI (e.g., the self-employed). At this point, only 36 states and Puerto Rico are reporting PUA claims. This means PUA claims are still being undercounted.

Read more

Public education job losses in April are already greater than in all of the Great Recession

It has been well documented that fiscal austerity was a catastrophe for the recovery from the Great Recession. New estimates show that without sufficient aid to state and local governments, the COVID-19 shock could lead to a revenue shortfall of nearly $1 trillion by 2021 for state and local governments. In lieu of substantial federal investments, budget cuts are certain. But I, for one, did not expect to see the losses as soon as April. As of the latest jobs report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), state and local government employment fell by 981,000, with the vast majority of losses found in local government. And the majority of those local government losses are in the education sector, with a loss of 468,800 jobs in local public school employment alone.

State and local government austerity in the aftermath of the great recession contributed to a significant shortfall in employment in public K–12 school systems, a shortfall that continued through 2019. The figure below shows that, as of early 2020, public employment in elementary and secondary schools had yet to recover the level it had reached prior to the losses of the Great Recession. Furthermore, employment levels in the public education system have failed to keep up with growth in public school enrollment since 2008. As of September 2019, the start of the most recent pre-pandemic school year, local public education jobs were still 60,000 short of their September 2008 level, and they were over 300,000 lower than they would have needed to be to keep up with public school enrollment.

Then, the pandemic hit and local education jobs dropped sharply. More K–12 public education jobs were lost in April than in all of the Great Recession. And that’s before any austerity measures from lost state and local revenue have been put in place. A look at the Current Population Survey reveals that losses in public education were concentrated in certain occupations. While some teachers were spared, namely elementary and middle school teachers, others were not. Half of the job losses in K–12 public education between March and April were among special education teachers, tutors, and teaching assistants. Not only are these job losses devastating to those no longer getting a paycheck, but they negatively impact the education students receive. Other significant job losses occurred among counselors, nurses, janitors, and other building maintenance workers. Without sufficient staffing, we cannot safely reopen schools and get parents back to work—which will in turn hamper economic recovery.

Read more

Six states have at least one million workers either receiving regular unemployment benefits or waiting for their claim to be approved

The Department of Labor (DOL) released the most recent unemployment insurance (UI) claims data yesterday, showing that another 1.9 million people filed for regular UI benefits last week (not seasonally adjusted) and 1.2 million for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA), the new program for workers who aren’t eligible for regular UI, such as gig workers.

In the last 10 weeks, more than one in five people in the workforce are either receiving or have recently applied for unemployment benefits—regular or PUA. These benefits are a critical lifeline that help workers make ends meet while slowing the spread of coronavirus as we practice social distancing. The $600 increase in weekly UI benefits was perhaps the most effective measure in the CARES Act for insulating workers from economic harm, and it should be extended past July.

For the last few weeks, we have been reporting the sum of initial claims since we first started seeing the economic effects of the pandemic. This week, we are reporting a different measure of the cumulative number of people claiming UI: the total number of workers who are either on unemployment benefits, or have applied and are still waiting to see if they will get benefits.

Read more

More than one in five workers are either receiving unemployment benefits or waiting for approval: Congress must do much, much more

Last week, 3.1 million workers applied for unemployment benefits. This is the tenth week in a row that initial unemployment claims are more than three times the worst week of the Great Recession.

Of the 3.1 million who applied for unemployment benefits last week, 1.9 million applied for regular state unemployment insurance (UI), and 1.2 million applied for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA). PUA is the new federal program for workers who are out of work because of the virus but who are not eligible for regular UI (e.g. the self-employed). At this point, 15 states and the District of Columbia are not yet even reporting PUA data. This means PUA claims are still being undercounted.

Figure A

34.2 million workers are either receiving unemployment benefits or waiting for approval: Reported number of initial and continued UI and PUA claims, as of May 23, 2020

Regular state UI: Continued claims Regular state UI: Initial claims PUA: Continued claims PUA: Initial claims Total
Cumulative 19,051,706 4,096,598 7,793,066 3,289,671 0
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA) is the new federal program for workers who are out of work because of the coronavirus but who are not eligible for regular state unemployment insurance (UI) benefits (e.g. the self-employed). Initial claims are still in the first round of processing. Continued claims have made it through at least the first round of processing.

Notes: Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA) is the new federal program for workers who are out of work because of the virus but who are not eligible for regular state unemployment insurance (UI) benefits (e.g. the self-employed). Initial claims are still in the first round of processing. Continued claims have made it through at least the first round of processing. PUA initial claims are for the weeks ending May 9, May 16, and May 23; PUA continued claims are for the week ending May 9. Regular state UI initial claims are for the weeks ending May 9 and May 16; regular state UI continued claims are for the week ending May 16. Regular state UI claims are reported for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. PUA claims are currently being reported for 35 states; 15 states and the District of Columbia are not yet reporting PUA data.

Source: U.S. Employment and Training Administration, Initial Claims [ICSA], retrieved from Department of Labor (DOL), https://www.dol.gov/ui/data.pdf and https://oui.doleta.gov/unemploy/claims.asp, May 28, 2020.

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Many commentators are reporting the cumulative number of initial regular state UI claims over the last 10 weeks as a measure of how many people have applied for UI in this pandemic. At this point, I believe we should abandon that approach because it ignores PUA—and is thus an understatement on that front—but may overstate things in other ways. For example it may lead to some double-counting. Instead, we can calculate the total number of workers who are either on unemployment benefits, or have applied and are still waiting to see if they will get benefits, in the following way:

A total of 19.1 million workers had made it through at least the first round of regular state UI processing as of May 16 (these are known as “continued” claims), and 4.1 million had filed initial UI claims on top of that but had not yet made it through the first round of processing as of May 23. And, 7.8 million workers had made it through at least the first round of PUA processing by May 9, and 3.3 million had filed initial PUA claims on top of that but had not yet made it through the first round of processing as of May 23. Altogether, that’s 34.2 million workers who are either on unemployment benefits or who have applied very recently and are waiting for approval—roughly two-thirds UI, and one-third PUA. Together, that is more than one in five people in the U.S. workforce.

Read more

Criminalization of black and brown communities in the Midwest adds to public health crisis during COVID-19 pandemic

The first installment of this three-part series on the impact of the coronavirus in the Midwest describes how weak labor protections have put Midwestern food processing workers at risk for coronavirus. Here we describe how incarceration puts people in the Midwest at risk during the pandemic and what state and local policymakers can do to protect the health and safety of people and families impacted by incarceration.

During a public health crisis, we’re reminded that our communities are only really safe when everyone is safe. Across the nation—and throughout the Midwest—our communities include jails, prisons, and detention centers. And now, people who are incarcerated face an urgent problem: greater health risks from COVID-19. Overcrowding inhibits physical distancing and isolation of people who’ve contracted the virus, and inadequate medical care and supplies in these facilities prevents necessary testing, treatment, and sanitation. Decades of so-called “tough on crime” laws have overcrowded Midwestern jails and prisons and put the people who are incarcerated and the surrounding communities at risk.

State and local policymakers must do more to protect the health and safety of people impacted by incarceration and the workers coming in and out of these facilities as well. Proper medical care; prioritizing people for release from jails, prisons, and detention centers; eliminating unnecessary fees and fines; protecting people on parole and probation; and ensuring incarcerated people are able to communicate with their family and friends without creating additional economic hardship are all steps that should be prioritized during the coronavirus pandemic and further highlight reforms necessary even when we are not facing a global health emergency.

What does incarceration in the Midwest look like?

All states throughout the Midwest have seen a dramatic increase in incarceration over the last 40 years. They have incarcerated people in jails, prisons, detention centers, and juvenile justice facilities at higher rates (652 people per every 100,000 people in the state on average across the Midwest) even when compared with wealthy democracies around the world. Racial disparities are especially stark for black people, who are overrepresented in jails and prisons in every Midwestern state. For example, of the 10 states with the highest black–white differential in incarceration in state prisons, five (Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Nebraska) are in the Midwest and three of these (Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota) imprison black people at more than 10 times the rate of white people. Latino and indigenous people are at least two times as likely to be incarcerated in many Midwestern states, including Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These communities are also more likely to have underlying health conditions that lead to higher rates of death after contracting the virus, a risk factor that reflects and compounds durable patterns of segregation and discrimination.

Read more

Without federal aid, many state and local governments could make the same budget cuts that hampered the last economic recovery

If policymakers should learn one lesson from the long, sluggish recovery from the Great Recession, it is that cutting public spending, particularly by state and local governments, is a recipe for prolonged economic pain. My colleague Josh Bivens has described in detail how the state and local austerity of the early 2010s was both an unprecedented cutback in public spending following a recession and directly to blame for the slow pace of recovery.

Unfortunately, facing massive projected losses in revenue as the coronavirus has forced them to lock down their economies, many state and local governments are already cutting critical services and laying off staff. The April jobs report showed that nearly 981,000 state and local public-sector jobs have already been lost. To put that in perspective, that’s more than all the state and local public-sector jobs lost in the Great Recession and its aftermath.

As shown in Figure A, the peak for state and local government employment occurred in July 2008. As state and local budgets deteriorated throughout that year, governments began cutting services and staff. When the recession officially ended in June 2009, lawmakers in many states were already cutting jobs, choosing to slash budgets rather than pursuing new revenues. These cuts accelerated in 2010 as relief funding from the federal recovery act dried up, and they continued for several years, particularly in many states where conservative lawmakers took control following the 2010 elections. The result was a loss of nearly 800,000 state and local public-sector jobs by July 2013.

Figure A

April’s state and local government job losses were larger than the entirety of cuts in the Great Recession: State and local government employment (in thousands), December 2007–April 2020

State and local actual
2007-12-01 19620
2008-01-01 19650
2008-02-01 19670
2008-03-01 19691
2008-04-01 19695
2008-05-01 19726
2008-06-01 19758
2008-07-01 19801
2008-08-01 19801
2008-09-01 19769
2008-10-01 19777
2008-11-01 19782
2008-12-01 19781
2009-01-01 19793
2009-02-01 19781
2009-03-01 19763
2009-04-01 19755
2009-05-01 19757
2009-06-01 19762
2009-07-01 19695
2009-08-01 19712
2009-09-01 19625
2009-10-01 19681
2009-11-01 19691
2009-12-01 19651
2010-01-01 19631
2010-02-01 19604
2010-03-01 19595
2010-04-01 19585
2010-05-01 19580
2010-06-01 19547
2010-07-01 19518
2010-08-01 19475
2010-09-01 19378
2010-10-01 19431
2010-11-01 19421
2010-12-01 19396
2011-01-01 19384
2011-02-01 19339
2011-03-01 19315
2011-04-01 19314
2011-05-01 19258
2011-06-01 19304
2011-07-01 19187
2011-08-01 19167
2011-09-01 19137
2011-10-01 19148
2011-11-01 19129
2011-12-01 19118
2012-01-01 19113
2012-02-01 19119
2012-03-01 19115
2012-04-01 19105
2012-05-01 19088
2012-06-01 19106
2012-07-01 19098
2012-08-01 19096
2012-09-01 19103
2012-10-01 19079
2012-11-01 19074
2012-12-01 19081
2013-01-01 19063
2013-02-01 19075
2013-03-01 19076
2013-04-01 19075
2013-05-01 19089
2013-06-01 19069
2013-07-01 19054 
2013-08-01 19077
2013-09-01 19082
2013-10-01 19091
2013-11-01 19097
2013-12-01 19079
2014-01-01 19078
2014-02-01 19094
2014-03-01 19105
2014-04-01 19125
2014-05-01 19104
2014-06-01 19166
2014-07-01 19170
2014-08-01 19120
2014-09-01 19162
2014-10-01 19182
2014-11-01 19192
2014-12-01 19204
2015-01-01 19215
2015-02-01 19231
2015-03-01 19222
2015-04-01 19242
2015-05-01 19259
2015-06-01 19261
2015-07-01 19294
2015-08-01 19300
2015-09-01 19281
2015-10-01 19297
2015-11-01 19315
2015-12-01 19321
2016-01-01 19346
2016-02-01 19366
2016-03-01 19397
2016-04-01 19401
2016-05-01 19405
2016-06-01 19387
2016-07-01 19486
2016-08-01 19465
2016-09-01 19496
2016-10-01 19488
2016-11-01 19491
2016-12-01 19491
2017-01-01 19487
2017-02-01 19506
2017-03-01 19514
2017-04-01 19530
2017-05-01 19524
2017-06-01 19540
2017-07-01 19554
2017-08-01 19555
2017-09-01 19564
2017-10-01 19566
2017-11-01 19601
2017-12-01 19587
2018-01-01 19554
2018-02-01 19613
2018-03-01 19611
2018-04-01 19619
2018-05-01 19639
2018-06-01 19663
2018-07-01 19664
2018-08-01 19689
2018-09-01 19685
2018-10-01 19680
2018-11-01 19675
2018-12-01 19686
2019-01-01 19695
2019-02-01 19699
2019-03-01 19713
2019-04-01 19730
2019-05-01 19725
2019-06-01 19724
2019-07-01 19756
2019-08-01 19780
2019-09-01 19793
2019-10-01 19801
2019-11-01 19809
2019-12-01 19832
2020-01-01 19859
2020-02-01 19878
2020-03-01 19831
2020-04-01 18850 
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Shaded area denotes recession.

Source: Current Employment Statistics data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Read more

Republicans and corporate interests exploit coronavirus crisis to erase companies’ liability

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) and Senator John Cornyn (R-Texas) announced that they are working on legislation to give companies enhanced protections against lawsuits by employees and consumers who contract COVID-19 and claim that the business is responsible for their infection. Instead of advancing crucial worker protections and aid to state and local governments, Republicans and corporate advocacy organizations have made “liability shield” legislation the main priority for additional pandemic relief and recovery measures—claiming that it is necessary to remove liability from businesses in order to reopen the economy. To be clear, removing legal accountability from businesses would jeopardize the health and safety of workers and consumers and threaten the overall economic recovery.

In the last several months, there have been many examples of businesses failing to provide workers with the necessary personal protective equipment to enable them to perform their jobs safely and effectively. Further, some workplaces have continued to operate when workers reported infection and have become epicenters of a local outbreak. Eliminating all legal liability for businesses will likely lead to more businesses acting irresponsibly and placing potential profits ahead of worker and consumer safety.

Compounding this problem is the fact that policymakers have gutted federal budgets for worker protection enforcement over the last decade, as shown in Table 1.

Read more

More than a quarter of the workforce in 10 states has filed for unemployment

The Department of Labor (DOL) released the most recent unemployment insurance (UI) claims data this morning, showing that another 2.2 million people filed for regular UI benefits last week (not seasonally adjusted) and 1.2 million for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA), the new program for workers who aren’t eligible for regular UI, such as gig workers.

While most states saw a decline in UI claims filed relative to the prior week, 12 states saw increases in UI claims. Washington saw the largest percent increase in claims (31.0%) compared with the prior week, followed by California (15.7%), New York (13.6%), and North Dakota (10.1%).

A note about the data: Unless otherwise noted, the numbers in this blog post are the ones reported by the U.S. Department of Labor, which they receive from the state agencies that administer UI. While DOL is asking states to report regular UI claims and PUA claims separately, many states are also including some or all PUA claimants in their reported regular UI claims. As state agencies work to get these new programs up and running, there will likely continue to be some misreporting. Since the number of UI claims is one of the most up-to-date measures of labor market weakness and access to benefits, we will still be analyzing it each week as reported by DOL, but we ask that you keep these caveats in mind when interpreting the data.

Figure A and Table 1 below compare regular UI claims filed last week with the prior week and the pre-virus period, in both level and percent terms. It also shows the cumulative number of unemployment claims since March 7 and that number as a share of each state’s labor force. In 10 states, more than a quarter of the workforce filed an initial claim during the past 10 weeks: Georgia (39.2%), Kentucky (38.0%), Hawaii (35.0%), Washington (30.9%), Louisiana (29.9%), Rhode Island (29.7%), Nevada (29.6%), Michigan (29.2%), Pennsylvania (28.4%), and Alaska (27.9%).

Read more

Nearly one in four workers has applied for unemployment benefits: Congress must do much, much more

Last week, 3.3 million workers applied for unemployment benefits. That is an improvement over the 6 million per week we saw in late March/early April, but is an increase from the prior week—and is still well over three times the worst week of the Great Recession.

Of the 3.3 million who applied for unemployment benefits last week, 2.2 million applied for regular state unemployment insurance (UI), and 1.2 million applied for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA). PUA is the new federal program for workers who are not eligible for regular UI (e.g., gig workers) but are still out of work as a result of the virus. At this point, 15 states and the District of Columbia are not yet reporting PUA data, so PUA claims are being undercounted. Note, the number of PUA claims for Massachusetts was misreported as 1,184,792. It should have been 115,952. I have corrected for that error throughout this blog post.

It is also worth noting that the Department of Labor (DOL) reports that 2.4 million workers applied for regular state unemployment insurance last week on a “seasonally adjusted” basis, compared with 2.2 million on an unadjusted basis. Seasonal adjustments are usually helpful—they are used to even out seasonal changes in claims that have nothing to do with the underlying strength or weakness of the labor market, typically providing a clearer picture of underlying trends. However, the way DOL does seasonal adjustments is distortionary at a time like this, so I focus on unadjusted numbers when looking at regular state UI. PUA claims are available only on an unadjusted basis.

Read more

The coronavirus recession will become a long depression unless federal policymakers act now

This blog post was originally posted in Newsweek.

The coronavirus recession is well upon us. In the U.S., layoffs related to the coronavirus began to intensify around the middle of March. By mid-April, the labor market had shed more than 20 million jobs, by far the most dramatic job loss on record—about two and a half times the job loss of the entire Great Recession. And the situation continues to deteriorate—an additional 12 million workers have applied for unemployment compensation since mid-April. There has never been anything like this.

The official unemployment rate was 14.7% in mid-April, up from 3.5% in February. And even though that is the highest unemployment rate since the Great Depression, it is not actually reflecting all coronavirus-related job losses. In fact, only about half of people who are out of work as a result of the virus are showing up as unemployed. About a quarter are being misclassified—they have been furloughed and should be counted as unemployed and on temporary layoff, but are instead being counted as “employed but not at work.” Another quarter are being counted as having dropped out of the labor force altogether, rather than unemployed. This is because jobless people who have not been furloughed are only counted as unemployed if they are actively seeking work, which is currently impossible for many. How is a jobless worker supposed to look for work in a lockdown or if he/she needs to care for a child whose school or day care has been shuttered?

If all workers who are out of work as a result of the virus had shown up as unemployed, the unemployment rate would have been 23.5% in mid-April instead of 14.7%. And the situation is going to get worse before it gets better—reasonable forecasts predict that the unemployment rate will average over 30% in May and June. Further, because our health system ties health insurance to work, people aren’t just losing their jobs. We estimate that 16.2 million workers have already lost the health insurance they get directly from their employer since the pandemic began—and these workers often cover family members through their employer-based plan, so the total number of people who have lost health insurance is likely almost twice as high.

Read more

Ending offshoring and bringing jobs back home will take more than tweets, press releases, and op-eds

Despite repeated warnings, America’s industrial base has been whittled away by corporations offshoring work to Mexico, China, and other countries. The offshoring of much-needed medical equipment in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic heightens the urgency to bring these supply chains home.

While U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer’s recent op-ed heralding an end to “the era of reflexive offshoring” highlights some positive steps forward by the USTR, much more needs to be done to bring supply chains home. It is not enough to—as the administration has done—set tariff policy by tweet, negotiate trade agreements that do not directly take on outsourcing across manufacturing and service sectors, and hope that corporations finally “see the light” and bring jobs home. Rather, returning jobs to America requires a robust, comprehensive strategy that coordinates policies in trade, currency valuation, investment, financing, energy, technology, tax, education, training, government procurement, and labor.

To start, this strategy would include the following:

  • Insist that the Defense Department and other U.S. agencies cease their reflexive support for continued use of outside supply chains in Mexico and elsewhere and instead push for bringing work home.
  • Ensure that “Made in the U.S.” in government procurement programs actually means that a product is manufactured by U.S. workers with U.S. supplies and materials.
  • Require employment impact statements in government contract and award determinations in order to maximize U.S. job creation.
  • Create a U.S. Manufacturing Investment Bank.
  • Address currency misalignment.
  • Eliminate tax incentives that encourage corporations to outsource production.

Read more

Who are essential workers?: A comprehensive look at their wages, demographics, and unionization rates

While the coronavirus pandemic has shut down much of the U.S. economy, with over 33 million workers applying for unemployment insurance since March 15, millions of workers are still on the job providing essential services. Nearly every state governor has issued executive orders that outline industries deemed “essential” during the pandemic, which typically include health care, food service, and public transportation, among others. However, despite being categorized as essential, many workers in these industries are not receiving the most basic health and safety measures to combat the spread of the coronavirus. Essential workers are dying as a result. While the Trump administration has failed to provide essential workers basic protections, working people are taking action. Some are walking off the job in protest over unsafe conditions and demanding personal protective equipment (PPE), and unions are fighting to ensure workers are receiving adequate workplace protections.

What is essential work?

The coronavirus pandemic has revealed much about the nature of work in the U.S. As state executive orders defined “essential services,” attention was focused on the workers performing those services and the conditions under which they work. Using executive orders from California and Maryland as models, we identify below 12 “essential” industries that employ more than 55 million workers, and we detail the demographics, median wages, and union coverage rates for these workers. In doing this, we build on the excellent work by the Center for Economic and Policy Research in their report A Basic Demographic Profile of Workers in Frontline Industries. Key differences are that we use a different data set—the Current Population Survey (CPS) instead of the American Community Survey (ACS), so we could get union breakdowns—and we expand the definition of essential to include occupations found in California and Maryland’s executive orders.

As shown in Table 1, a majority of essential workers by these definitions are employed in health care (30%), food and agriculture (20%), and the industrial, commercial, residential facilities and services industry (12%).

Table 1

Essential workers by industry, 2019

Total Percent of industry
All essential workers 55,217,845 100%
Food and agriculture 11,398,233 20.6%
Emergency services 1,849,630 3.3%
Transportation, warehouse, and delivery 3,972,089 7.2%
Industrial, commercial, residential facilities and services 6,806,407 12.3%
Health care 16,679,875 30.2%
Government and community-based services 4,590,070 8.3%
Communications and IT 3,189,140 5.8%
Financial sector 3,070,404 5.6%
Energy sector 1,327,760 2.4%
Water and wastewater management 107,846 0.2%
Chemical sector 271,160 0.5%
Critical manufacturing 1,955,233 3.5%

 

Note: Code for the definition of essential services used here is available upon request.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020), https://microdata.epi.org

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Read more

A prolonged depression is guaranteed without significant federal aid to state and local governments

Congress is currently debating a new relief and recover package—the HEROES Act—that would deliver significant amounts of fiscal aid to state and local governments—more than $1 trillion over the next two years, all told. This is a very welcome proposal. The incredibly steep recession we’re currently in is guaranteed to torpedo state and local governments’ ability to collect revenues. Further, nearly all of these governments are tightly constrained—both by law as well as by genuine economic constraints—from taking on large amounts of debt to maintain spending in the face of this downward shock to their revenues. The result will be intense pressure for large cutbacks in public spending by state and local governments in coming years. Such cutbacks would be absolutely devastating to the cause of restarting the economy and allowing people to find jobs, even if the virus has completely abated.

We know how devastating these cutbacks would be because we have lived through the mistake of allowing them to drag on growth in the quite recent past. State and local governments became relentless anti-stimulus machines during most of the recovery from the Great Recession of 2008–2009. This post highlights a couple of findings from that period that should inform policymakers’ decisions this time around.

  • Growth in state and local spending was far slower during the recovery following the Great Recession than in any other post–World War II business cycle on record.
  • This state and local spending austerity dragged heavily on growth during that time. If this spending had instead followed the trajectory it established following the recovery from the similarly steep recession of the early 1980s, pre-recession unemployment rates could have been achieved by early 2013 rather than 2017. In short, this austerity delayed recovery by over four years.
  • Recent justifications for denying aid to state and local governments sometimes rest on claims that this spending has been profligate in recent years. This is absolutely not so—growth in state and local spending has been historically slow for nearly two decades. Given the importance of what this spending focuses on (education, health care, public order), this decades-long disinvestment should be reversed, not accelerated due to an unforeseen economic crisis.
  • If federal aid is passed that is sufficient to close the enormous revenue shortfalls the economic crisis will cause for state and local governments, it will create or save roughly 5–6 million jobs by the end of 2021. Without this aid, we will remain at least that far away from a full economic recovery by then.

Read more

Radical far-right CFPB task force threatens consumer protection

This blog post is cross-posted in the American Constitution Society’s Expert Forum Blog

As unemployment approaches levels last seen during the Great Depression, and requests for mortgage forbearance increase every week, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has proceeded doggedly ahead in undermining consumer protection. The CFPB has suspended enforcement of most of the rules requiring mortgage servicers to help homeowners who have fallen behind in their payments; eased disclosure requirements for remittance transfer providers; and reduced collection and reporting of critical fair lending data. Apparently unsatisfied with rolling back regulatory requirements in the middle of a pandemic-driven economic crisis, the CFPB is also paying hundreds of thousands of dollars to a small “task force” of conservative academics and industry lawyers whose charter is to reconsider every aspect of consumer protection.

Although Congress specifically mandated that the CFPB’s advisory committees follow federal sunshine laws, the CFPB has allowed the task force to meet without notice behind closed doors. The first public glimpse of its plans was a sweeping request for information issued in late March. While the rest of the country was struggling to address the spiraling economic threats posed by COVID-19, the task force asked questions about weakening fair lending laws and deregulating consumer finance markets.

Following the CFPB’s expected repeal of consumer protections on payday loans and encouragement to banks to make their own high-priced, short-term loans, the task force asked about “impediments” to expanding such lending. It questioned whether consumer benefits like privacy and accuracy in credit reporting are worth the cost to industry and suggests that enforcement penalties discourage competition. In the midst of the pandemic, the CFPB task force is giving the public a mere two months to comment on fundamental questions like “the optimal mix of regulation, enforcement, supervision, and consumer financial education,” how best to measure whether or not consumer protection is effective, and which markets should and should not be regulated.

Read more

Latest Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey data further illustrate the catastrophic COVID-19 labor market

This morning, the Bureau of Labor Statistics released the latest Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data for March, which further confirms what we already know: The labor market deteriorated quickly through the month of March. As a reminder, JOLTS data are for the whole month (not just mid-month, like the monthly employment numbers). JOLTS shows a net decline of 9.3 million jobs in March, while the monthly employment numbers showed a loss of 870,000. The difference is due to the labor market collapse in the last half of March.

Total separations hit an all-time high of 14.5 million in March. The increase from February of 8.9 million was nearly 13 times faster than any other point in the history of the survey, which dates back to 2000. Separations occurred across nearly all sectors of the economy, but the largest losses were found in leisure and hospitality, other services, retail trade, and education and health services.

The number of layoffs more than account for the increase in the total number of separations. Between February and March, layoffs increased by 9.5 million, hitting 11.4 million in March. In April 2009—the worst month of the Great Recession for layoffs—there were nearly 2.7 million layoffs, or 2% of the workforce. Layoffs in March were more than four times larger than the worst month in the Great Recession.

The layoffs rate—the number of layoffs during the entire month as a percent of total employment—hit 7.5%, more than three times larger than the series high. As with separations, the largest numbers of layoffs occurred in the service sectors. There were nearly 4.9 million layoffs in leisure and hospitality, almost all in accommodation and food services. There were more than 1.1 million layoffs in retail trade and 1.2 million layoffs in education and health services.

Read more

Six states saw increases in unemployment claims last week: Many workers who are not usually eligible have filed for unemployment

Correction: This blog post has been updated on 5/15/20 with the correct number of claims for Connecticut. The U.S. Department of Labor’s release on 5/14/20 reported that 298,680 initial claims were filed in Connecticut last week, but Connecticut’s Department of Labor reported that the correct number is 29,846. The total number of initial claims in the U.S. last week, not seasonally adjusted, has also been corrected to 2.3 million to reflect this change.

Another 2.3 million people filed for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits last week (not seasonally adjusted), bringing the total to more than 33 million workers filing for UI benefits in the past eight weeks during the coronavirus pandemic.

While most states saw a decline in UI claims filed relative to the prior week, six states saw increases in UI claims. South Dakota saw the largest percent increase in claims (30.6%) compared with the prior week, followed by Florida (26.9%), Washington (13.7%), Georgia (5.7%), New York (2.7%), and Wisconsin (1.8%).

Georgia had 241,387 initial UI claims last week—more than any other state—followed by Florida (221,905). This comes after several states, including Florida and Georgia, have allowed restaurants and similar businesses to reopen, indicating that state policymakers are risking a greater outbreak with very little of the economic benefits they had expected.

Figure A and Table 1 below compare UI claims filed last week with the prior week and the pre-virus period, in both level and percent terms. It also shows the cumulative number of unemployment claims since March 7 and that number as a share of each state’s labor force. In three states, over a third of the workforce filed an initial claim during the past two months: Georgia (35.8%), Kentucky (35.8%), and Hawaii (33.4%).

Read more

What to watch for in tomorrow’s Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey data release: A sharp fall in job openings and hires

On Friday, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data for March will be released. Even though we already have more recent data on the labor market from other sources, this survey will provide important new information about how the coronavirus recession is unfolding.

That’s because JOLTS provides information on the moving parts that go into the net change in the number of jobs—job openings, hires, layoffs, voluntary quits, and other separations (which includes worker deaths). With JOLTS, we can get a picture of what is driving the net changes reported in the monthly jobs report.

Further, the JOLTS data that will be released tomorrow cover the entire month of March (as opposed to the monthly employment situation numbers, which only cover through the middle of the reference month). Because the labor market began deteriorating dramatically around mid-March, Friday’s release will provide a good sense of the underlying dynamics of the coronavirus labor market. At the bottom of this post is a text box explaining how the JOLTS data fit into the labor market data landscape.

What do we expect to see? Job openings and hires both have surely dropped dramatically, while layoffs have skyrocketed (note, in the JOLTS data, people who were temporarily laid off or furloughed are counted as layoffs, as long as the furlough is expected to last more than seven days). In April 2009—the worst month of the Great Recession for layoffs—there were nearly 2.7 million layoffs, or 2% of the workforce. In that same month, around 2.5 million people applied for unemployment insurance (UI). In March 2020, more than 10 million people applied for UI, so total layoffs will almost surely be higher than 10 million, which would far exceed the highest value in the series.

Read more

16.2 million workers have likely lost employer-provided health insurance since the coronavirus shock began

Since the economic fallout of the coronavirus shock began in early March, the number of workers laid off or furloughed—as measured by new claims for unemployment insurance (UI)—has skyrocketed. We have used data from states that track UI claims by industry to get a rough estimate of how many workers are at high risk of losing their employer-provided health insurance (EPHI) over this as well.

The methodology is described in this blog post, and the underlying UI data (which has begun to include more and more states tracking UI claims by industry) can be found here. Table 1 below shows UI claims by industry across states that collect this data, and also shows employer-provided health insurance (EPHI) coverage rates in those industries in 2018. As of May 9, more than 35 million workers had been laid off or furloughed since mid-March, as measured by total initial UI claims during that period. We find that this translates into likely EPHI losses of 16.2 million.

Because the United States is unique among rich countries in tying health insurance benefits to employment, many of the newly unemployed will suddenly face prohibitively costly insurance options. A comprehensive policy solution would be to extend Medicare and Medicaid to all those suffering job losses during the pandemic period, with the federal government funding this expansion. It has been proposed that the federal government pay for all of COBRA coverage so that workers who are laid off or furloughed may continue their employer-provided coverage. While this policy proposal will help many workers continue coverage, in some states it will not help workers from small businesses with fewer than 20 employees, who are not eligible for COBRA.

Read more

In the last eight weeks, more than one in five workers applied for state unemployment insurance benefits: Congress must act

In the last eight weeks, more than 33 million people—more than one in five workers—have applied for unemployment insurance (UI) through regular state UI programs. That is more than five times the worst eight-week stretch of the Great Recession.

Figure A

Weekly initial state unemployment insurance claims: Not seasonally adjusted, 1967–present

Week ending Initial claims
1967-01-07 346,000
1967-01-14 334,000
1967-01-21 277,000
1967-01-28 252,000
1967-02-04 274,000
1967-02-11 276,000
1967-02-18 247,000
1967-02-25 248,000
1967-03-04 326,000
1967-03-11 240,000
1967-03-18 225,000
1967-03-25 215,000
1967-04-01 223,000
1967-04-08 251,000
1967-04-15 289,000
1967-04-22 218,000
1967-04-29 216,000
1967-05-06 221,000
1967-05-13 188,000
1967-05-20 177,000
1967-05-27 170,000
1967-06-03 175,000
1967-06-10 188,000
1967-06-17 176,000
1967-06-24 178,000
1967-07-01 206,000
1967-07-08 322,000
1967-07-15 309,000
1967-07-22 282,000
1967-07-29 243,000
1967-08-05 250,000
1967-08-12 193,000
1967-08-19 174,000
1967-08-26 160,000
1967-09-02 163,000
1967-09-09 156,000
1967-09-16 165,000
1967-09-23 155,000
1967-09-30 154,000
1967-10-07 195,000
1967-10-14 159,000
1967-10-21 181,000
1967-10-28 174,000
1967-11-04 204,000
1967-11-11 201,000
1967-11-18 209,000
1967-11-25 200,000
1967-12-02 228,000
1967-12-09 258,000
1967-12-16 241,000
1967-12-23 289,000
1967-12-30 332,000
1968-01-06 357,000
1968-01-13 373,000
1968-01-20 293,000
1968-01-27 242,000
1968-02-03 308,000
1968-02-10 257,000
1968-02-17 214,000
1968-02-24 199,000
1968-03-02 198,000
1968-03-09 208,000
1968-03-16 179,000
1968-03-23 175,000
1968-03-30 165,000
1968-04-06 184,000
1968-04-13 167,000
1968-04-20 165,000
1968-04-27 216,000
1968-05-04 180,000
1968-05-11 164,000
1968-05-18 156,000
1968-05-25 148,000
1968-06-01 139,000
1968-06-08 149,000
1968-06-15 154,000
1968-06-22 152,000
1968-06-29 173,000
1968-07-06 266,000
1968-07-13 242,000
1968-07-20 216,000
1968-07-27 238,000
1968-08-03 235,000
1968-08-10 222,000
1968-08-17 160,000
1968-08-24 148,000
1968-08-31 139,000
1968-09-07 135,000
1968-09-14 141,000
1968-09-21 142,000
1968-09-28 143,000
1968-10-05 153,000
1968-10-12 151,000
1968-10-19 151,000
1968-10-26 152,000
1968-11-02 161,000
1968-11-09 174,000
1968-11-16 196,000
1968-11-23 211,000
1968-11-30 180,000
1968-12-07 223,000
1968-12-14 233,000
1968-12-21 243,000
1968-12-28 333,000
1969-01-04 290,000
1969-01-11 337,000
1969-01-18 265,000
1969-01-25 236,000
1969-02-01 250,000
1969-02-08 248,000
1969-02-15 219,000
1969-02-22 199,000
1969-03-01 206,000
1969-03-08 195,000
1969-03-15 179,000
1969-03-22 158,000
1969-03-29 157,000
1969-04-05 170,000
1969-04-12 187,000
1969-04-19 168,000
1969-04-26 151,000
1969-05-03 150,000
1969-05-10 157,000
1969-05-17 141,000
1969-05-24 138,000
1969-05-31 135,000
1969-06-07 148,000
1969-06-14 145,000
1969-06-21 155,000
1969-06-28 177,000
1969-07-05 267,000
1969-07-12 271,000
1969-07-19 246,000
1969-07-26 221,000
1969-08-02 223,000
1969-08-09 210,000
1969-08-16 168,000
1969-08-23 154,000
1969-08-30 144,000
1969-09-06 133,000
1969-09-13 149,000
1969-09-20 147,000
1969-09-27 147,000
1969-10-04 159,000
1969-10-11 168,000
1969-10-18 155,000
1969-10-25 171,000
1969-11-01 174,000
1969-11-08 206,000
1969-11-15 196,000
1969-11-22 230,000
1969-11-29 219,000
1969-12-06 247,000
1969-12-13 264,000
1969-12-20 289,000
1969-12-27 320,000
1970-01-03 344,000
1970-01-10 429,000
1970-01-17 386,000
1970-01-24 316,000
1970-01-31 293,000
1970-02-07 324,000
1970-02-14 308,000
1970-02-21 285,000
1970-02-28 241,000
1970-03-07 270,000
1970-03-14 258,000
1970-03-21 233,000
1970-03-28 236,000
1970-04-04 250,000
1970-04-11 300,000
1970-04-18 339,000
1970-04-25 299,000
1970-05-02 278,000
1970-05-09 279,000
1970-05-16 242,000
1970-05-23 231,000
1970-05-30 224,000
1970-06-06 234,000
1970-06-13 242,000
1970-06-20 245,000
1970-06-27 247,000
1970-07-04 309,000
1970-07-11 369,000
1970-07-18 353,000
1970-07-25 329,000
1970-08-01 293,000
1970-08-08 278,000
1970-08-15 257,000
1970-08-22 238,000
1970-08-29 220,000
1970-09-05 240,000
1970-09-12 207,000
1970-09-19 247,000
1970-09-26 256,000
1970-10-03 284,000
1970-10-10 287,000
1970-10-17 259,000
1970-10-24 280,000
1970-10-31 283,000
1970-11-07 333,000
1970-11-14 307,000
1970-11-21 333,000
1970-11-28 354,000
1970-12-05 378,000
1970-12-12 370,000
1970-12-19 354,000
1970-12-26 451,000
1971-01-02 443,000
1971-01-09 500,000
1971-01-16 452,000
1971-01-23 399,000
1971-01-30 353,000
1971-02-06 375,000
1971-02-13 333,000
1971-02-20 286,000
1971-02-27 289,000
1971-03-06 306,000
1971-03-13 275,000
1971-03-20 260,000
1971-03-27 261,000
1971-04-03 267,000
1971-04-10 278,000
1971-04-17 257,000
1971-04-24 248,000
1971-05-01 237,000
1971-05-08 260,000
1971-05-15 230,000
1971-05-22 231,000
1971-05-29 231,000
1971-06-05 232,000
1971-06-12 244,000
1971-06-19 249,000
1971-06-26 247,000
1971-07-03 288,000
1971-07-10 335,000
1971-07-17 367,000
1971-07-24 342,000
1971-07-31 340,000
1971-08-07 362,000
1971-08-14 282,000
1971-08-21 252,000
1971-08-28 228,000
1971-09-04 268,000
1971-09-11 219,000
1971-09-18 230,000
1971-09-25 236,000
1971-10-02 238,000
1971-10-09 280,000
1971-10-16 233,000
1971-10-23 251,000
1971-10-30 241,000
1971-11-06 297,000
1971-11-13 289,000
1971-11-20 291,000
1971-11-27 284,000
1971-12-04 372,000
1971-12-11 348,000
1971-12-18 329,000
1971-12-25 340,000
1972-01-01 405,000
1972-01-08 479,000
1972-01-15 395,000
1972-01-22 347,000
1972-01-29 326,000
1972-02-05 342,000
1972-02-12 318,000
1972-02-19 279,000
1972-02-26 252,000
1972-03-04 263,000
1972-03-11 257,000
1972-03-18 241,000
1972-03-25 231,000
1972-04-01 224,000
1972-04-08 271,000
1972-04-15 237,000
1972-04-22 223,000
1972-04-29 214,000
1972-05-06 234,000
1972-05-13 218,000
1972-05-20 210,000
1972-05-27 209,000
1972-06-03 198,000
1972-06-10 224,000
1972-06-17 227,000
1972-06-24 240,000
1972-07-01 327,000
1972-07-08 364,000
1972-07-15 367,000
1972-07-22 299,000
1972-07-29 266,000
1972-08-05 256,000
1972-08-12 220,000
1972-08-19 203,000
1972-08-26 195,000
1972-09-02 192,000
1972-09-09 178,000
1972-09-16 196,000
1972-09-23 193,000
1972-09-30 192,000
1972-10-07 233,000
1972-10-14 202,000
1972-10-21 214,000
1972-10-28 196,000
1972-11-04 242,000
1972-11-11 236,000
1972-11-18 280,000
1972-11-25 238,000
1972-12-02 268,000
1972-12-09 317,000
1972-12-16 323,000
1972-12-23 327,000
1972-12-30 338,000
1973-01-06 345,000
1973-01-13 412,000
1973-01-20 324,000
1973-01-27 267,000
1973-02-03 285,000
1973-02-10 276,000
1973-02-17 242,000
1973-02-24 220,000
1973-03-03 233,000
1973-03-10 227,000
1973-03-17 212,000
1973-03-24 209,000
1973-03-31 193,000
1973-04-07 244,000
1973-04-14 212,000
1973-04-21 211,000
1973-04-28 194,000
1973-05-05 214,000
1973-05-12 198,000
1973-05-19 189,000
1973-05-26 190,000
1973-06-02 173,000
1973-06-09 210,000
1973-06-16 198,000
1973-06-23 206,000
1973-06-30 215,000
1973-07-07 309,000
1973-07-14 270,000
1973-07-21 259,000
1973-07-28 265,000
1973-08-04 262,000
1973-08-11 238,000
1973-08-18 207,000
1973-08-25 190,000
1973-09-01 180,000
1973-09-08 177,000
1973-09-15 186,000
1973-09-22 187,000
1973-09-29 191,000
1973-10-06 210,000
1973-10-13 207,000
1973-10-20 208,000
1973-10-27 200,000
1973-11-03 230,000
1973-11-10 277,000
1973-11-17 261,000
1973-11-24 237,000
1973-12-01 299,000
1973-12-08 345,000
1973-12-15 340,000
1973-12-22 429,000
1973-12-29 461,000
1974-01-05 405,000
1974-01-12 584,000
1974-01-19 465,000
1974-01-26 373,000
1974-02-02 381,000
1974-02-09 459,000
1974-02-16 352,000
1974-02-23 296,000
1974-03-02 313,000
1974-03-09 310,000
1974-03-16 293,000
1974-03-23 285,000
1974-03-30 279,000
1974-04-06 288,000
1974-04-13 278,000
1974-04-20 256,000
1974-04-27 235,000
1974-05-04 243,000
1974-05-11 249,000
1974-05-18 238,000
1974-05-25 246,000
1974-06-01 209,000
1974-06-08 267,000
1974-06-15 255,000
1974-06-22 266,000
1974-06-29 285,000
1974-07-06 350,000
1974-07-13 351,000
1974-07-20 325,000
1974-07-27 333,000
1974-08-03 340,000
1974-08-10 318,000
1974-08-17 269,000
1974-08-24 260,000
1974-08-31 259,000
1974-09-07 253,000
1974-09-14 271,000
1974-09-21 283,000
1974-09-28 279,000
1974-10-05 325,000
1974-10-12 358,000
1974-10-19 324,000
1974-10-26 357,000
1974-11-02 375,000
1974-11-09 435,000
1974-11-16 450,000
1974-11-23 532,000
1974-11-30 524,000
1974-12-07 693,000
1974-12-14 637,000
1974-12-21 677,000
1974-12-28 813,000
1975-01-04 681,000
1975-01-11 969,000
1975-01-18 850,000
1975-01-25 729,000
1975-02-01 699,000
1975-02-08 691,000
1975-02-15 608,000
1975-02-22 567,000
1975-03-01 568,000
1975-03-08 569,000
1975-03-15 494,000
1975-03-22 499,000
1975-03-29 477,000
1975-04-05 505,000
1975-04-12 496,000
1975-04-19 456,000
1975-04-26 429,000
1975-05-03 420,000
1975-05-10 432,000
1975-05-17 410,000
1975-05-24 391,000
1975-05-31 360,000
1975-06-07 443,000
1975-06-14 422,000
1975-06-21 428,000
1975-06-28 407,000
1975-07-05 460,000
1975-07-12 517,000
1975-07-19 481,000
1975-07-26 471,000
1975-08-02 462,000
1975-08-09 429,000
1975-08-16 367,000
1975-08-23 353,000
1975-08-30 332,000
1975-09-06 331,000
1975-09-13 341,000
1975-09-20 336,000
1975-09-27 342,000
1975-10-04 365,000
1975-10-11 385,000
1975-10-18 332,000
1975-10-25 372,000
1975-11-01 378,000
1975-11-08 414,000
1975-11-15 371,000
1975-11-22 419,000
1975-11-29 403,000
1975-12-06 487,000
1975-12-13 456,000
1975-12-20 463,000
1975-12-27 573,000
1976-01-03 540,000
1976-01-10 708,000
1976-01-17 563,000
1976-01-24 486,000
1976-01-31 450,000
1976-02-07 452,000
1976-02-14 391,000
1976-02-21 367,000
1976-02-28 353,000
1976-03-06 366,000
1976-03-13 343,000
1976-03-20 330,000
1976-03-27 314,000
1976-04-03 334,000
1976-04-10 366,000
1976-04-17 316,000
1976-04-24 311,000
1976-05-01 313,000
1976-05-08 345,000
1976-05-15 308,000
1976-05-22 311,000
1976-05-29 310,000
1976-06-05 307,000
1976-06-12 351,000
1976-06-19 342,000
1976-06-26 339,000
1976-07-03 401,000
1976-07-10 445,000
1976-07-17 455,000
1976-07-24 418,000
1976-07-31 401,000
1976-08-07 373,000
1976-08-14 329,000
1976-08-21 320,000
1976-08-28 301,000
1976-09-04 321,000
1976-09-11 280,000
1976-09-18 320,000
1976-09-25 327,000
1976-10-02 332,000
1976-10-09 388,000
1976-10-16 325,000
1976-10-23 361,000
1976-10-30 370,000
1976-11-06 387,000
1976-11-13 363,000
1976-11-20 430,000
1976-11-27 369,000
1976-12-04 500,000
1976-12-11 494,000
1976-12-18 434,000
1976-12-25 466,000
1977-01-01 558,000
1977-01-08 685,000
1977-01-15 597,000
1977-01-22 589,000
1977-01-29 518,000
1977-02-05 704,000
1977-02-12 552,000
1977-02-19 422,000
1977-02-26 360,000
1977-03-05 367,000
1977-03-12 335,000
1977-03-19 321,000
1977-03-26 298,000
1977-04-02 296,000
1977-04-09 367,000
1977-04-16 316,000
1977-04-23 314,000
1977-04-30 305,000
1977-05-07 333,000
1977-05-14 309,000
1977-05-21 293,000
1977-05-28 298,000
1977-06-04 283,000
1977-06-11 308,000
1977-06-18 310,000
1977-06-25 321,000
1977-07-02 348,000
1977-07-09 431,000
1977-07-16 424,000
1977-07-23 391,000
1977-07-30 380,000
1977-08-06 379,000
1977-08-13 319,000
1977-08-20 298,000
1977-08-27 282,000
1977-09-03 289,000
1977-09-10 260,000
1977-09-17 289,000
1977-09-24 293,000
1977-10-01 275,000
1977-10-08 345,000
1977-10-15 287,000
1977-10-22 322,000
1977-10-29 309,000
1977-11-05 352,000
1977-11-12 310,000
1977-11-19 367,000
1977-11-26 342,000
1977-12-03 430,000
1977-12-10 448,000
1977-12-17 412,000
1977-12-24 450,000
1977-12-31 535,000
1978-01-07 559,000
1978-01-14 579,000
1978-01-21 500,000
1978-01-28 445,000
1978-02-04 447,000
1978-02-11 438,000
1978-02-18 455,000
1978-02-25 372,000
1978-03-04 360,000
1978-03-11 342,000
1978-03-18 302,000
1978-03-25 280,000
1978-04-01 278,000
1978-04-08 338,000
1978-04-15 279,000
1978-04-22 277,000
1978-04-29 269,000
1978-05-06 291,000
1978-05-13 268,000
1978-05-20 266,000
1978-05-27 256,000
1978-06-03 242,000
1978-06-10 292,000
1978-06-17 287,000
1978-06-24 297,000
1978-07-01 347,000
1978-07-08 428,000
1978-07-15 421,000
1978-07-22 387,000
1978-07-29 371,000
1978-08-05 376,000
1978-08-12 326,000
1978-08-19 287,000
1978-08-26 264,000
1978-09-02 249,000
1978-09-09 246,000
1978-09-16 262,000
1978-09-23 254,000
1978-09-30 249,000
1978-10-07 323,000
1978-10-14 262,000
1978-10-21 287,000
1978-10-28 280,000
1978-11-04 302,000
1978-11-11 286,000
1978-11-18 345,000
1978-11-25 350,000
1978-12-02 427,000
1978-12-09 427,000
1978-12-16 390,000
1978-12-23 447,000
1978-12-30 515,000
1979-01-06 559,000
1979-01-13 680,000
1979-01-20 488,000
1979-01-27 423,000
1979-02-03 424,000
1979-02-10 418,000
1979-02-17 384,000
1979-02-24 364,000
1979-03-03 358,000
1979-03-10 346,000
1979-03-17 315,000
1979-03-24 296,000
1979-03-31 300,000
1979-04-07 449,000
1979-04-14 424,000
1979-04-21 340,000
1979-04-28 303,000
1979-05-05 307,000
1979-05-12 290,000
1979-05-19 280,000
1979-05-26 287,000
1979-06-02 262,000
1979-06-09 322,000
1979-06-16 312,000
1979-06-23 343,000
1979-06-30 366,000
1979-07-07 458,000
1979-07-14 446,000
1979-07-21 445,000
1979-07-28 417,000
1979-08-04 428,000
1979-08-11 360,000
1979-08-18 329,000
1979-08-25 313,000
1979-09-01 312,000
1979-09-08 285,000
1979-09-15 311,000
1979-09-22 309,000
1979-09-29 303,000
1979-10-06 379,000
1979-10-13 335,000
1979-10-20 342,000
1979-10-27 353,000
1979-11-03 372,000
1979-11-10 392,000
1979-11-17 401,000
1979-11-24 379,000
1979-12-01 513,000
1979-12-08 521,000
1979-12-15 455,000
1979-12-22 580,000
1979-12-29 596,000
1980-01-05 574,000
1980-01-12 804,000
1980-01-19 648,000
1980-01-26 515,000
1980-02-02 471,000
1980-02-09 493,000
1980-02-16 418,000
1980-02-23 415,000
1980-03-01 407,000
1980-03-08 413,000
1980-03-15 398,000
1980-03-22 392,000
1980-03-29 399,000
1980-04-05 451,000
1980-04-12 535,000
1980-04-19 495,000
1980-04-26 482,000
1980-05-03 491,000
1980-05-10 526,000
1980-05-17 539,000
1980-05-24 525,000
1980-05-31 477,000
1980-06-07 562,000
1980-06-14 511,000
1980-06-21 529,000
1980-06-28 563,000
1980-07-05 584,000
1980-07-12 643,000
1980-07-19 628,000
1980-07-26 569,000
1980-08-02 536,000
1980-08-09 494,000
1980-08-16 435,000
1980-08-23 410,000
1980-08-30 397,000
1980-09-06 374,000
1980-09-13 414,000
1980-09-20 381,000
1980-09-27 363,000
1980-10-04 410,000
1980-10-11 417,000
1980-10-18 355,000
1980-10-25 384,000
1980-11-01 395,000
1980-11-08 416,000
1980-11-15 403,000
1980-11-22 440,000
1980-11-29 407,000
1980-12-06 534,000
1980-12-13 481,000
1980-12-20 499,000
1980-12-27 546,000
1981-01-03 580,000
1981-01-10 839,000
1981-01-17 638,000
1981-01-24 521,000
1981-01-31 490,000
1981-02-07 500,000
1981-02-14 439,000
1981-02-21 430,000
1981-02-28 432,000
1981-03-07 414,000
1981-03-14 385,000
1981-03-21 365,000
1981-03-28 356,000
1981-04-04 383,000
1981-04-11 401,000
1981-04-18 350,000
1981-04-25 379,000
1981-05-02 342,000
1981-05-09 369,000
1981-05-16 340,000
1981-05-23 342,000
1981-05-30 301,000
1981-06-06 384,000
1981-06-13 367,000
1981-06-20 376,000
1981-06-27 387,000
1981-07-04 430,000
1981-07-11 516,000
1981-07-18 481,000
1981-07-25 429,000
1981-08-01 444,000
1981-08-08 419,000
1981-08-15 369,000
1981-08-22 351,000
1981-08-29 352,000
1981-09-05 396,000
1981-09-12 331,000
1981-09-19 392,000
1981-09-26 392,000
1981-10-03 416,000
1981-10-10 476,000
1981-10-17 408,000
1981-10-24 450,000
1981-10-31 479,000
1981-11-07 534,000
1981-11-14 483,000
1981-11-21 522,000
1981-11-28 535,000
1981-12-05 726,000
1981-12-12 657,000
1981-12-19 644,000
1981-12-26 702,000
1982-01-02 694,300
1982-01-09 1,073,500
1982-01-16 761,700
1982-01-23 771,200
1982-01-30 692,300
1982-02-06 671,000
1982-02-13 532,800
1982-02-20 522,900
1982-02-27 536,300
1982-03-06 566,300
1982-03-13 515,100
1982-03-20 510,500
1982-03-27 501,500
1982-04-03 516,600
1982-04-10 606,300
1982-04-17 540,300
1982-04-24 518,600
1982-05-01 475,600
1982-05-08 516,500
1982-05-15 486,500
1982-05-22 486,300
1982-05-29 485,800
1982-06-05 478,600
1982-06-12 541,600
1982-06-19 508,100
1982-06-26 507,700
1982-07-03 594,400
1982-07-10 631,400
1982-07-17 647,000
1982-07-24 576,100
1982-07-31 562,600
1982-08-07 569,200
1982-08-14 536,400
1982-08-21 510,400
1982-08-28 502,300
1982-09-04 537,600
1982-09-11 467,700
1982-09-18 559,500
1982-09-25 535,000
1982-10-02 565,600
1982-10-09 638,100
1982-10-16 540,300
1982-10-23 577,600
1982-10-30 576,800
1982-11-06 604,800
1982-11-13 546,700
1982-11-20 650,400
1982-11-27 574,100
1982-12-04 709,400
1982-12-11 638,200
1982-12-18 598,000
1982-12-25 653,600
1983-01-01 745,100
1983-01-08 976,600
1983-01-15 773,600
1983-01-22 650,600
1983-01-29 597,700
1983-02-05 594,200
1983-02-12 525,100
1983-02-19 506,300
1983-02-26 448,700
1983-03-05 497,400
1983-03-12 459,700
1983-03-19 427,500
1983-03-26 422,100
1983-04-02 423,000
1983-04-09 509,700
1983-04-16 464,800
1983-04-23 431,300
1983-04-30 399,900
1983-05-07 435,000
1983-05-14 385,200
1983-05-21 380,300
1983-05-28 373,000
1983-06-04 351,100
1983-06-11 390,100
1983-06-18 369,200
1983-06-25 383,500
1983-07-02 397,400
1983-07-09 451,900
1983-07-16 459,400
1983-07-23 428,300
1983-07-30 383,400
1983-08-06 382,500
1983-08-13 382,300
1983-08-20 356,900
1983-08-27 323,600
1983-09-03 328,800
1983-09-10 288,700
1983-09-17 326,900
1983-09-24 324,700
1983-10-01 318,500
1983-10-08 390,500
1983-10-15 319,900
1983-10-22 354,900
1983-10-29 356,400
1983-11-05 398,200
1983-11-12 347,300
1983-11-19 431,900
1983-11-26 362,900
1983-12-03 458,400
1983-12-10 442,900
1983-12-17 414,600
1983-12-24 496,800
1983-12-31 558,900
1984-01-07 621,600
1984-01-14 637,900
1984-01-21 475,100
1984-01-28 448,500
1984-02-04 408,400
1984-02-11 381,500
1984-02-18 349,300
1984-02-25 329,100
1984-03-03 350,500
1984-03-10 344,000
1984-03-17 323,500
1984-03-24 317,600
1984-03-31 291,400
1984-04-07 390,300
1984-04-14 330,800
1984-04-21 326,500
1984-04-28 309,300
1984-05-05 318,900
1984-05-12 312,100
1984-05-19 294,200
1984-05-26 292,700
1984-06-02 268,700
1984-06-09 333,800
1984-06-16 309,900
1984-06-23 316,800
1984-06-30 329,000
1984-07-07 432,500
1984-07-14 435,900
1984-07-21 396,200
1984-07-28 343,800
1984-08-04 348,100
1984-08-11 328,100
1984-08-18 321,000
1984-08-25 303,300
1984-09-01 303,500
1984-09-08 289,300
1984-09-15 320,700
1984-09-22 313,200
1984-09-29 304,700
1984-10-06 373,300
1984-10-13 353,200
1984-10-20 378,700
1984-10-27 380,500
1984-11-03 413,400
1984-11-10 397,500
1984-11-17 370,800
1984-11-24 387,000
1984-12-01 494,700
1984-12-08 477,900
1984-12-15 443,700
1984-12-22 482,300
1984-12-29 527,500
1985-01-05 568,300
1985-01-12 770,000
1985-01-19 537,700
1985-01-26 478,300
1985-02-02 452,400
1985-02-09 473,300
1985-02-16 404,700
1985-02-23 379,000
1985-03-02 377,300
1985-03-09 389,200
1985-03-16 360,500
1985-03-23 346,700
1985-03-30 329,100
1985-04-06 398,000
1985-04-13 397,500
1985-04-20 351,800
1985-04-27 324,700
1985-05-04 335,600
1985-05-11 339,100
1985-05-18 324,900
1985-05-25 328,500
1985-06-01 293,500
1985-06-08 368,900
1985-06-15 339,200
1985-06-22 339,500
1985-06-29 349,800
1985-07-06 409,500
1985-07-13 481,500
1985-07-20 413,700
1985-07-27 358,700
1985-08-03 365,800
1985-08-10 358,200
1985-08-17 319,400
1985-08-24 314,800
1985-08-31 317,600
1985-09-07 304,700
1985-09-14 332,900
1985-09-21 317,600
1985-09-28 301,600
1985-10-05 355,600
1985-10-12 358,000
1985-10-19 331,000
1985-10-26 375,700
1985-11-02 375,300
1985-11-09 404,100
1985-11-16 380,300
1985-11-23 423,100
1985-11-30 384,700
1985-12-07 504,200
1985-12-14 443,400
1985-12-21 458,200
1985-12-28 548,200
1986-01-04 547,500
1986-01-11 803,900
1986-01-18 568,800
1986-01-25 395,700
1986-02-01 425,400
1986-02-08 438,100
1986-02-15 374,200
1986-02-22 382,200
1986-03-01 381,200
1986-03-08 371,700
1986-03-15 361,600
1986-03-22 363,100
1986-03-29 333,300
1986-04-05 366,100
1986-04-12 386,100
1986-04-19 348,700
1986-04-26 335,100
1986-05-03 333,600
1986-05-10 343,800
1986-05-17 319,000
1986-05-24 321,700
1986-05-31 278,700
1986-06-07 342,200
1986-06-14 324,700
1986-06-21 327,400
1986-06-28 336,100
1986-07-05 377,400
1986-07-12 456,200
1986-07-19 402,400
1986-07-26 370,700
1986-08-02 370,900
1986-08-09 376,900
1986-08-16 326,000
1986-08-23 310,200
1986-08-30 307,100
1986-09-06 283,700
1986-09-13 320,800
1986-09-20 315,800
1986-09-27 294,200
1986-10-04 328,900
1986-10-11 357,700
1986-10-18 313,000
1986-10-25 332,400
1986-11-01 334,100
1986-11-08 357,600
1986-11-15 347,400
1986-11-22 410,600
1986-11-29 350,900
1986-12-06 462,700
1986-12-13 438,600
1986-12-20 423,800
1986-12-27 483,900
1987-01-03 483,977
1987-01-10 710,493
1987-01-17 545,768
1987-01-24 412,977
1987-01-31 435,743
1987-02-07 444,240
1987-02-14 359,219
1987-02-21 332,930
1987-02-28 355,357
1987-03-07 343,065
1987-03-14 321,153
1987-03-21 313,104
1987-03-28 288,648
1987-04-04 308,940
1987-04-11 344,364
1987-04-18 305,201
1987-04-25 285,566
1987-05-02 277,726
1987-05-09 276,773
1987-05-16 283,832
1987-05-23 286,150
1987-05-30 242,793
1987-06-06 299,672
1987-06-13 281,043
1987-06-20 285,191
1987-06-27 294,288
1987-07-04 321,855
1987-07-11 402,706
1987-07-18 361,491
1987-07-25 339,756
1987-08-01 309,433
1987-08-08 296,403
1987-08-15 256,647
1987-08-22 245,058
1987-08-29 243,829
1987-09-05 255,589
1987-09-12 210,375
1987-09-19 243,651
1987-09-26 242,206
1987-10-03 244,736
1987-10-10 291,075
1987-10-17 242,157
1987-10-24 271,190
1987-10-31 261,036
1987-11-07 306,340
1987-11-14 286,334
1987-11-21 354,037
1987-11-28 288,614
1987-12-05 412,297
1987-12-12 372,869
1987-12-19 384,763
1987-12-26 397,287
1988-01-02 465,503
1988-01-09 654,620
1988-01-16 577,975
1988-01-23 412,685
1988-01-30 394,776
1988-02-06 380,906
1988-02-13 334,833
1988-02-20 315,497
1988-02-27 324,517
1988-03-05 312,409
1988-03-12 294,321
1988-03-19 275,545
1988-03-26 269,000
1988-04-02 256,607
1988-04-09 319,713
1988-04-16 273,160
1988-04-23 272,440
1988-04-30 247,619
1988-05-07 267,315
1988-05-14 257,101
1988-05-21 259,640
1988-05-28 255,852
1988-06-04 235,308
1988-06-11 268,052
1988-06-18 264,100
1988-06-25 268,770
1988-07-02 290,079
1988-07-09 335,780
1988-07-16 377,872
1988-07-23 384,920
1988-07-30 311,475
1988-08-06 293,718
1988-08-13 261,066
1988-08-20 253,359
1988-08-27 241,809
1988-09-03 243,944
1988-09-10 220,226
1988-09-17 247,250
1988-09-24 236,230
1988-10-01 226,453
1988-10-08 276,732
1988-10-15 237,722
1988-10-22 264,201
1988-10-29 265,794
1988-11-05 293,412
1988-11-12 257,201
1988-11-19 335,818
1988-11-26 281,841
1988-12-03 391,406
1988-12-10 354,028
1988-12-17 354,768
1988-12-24 413,175
1988-12-31 474,226
1989-01-07 544,138
1989-01-14 519,727
1989-01-21 364,499
1989-01-28 361,331
1989-02-04 340,647
1989-02-11 365,301
1989-02-18 317,676
1989-02-25 288,690
1989-03-04 333,669
1989-03-11 325,019
1989-03-18 291,112
1989-03-25 276,369
1989-04-01 275,799
1989-04-08 321,723
1989-04-15 275,240
1989-04-22 271,002
1989-04-29 247,646
1989-05-06 275,425
1989-05-13 275,507
1989-05-20 260,543
1989-05-27 266,146
1989-06-03 243,246
1989-06-10 295,499
1989-06-17 285,589
1989-06-24 295,338
1989-07-01 319,577
1989-07-08 364,594
1989-07-15 423,847
1989-07-22 365,026
1989-07-29 320,773
1989-08-05 311,584
1989-08-12 291,429
1989-08-19 261,419
1989-08-26 254,488
1989-09-02 259,540
1989-09-09 239,989
1989-09-16 271,903
1989-09-23 262,895
1989-09-30 265,310
1989-10-07 375,972
1989-10-14 284,584
1989-10-21 315,473
1989-10-28 317,538
1989-11-04 336,759
1989-11-11 303,556
1989-11-18 377,814
1989-11-25 316,458
1989-12-02 443,684
1989-12-09 426,514
1989-12-16 420,795
1989-12-23 534,261
1989-12-30 515,926
1990-01-06 581,679
1990-01-13 730,995
1990-01-20 485,424
1990-01-27 440,748
1990-02-03 432,922
1990-02-10 429,764
1990-02-17 364,616
1990-02-24 341,969
1990-03-03 361,937
1990-03-10 355,935
1990-03-17 325,164
1990-03-24 306,391
1990-03-31 297,117
1990-04-07 372,079
1990-04-14 315,624
1990-04-21 324,936
1990-04-28 294,785
1990-05-05 304,160
1990-05-12 299,266
1990-05-19 287,082
1990-05-26 295,476
1990-06-02 273,910
1990-06-09 321,727
1990-06-16 305,690
1990-06-23 316,999
1990-06-30 326,407
1990-07-07 419,256
1990-07-14 448,952
1990-07-21 407,676
1990-07-28 353,149
1990-08-04 336,997
1990-08-11 330,678
1990-08-18 313,804
1990-08-25 302,267
1990-09-01 305,510
1990-09-08 277,768
1990-09-15 323,246
1990-09-22 306,549
1990-09-29 308,080
1990-10-06 361,538
1990-10-13 356,203
1990-10-20 387,444
1990-10-27 394,598
1990-11-03 424,771
1990-11-10 463,874
1990-11-17 433,003
1990-11-24 422,676
1990-12-01 568,583
1990-12-08 574,323
1990-12-15 523,403
1990-12-22 637,449
1990-12-29 649,471
1991-01-05 651,775
1991-01-12 872,742
1991-01-19 691,092
1991-01-26 511,360
1991-02-02 563,060
1991-02-09 574,760
1991-02-16 498,200
1991-02-23 492,325
1991-03-02 504,023
1991-03-09 514,410
1991-03-16 470,801
1991-03-23 477,877
1991-03-30 412,904
1991-04-06 448,082
1991-04-13 459,364
1991-04-20 433,912
1991-04-27 385,153
1991-05-04 384,458
1991-05-11 382,113
1991-05-18 366,492
1991-05-25 365,117
1991-06-01 320,632
1991-06-08 397,682
1991-06-15 369,074
1991-06-22 371,232
1991-06-29 370,372
1991-07-06 427,161
1991-07-13 517,888
1991-07-20 454,655
1991-07-27 408,098
1991-08-03 397,522
1991-08-10 385,740
1991-08-17 344,969
1991-08-24 329,287
1991-08-31 328,040
1991-09-07 302,187
1991-09-14 342,419
1991-09-21 333,110
1991-09-28 334,206
1991-10-05 366,862
1991-10-12 388,370
1991-10-19 344,189
1991-10-26 380,253
1991-11-02 427,789
1991-11-09 473,432
1991-11-16 417,766
1991-11-23 503,032
1991-11-30 433,180
1991-12-07 610,113
1991-12-14 554,059
1991-12-21 555,747
1991-12-28 625,772
1992-01-04 652,046
1992-01-11 882,118
1992-01-18 687,914
1992-01-25 504,838
1992-02-01 508,594
1992-02-08 537,238
1992-02-15 469,794
1992-02-22 429,723
1992-02-29 454,987
1992-03-07 434,426
1992-03-14 417,282
1992-03-21 413,180
1992-03-28 370,883
1992-04-04 393,384
1992-04-11 412,948
1992-04-18 366,621
1992-04-25 364,454
1992-05-02 363,794
1992-05-09 364,100
1992-05-16 341,425
1992-05-23 343,432
1992-05-30 305,080
1992-06-06 374,978
1992-06-13 369,067
1992-06-20 369,995
1992-06-27 370,373
1992-07-04 395,505
1992-07-11 506,050
1992-07-18 452,468
1992-07-25 554,590
1992-08-01 382,138
1992-08-08 366,092
1992-08-15 322,729
1992-08-22 312,436
1992-08-29 309,806
1992-09-05 339,006
1992-09-12 299,189
1992-09-19 345,093
1992-09-26 315,455
1992-10-03 326,938
1992-10-10 353,504
1992-10-17 310,235
1992-10-24 333,005
1992-10-31 331,922
1992-11-07 392,213
1992-11-14 348,011
1992-11-21 401,972
1992-11-28 317,218
1992-12-05 449,726
1992-12-12 424,677
1992-12-19 396,619
1992-12-26 392,612
1993-01-02 487,466
1993-01-09 704,930
1993-01-16 558,516
1993-01-23 410,944
1993-01-30 397,000
1993-02-06 384,707
1993-02-13 344,520
1993-02-20 345,116
1993-02-27 367,412
1993-03-06 364,185
1993-03-13 335,154
1993-03-20 315,473
1993-03-27 330,512
1993-04-03 331,871
1993-04-10 346,648
1993-04-17 321,564
1993-04-24 310,916
1993-05-01 285,098
1993-05-08 301,906
1993-05-15 287,944
1993-05-22 285,444
1993-05-29 291,206
1993-06-05 273,411
1993-06-12 308,535
1993-06-19 304,843
1993-06-26 301,549
1993-07-03 334,335
1993-07-10 362,425
1993-07-17 402,348
1993-07-24 418,260
1993-07-31 320,155
1993-08-07 314,579
1993-08-14 277,263
1993-08-21 270,913
1993-08-28 254,231
1993-09-04 270,528
1993-09-11 238,902
1993-09-18 280,903
1993-09-25 265,510
1993-10-02 263,636
1993-10-09 338,726
1993-10-16 288,699
1993-10-23 321,509
1993-10-30 309,359
1993-11-06 365,280
1993-11-13 310,455
1993-11-20 377,935
1993-11-27 306,788
1993-12-04 431,210
1993-12-11 398,560
1993-12-18 382,583
1993-12-25 398,084
1994-01-01 481,735
1994-01-08 676,076
1994-01-15 571,816
1994-01-22 427,570
1994-01-29 481,458
1994-02-05 429,800
1994-02-12 385,594
1994-02-19 368,626
1994-02-26 307,194
1994-03-05 355,250
1994-03-12 331,023
1994-03-19 308,038
1994-03-26 292,661
1994-04-02 289,631
1994-04-09 361,348
1994-04-16 327,166
1994-04-23 298,620
1994-04-30 285,837
1994-05-07 332,414
1994-05-14 303,190
1994-05-21 299,324
1994-05-28 291,797
1994-06-04 273,849
1994-06-11 309,033
1994-06-18 298,198
1994-06-25 305,863
1994-07-02 327,262
1994-07-09 394,428
1994-07-16 443,698
1994-07-23 354,495
1994-07-30 295,979
1994-08-06 304,363
1994-08-13 277,614
1994-08-20 262,131
1994-08-27 257,299
1994-09-03 270,561
1994-09-10 237,526
1994-09-17 264,553
1994-09-24 251,191
1994-10-01 255,588
1994-10-08 322,522
1994-10-15 272,742
1994-10-22 296,646
1994-10-29 291,557
1994-11-05 338,561
1994-11-12 298,030
1994-11-19 366,719
1994-11-26 295,729
1994-12-03 412,824
1994-12-10 397,238
1994-12-17 376,210
1994-12-24 423,387
1994-12-31 482,735
1995-01-07 612,648
1995-01-14 608,872
1995-01-21 400,772
1995-01-28 396,457
1995-02-04 381,813
1995-02-11 387,408
1995-02-18 356,237
1995-02-25 316,927
1995-03-04 342,015
1995-03-11 339,580
1995-03-18 319,218
1995-03-25 305,471
1995-04-01 294,031
1995-04-08 356,914
1995-04-15 318,030
1995-04-22 317,072
1995-04-29 305,594
1995-05-06 325,398
1995-05-13 311,646
1995-05-20 316,305
1995-05-27 314,442
1995-06-03 286,566
1995-06-10 340,606
1995-06-17 337,812
1995-06-24 324,411
1995-07-01 341,207
1995-07-08 428,632
1995-07-15 491,891
1995-07-22 409,319
1995-07-29 311,708
1995-08-05 310,703
1995-08-12 296,712
1995-08-19 286,017
1995-08-26 272,182
1995-09-02 278,703
1995-09-09 266,145
1995-09-16 304,323
1995-09-23 272,431
1995-09-30 269,067
1995-10-07 345,311
1995-10-14 306,465
1995-10-21 322,856
1995-10-28 332,061
1995-11-04 383,687
1995-11-11 335,181
1995-11-18 425,889
1995-11-25 336,269
1995-12-02 474,548
1995-12-09 421,109
1995-12-16 423,450
1995-12-23 490,349
1995-12-30 513,686
1996-01-06 596,010
1996-01-13 637,910
1996-01-20 510,820
1996-01-27 492,966
1996-02-03 433,693
1996-02-10 440,961
1996-02-17 395,332
1996-02-24 347,053
1996-03-02 368,044
1996-03-09 355,818
1996-03-16 357,070
1996-03-23 396,731
1996-03-30 342,023
1996-04-06 353,032
1996-04-13 343,654
1996-04-20 336,033
1996-04-27 291,957
1996-05-04 298,195
1996-05-11 303,532
1996-05-18 287,891
1996-05-25 287,622
1996-06-01 266,116
1996-06-08 329,099
1996-06-15 307,141
1996-06-22 312,226
1996-06-29 315,615
1996-07-06 382,989
1996-07-13 449,510
1996-07-20 360,385
1996-07-27 294,762
1996-08-03 283,216
1996-08-10 285,795
1996-08-17 265,742
1996-08-24 259,677
1996-08-31 251,425
1996-09-07 238,893
1996-09-14 272,464
1996-09-21 273,232
1996-09-28 261,251
1996-10-05 292,029
1996-10-12 306,521
1996-10-19 271,934
1996-10-26 311,965
1996-11-02 320,827
1996-11-09 340,240
1996-11-16 330,730
1996-11-23 383,512
1996-11-30 328,186
1996-12-07 444,305
1996-12-14 404,436
1996-12-21 429,566
1996-12-28 520,650
1997-01-04 541,210
1997-01-11 654,473
1997-01-18 513,913
1997-01-25 385,310
1997-02-01 380,099
1997-02-08 370,766
1997-02-15 320,374
1997-02-22 309,202
1997-03-01 317,339
1997-03-08 314,787
1997-03-15 296,698
1997-03-22 291,463
1997-03-29 268,823
1997-04-05 311,186
1997-04-12 329,663
1997-04-19 286,593
1997-04-26 295,166
1997-05-03 295,629
1997-05-10 278,052
1997-05-17 267,251
1997-05-24 264,697
1997-05-31 248,167
1997-06-07 309,928
1997-06-14 302,577
1997-06-21 290,720
1997-06-28 298,299
1997-07-05 372,574
1997-07-12 434,598
1997-07-19 339,250
1997-07-26 281,794
1997-08-02 273,471
1997-08-09 289,083
1997-08-16 272,910
1997-08-23 255,236
1997-08-30 250,205
1997-09-06 224,948
1997-09-13 253,456
1997-09-20 246,061
1997-09-27 237,214
1997-10-04 260,705
1997-10-11 286,436
1997-10-18 255,634
1997-10-25 272,593
1997-11-01 293,086
1997-11-08 322,842
1997-11-15 311,499
1997-11-22 341,845
1997-11-29 309,788
1997-12-06 402,699
1997-12-13 374,107
1997-12-20 368,823
1997-12-27 445,345
1998-01-03 479,854
1998-01-10 682,016
1998-01-17 512,837
1998-01-24 355,092
1998-01-31 357,976
1998-02-07 368,113
1998-02-14 328,354
1998-02-21 313,367
1998-02-28 313,480
1998-03-07 305,542
1998-03-14 298,302
1998-03-21 293,692
1998-03-28 272,808
1998-04-04 288,484
1998-04-11 294,014
1998-04-18 288,059
1998-04-25 278,220
1998-05-02 261,089
1998-05-09 270,108
1998-05-16 262,107
1998-05-23 259,125
1998-05-30 248,550
1998-06-06 289,495
1998-06-13 293,195
1998-06-20 322,017
1998-06-27 348,842
1998-07-04 379,734
1998-07-11 428,977
1998-07-18 364,767
1998-07-25 314,782
1998-08-01 277,621
1998-08-08 279,621
1998-08-15 246,823
1998-08-22 237,999
1998-08-29 233,516
1998-09-05 255,938
1998-09-12 217,454
1998-09-19 237,609
1998-09-26 220,668
1998-10-03 246,284
1998-10-10 300,862
1998-10-17 257,172
1998-10-24 275,574
1998-10-31 281,932
1998-11-07 332,611
1998-11-14 315,504
1998-11-21 338,501
1998-11-28 295,041
1998-12-05 421,605
1998-12-12 355,872
1998-12-19 344,452
1998-12-26 442,200
1999-01-02 508,983
1999-01-09 713,805
1999-01-16 514,082
1999-01-23 364,737
1999-01-30 349,733
1999-02-06 344,947
1999-02-13 320,679
1999-02-20 286,130
1999-02-27 297,918
1999-03-06 297,325
1999-03-13 289,813
1999-03-20 275,453
1999-03-27 260,817
1999-04-03 263,516
1999-04-10 327,621
1999-04-17 286,018
1999-04-24 263,835
1999-05-01 252,190
1999-05-08 274,268
1999-05-15 251,063
1999-05-22 250,360
1999-05-29 260,517
1999-06-05 256,922
1999-06-12 267,582
1999-06-19 267,825
1999-06-26 269,755
1999-07-03 303,758
1999-07-10 364,078
1999-07-17 369,123
1999-07-24 293,348
1999-07-31 254,195
1999-08-07 259,805
1999-08-14 236,658
1999-08-21 226,061
1999-08-28 219,278
1999-09-04 235,849
1999-09-11 204,302
1999-09-18 219,070
1999-09-25 232,486
1999-10-02 246,445
1999-10-09 278,925
1999-10-16 234,580
1999-10-23 250,864
1999-10-30 257,767
1999-11-06 297,136
1999-11-13 262,607
1999-11-20 309,248
1999-11-27 268,255
1999-12-04 378,735
1999-12-11 318,175
1999-12-18 329,649
1999-12-25 377,695
2000-01-01 439,912
2000-01-08 606,897
2000-01-15 442,494
2000-01-22 328,841
2000-01-29 332,740
2000-02-05 365,245
2000-02-12 311,897
2000-02-19 281,256
2000-02-26 258,962
2000-03-04 283,024
2000-03-11 255,109
2000-03-18 242,139
2000-03-25 239,835
2000-04-01 229,520
2000-04-08 274,130
2000-04-15 237,218
2000-04-22 240,266
2000-04-29 249,458
2000-05-06 259,546
2000-05-13 231,706
2000-05-20 234,599
2000-05-27 239,836
2000-06-03 242,991
2000-06-10 267,752
2000-06-17 265,617
2000-06-24 273,344
2000-07-01 280,979
2000-07-08 363,793
2000-07-15 377,982
2000-07-22 296,255
2000-07-29 253,466
2000-08-05 266,151
2000-08-12 261,358
2000-08-19 251,844
2000-08-26 239,030
2000-09-02 242,375
2000-09-09 229,954
2000-09-16 245,991
2000-09-23 222,219
2000-09-30 227,249
2000-10-07 292,784
2000-10-14 255,082
2000-10-21 263,445
2000-10-28 269,489
2000-11-04 342,414
2000-11-11 294,727
2000-11-18 374,160
2000-11-25 321,859
2000-12-02 447,262
2000-12-09 390,088
2000-12-16 402,476
2000-12-23 481,720
2000-12-30 568,973
2001-01-06 558,768
2001-01-13 599,562
2001-01-20 398,188
2001-01-27 447,386
2001-02-03 424,696
2001-02-10 396,151
2001-02-17 345,841
2001-02-24 357,591
2001-03-03 379,286
2001-03-10 377,210
2001-03-17 351,497
2001-03-24 334,747
2001-03-31 328,576
2001-04-07 397,282
2001-04-14 346,981
2001-04-21 369,745
2001-04-28 353,831
2001-05-05 336,319
2001-05-12 331,765
2001-05-19 338,374
2001-05-26 346,231
2001-06-02 335,765
2001-06-09 397,015
2001-06-16 354,526
2001-06-23 351,770
2001-06-30 375,885
2001-07-07 526,826
2001-07-14 524,139
2001-07-21 406,038
2001-07-28 332,957
2001-08-04 341,660
2001-08-11 333,042
2001-08-18 317,046
2001-08-25 307,850
2001-09-01 319,016
2001-09-08 309,567
2001-09-15 317,245
2001-09-22 353,611
2001-09-29 400,400
2001-10-06 441,754
2001-10-13 426,881
2001-10-20 429,542
2001-10-27 436,901
2001-11-03 443,971
2001-11-10 456,366
2001-11-17 420,259
2001-11-24 438,893
2001-12-01 605,916
2001-12-08 491,836
2001-12-15 440,906
2001-12-22 529,570
2001-12-29 647,045
2002-01-05 637,343
2002-01-12 799,246
2002-01-19 558,297
2002-01-26 431,690
2002-02-02 445,552
2002-02-09 438,611
2002-02-16 376,573
2002-02-23 367,504
2002-03-02 385,272
2002-03-09 386,992
2002-03-16 352,045
2002-03-23 366,372
2002-03-30 386,296
2002-04-06 432,384
2002-04-13 428,834
2002-04-20 385,151
2002-04-27 367,350
2002-05-04 362,681
2002-05-11 358,286
2002-05-18 348,887
2002-05-25 346,439
2002-06-01 309,183
2002-06-08 378,613
2002-06-15 356,096
2002-06-22 358,959
2002-06-29 358,658
2002-07-06 456,716
2002-07-13 506,718
2002-07-20 394,586
2002-07-27 338,441
2002-08-03 326,356
2002-08-10 332,673
2002-08-17 313,869
2002-08-24 314,852
2002-08-31 310,864
2002-09-07 318,361
2002-09-14 337,577
2002-09-21 317,264
2002-09-28 319,063
2002-10-05 365,613
2002-10-12 385,689
2002-10-19 349,927
2002-10-26 375,591
2002-11-02 397,346
2002-11-09 427,078
2002-11-16 372,829
2002-11-23 436,549
2002-11-30 385,788
2002-12-07 547,430
2002-12-14 486,258
2002-12-21 483,449
2002-12-28 620,929
2003-01-04 620,004
2003-01-11 724,111
2003-01-18 542,563
2003-01-25 434,888
2003-02-01 449,286
2003-02-08 439,520
2003-02-15 398,291
2003-02-22 387,536
2003-03-01 429,782
2003-03-08 414,568
2003-03-15 389,909
2003-03-22 361,492
2003-03-29 371,692
2003-04-05 394,160
2003-04-12 434,911
2003-04-19 399,180
2003-04-26 401,342
2003-05-03 377,383
2003-05-10 364,287
2003-05-17 362,276
2003-05-24 359,500
2003-05-31 351,890
2003-06-07 421,190
2003-06-14 383,371
2003-06-21 376,560
2003-06-28 394,214
2003-07-05 483,401
2003-07-12 552,621
2003-07-19 429,381
2003-07-26 348,382
2003-08-02 333,770
2003-08-09 348,207
2003-08-16 312,087
2003-08-23 313,058
2003-08-30 319,362
2003-09-06 322,501
2003-09-13 328,414
2003-09-20 301,217
2003-09-27 304,968
2003-10-04 337,880
2003-10-11 368,876
2003-10-18 328,572
2003-10-25 352,117
2003-11-01 345,573
2003-11-08 397,387
2003-11-15 347,719
2003-11-22 397,990
2003-11-29 357,811
2003-12-06 486,202
2003-12-13 412,627
2003-12-20 424,192
2003-12-27 516,493
2004-01-03 552,815
2004-01-10 677,897
2004-01-17 490,763
2004-01-24 382,262
2004-01-31 406,298
2004-02-07 433,234
2004-02-14 341,634
2004-02-21 328,171
2004-02-28 342,140
2004-03-06 339,007
2004-03-13 312,067
2004-03-20 304,462
2004-03-27 296,776
2004-04-03 304,249
2004-04-10 350,739
2004-04-17 334,965
2004-04-24 313,686
2004-05-01 283,236
2004-05-08 292,754
2004-05-15 297,061
2004-05-22 293,974
2004-05-29 304,067
2004-06-05 308,229
2004-06-12 313,930
2004-06-19 322,481
2004-06-26 318,746
2004-07-03 349,920
2004-07-10 444,531
2004-07-17 394,372
2004-07-24 313,225
2004-07-31 282,128
2004-08-07 291,611
2004-08-14 262,936
2004-08-21 274,433
2004-08-28 276,308
2004-09-04 274,930
2004-09-11 250,568
2004-09-18 275,846
2004-09-25 282,729
2004-10-02 279,591
2004-10-09 338,711
2004-10-16 279,846
2004-10-23 317,573
2004-10-30 305,546
2004-11-06 351,404
2004-11-13 311,901
2004-11-20 355,954
2004-11-27 320,690
2004-12-04 473,570
2004-12-11 370,604
2004-12-18 374,749
2004-12-25 446,699
2005-01-01 540,927
2005-01-08 693,776
2005-01-15 467,862
2005-01-22 360,583
2005-01-29 364,704
2005-02-05 347,391
2005-02-12 309,290
2005-02-19 303,814
2005-02-26 290,776
2005-03-05 332,067
2005-03-12 307,061
2005-03-19 290,719
2005-03-26 291,378
2005-04-02 294,994
2005-04-09 339,709
2005-04-16 285,657
2005-04-23 299,891
2005-04-30 290,824
2005-05-07 297,347
2005-05-14 275,524
2005-05-21 276,761
2005-05-28 304,306
2005-06-04 289,914
2005-06-11 315,938
2005-06-18 289,831
2005-06-25 286,681
2005-07-02 327,268
2005-07-09 427,323
2005-07-16 374,665
2005-07-23 295,026
2005-07-30 261,906
2005-08-06 269,746
2005-08-13 257,151
2005-08-20 252,016
2005-08-27 251,642
2005-09-03 271,613
2005-09-10 322,387
2005-09-17 346,204
2005-09-24 292,435
2005-10-01 313,847
2005-10-08 380,093
2005-10-15 303,158
2005-10-22 304,733
2005-10-29 294,376
2005-11-05 340,491
2005-11-12 283,564
2005-11-19 368,859
2005-11-26 290,730
2005-12-03 444,600
2005-12-10 391,961
2005-12-17 359,108
2005-12-24 433,397
2005-12-31 475,889
2006-01-07 555,114
2006-01-14 439,873
2006-01-21 317,926
2006-01-28 318,805
2006-02-04 321,527
2006-02-11 310,078
2006-02-18 269,571
2006-02-25 272,478
2006-03-04 301,867
2006-03-11 294,764
2006-03-18 269,237
2006-03-25 265,370
2006-04-01 253,985
2006-04-08 314,696
2006-04-15 268,472
2006-04-22 291,349
2006-04-29 279,715
2006-05-06 317,239
2006-05-13 288,972
2006-05-20 277,168
2006-05-27 292,714
2006-06-03 260,263
2006-06-10 285,892
2006-06-17 277,441
2006-06-24 287,503
2006-07-01 304,638
2006-07-08 418,363
2006-07-15 377,115
2006-07-22 288,875
2006-07-29 259,974
2006-08-05 275,430
2006-08-12 256,259
2006-08-19 252,357
2006-08-26 251,275
2006-09-02 259,539
2006-09-09 240,231
2006-09-16 267,036
2006-09-23 261,396
2006-09-30 249,288
2006-10-07 307,646
2006-10-14 271,863
2006-10-21 291,372
2006-10-28 301,079
2006-11-04 326,711
2006-11-11 286,151
2006-11-18 367,690
2006-11-25 323,509
2006-12-02 448,898
2006-12-09 384,123
2006-12-16 361,672
2006-12-23 425,357
2006-12-30 499,979
2007-01-06 506,059
2007-01-13 506,709
2007-01-20 367,583
2007-01-27 359,959
2007-02-03 339,018
2007-02-10 363,018
2007-02-17 305,945
2007-02-24 299,000
2007-03-03 320,194
2007-03-10 298,927
2007-03-17 277,187
2007-03-24 273,432
2007-03-31 268,218
2007-04-07 328,266
2007-04-14 317,917
2007-04-21 303,984
2007-04-28 267,672
2007-05-05 274,801
2007-05-12 258,516
2007-05-19 270,446
2007-05-26 273,397
2007-06-02 263,527
2007-06-09 302,368
2007-06-16 290,951
2007-06-23 292,583
2007-06-30 300,348
2007-07-07 417,554
2007-07-14 383,839
2007-07-21 298,366
2007-07-28 257,426
2007-08-04 270,563
2007-08-11 266,420
2007-08-18 257,573
2007-08-25 266,179
2007-09-01 257,454
2007-09-08 245,526
2007-09-15 261,971
2007-09-22 247,643
2007-09-29 255,431
2007-10-06 298,317
2007-10-13 306,519
2007-10-20 307,675
2007-10-27 303,357
2007-11-03 325,831
2007-11-10 351,760
2007-11-17 323,124
2007-11-24 324,047
2007-12-01 462,902
2007-12-08 423,130
2007-12-15 393,042
2007-12-22 456,280
2007-12-29 507,908
2008-01-05 522,700
2008-01-12 547,943
2008-01-19 415,397
2008-01-26 369,498
2008-02-02 380,234
2008-02-09 377,595
2008-02-16 325,886
2008-02-23 330,013
2008-03-01 345,287
2008-03-08 341,364
2008-03-15 335,909
2008-03-22 316,208
2008-03-29 342,189
2008-04-05 357,209
2008-04-12 370,960
2008-04-19 328,334
2008-04-26 337,854
2008-05-03 335,533
2008-05-10 325,479
2008-05-17 319,817
2008-05-24 326,627
2008-05-31 300,989
2008-06-07 373,033
2008-06-14 349,254
2008-06-21 358,158
2008-06-28 368,544
2008-07-05 401,672
2008-07-12 476,071
2008-07-19 403,607
2008-07-26 374,182
2008-08-02 381,887
2008-08-09 372,807
2008-08-16 342,164
2008-08-23 344,255
2008-08-30 360,485
2008-09-06 336,131
2008-09-13 381,720
2008-09-20 397,610
2008-09-27 392,121
2008-10-04 426,786
2008-10-11 454,100
2008-10-18 416,114
2008-10-25 449,429
2008-11-01 466,373
2008-11-08 539,812
2008-11-15 513,047
2008-11-22 609,128
2008-11-29 537,230
2008-12-06 760,481
2008-12-13 629,867
2008-12-20 719,691
2008-12-27 717,000
2009-01-03 731,958
2009-01-10 956,791
2009-01-17 763,987
2009-01-24 620,143
2009-01-31 682,176
2009-02-07 710,152
2009-02-14 619,951
2009-02-21 605,668
2009-02-28 645,827
2009-03-07 652,635
2009-03-14 601,192
2009-03-21 590,067
2009-03-28 599,299
2009-04-04 623,279
2009-04-11 610,522
2009-04-18 596,564
2009-04-25 583,457
2009-05-02 536,648
2009-05-09 570,412
2009-05-16 540,925
2009-05-23 538,311
2009-05-30 500,380
2009-06-06 581,092
2009-06-13 562,449
2009-06-20 572,425
2009-06-27 563,387
2009-07-04 585,963
2009-07-11 677,038
2009-07-18 590,730
2009-07-25 516,351
2009-08-01 470,988
2009-08-08 486,586
2009-08-15 461,780
2009-08-22 460,998
2009-08-29 460,525
2009-09-05 470,079
2009-09-12 414,557
2009-09-19 441,311
2009-09-26 449,620
2009-10-03 456,233
2009-10-10 513,852
2009-10-17 464,985
2009-10-24 499,374
2009-10-31 487,714
2009-11-07 537,230
2009-11-14 479,350
2009-11-21 547,022
2009-11-28 462,090
2009-12-05 673,097
2009-12-12 561,655
2009-12-19 571,378
2009-12-26 561,852
2010-01-02 651,215
2010-01-09 825,891
2010-01-16 659,173
2010-01-23 507,651
2010-01-30 538,617
2010-02-06 512,463
2010-02-13 482,078
2010-02-20 458,160
2010-02-27 474,662
2010-03-06 462,679
2010-03-13 439,061
2010-03-20 413,067
2010-03-27 412,710
2010-04-03 421,130
2010-04-10 514,136
2010-04-17 436,814
2010-04-24 429,196
2010-05-01 399,350
2010-05-08 414,327
2010-05-15 414,572
2010-05-22 410,778
2010-05-29 418,873
2010-06-05 398,864
2010-06-12 448,305
2010-06-19 427,080
2010-06-26 444,712
2010-07-03 470,366
2010-07-10 515,991
2010-07-17 502,065
2010-07-24 413,679
2010-07-31 402,140
2010-08-07 425,471
2010-08-14 405,484
2010-08-21 384,955
2010-08-28 383,135
2010-09-04 381,863
2010-09-11 341,791
2010-09-18 382,341
2010-09-25 372,551
2010-10-02 373,681
2010-10-09 462,667
2010-10-16 394,016
2010-10-23 408,489
2010-10-30 421,097
2010-11-06 452,657
2010-11-13 409,548
2010-11-20 464,817
2010-11-27 412,922
2010-12-04 585,711
2010-12-11 491,776
2010-12-18 495,548
2010-12-25 525,710
2011-01-01 578,904
2011-01-08 773,499
2011-01-15 549,688
2011-01-22 485,950
2011-01-29 464,775
2011-02-05 440,706
2011-02-12 424,400
2011-02-19 380,985
2011-02-26 353,797
2011-03-05 407,299
2011-03-12 371,721
2011-03-19 354,457
2011-03-26 357,457
2011-04-02 353,817
2011-04-09 448,029
2011-04-16 381,834
2011-04-23 387,867
2011-04-30 415,974
2011-05-07 397,737
2011-05-14 361,573
2011-05-21 376,632
2011-05-28 381,497
2011-06-04 366,816
2011-06-11 400,608
2011-06-18 394,286
2011-06-25 406,633
2011-07-02 425,640
2011-07-09 473,963
2011-07-16 470,086
2011-07-23 369,207
2011-07-30 341,103
2011-08-06 354,408
2011-08-13 346,014
2011-08-20 344,870
2011-08-27 336,761
2011-09-03 348,582
2011-09-10 328,868
2011-09-17 353,820
2011-09-24 328,073
2011-10-01 332,394
2011-10-08 405,906
2011-10-15 357,562
2011-10-22 377,156
2011-10-29 369,647
2011-11-05 402,532
2011-11-12 363,016
2011-11-19 440,157
2011-11-26 372,640
2011-12-03 528,793
2011-12-10 435,863
2011-12-17 421,103
2011-12-24 497,689
2011-12-31 540,057
2012-01-07 646,219
2012-01-14 525,422
2012-01-21 416,880
2012-01-28 422,287
2012-02-04 401,365
2012-02-11 365,014
2012-02-18 346,659
2012-02-25 334,242
2012-03-03 368,433
2012-03-10 340,102
2012-03-17 319,498
2012-03-24 323,373
2012-03-31 315,800
2012-04-07 390,064
2012-04-14 370,482
2012-04-21 370,632
2012-04-28 333,476
2012-05-05 341,080
2012-05-12 325,094
2012-05-19 330,427
2012-05-26 346,260
2012-06-02 324,385
2012-06-09 376,610
2012-06-16 364,548
2012-06-23 370,521
2012-06-30 369,826
2012-07-07 442,192
2012-07-14 455,260
2012-07-21 340,780
2012-07-28 312,931
2012-08-04 320,219
2012-08-11 317,680
2012-08-18 311,857
2012-08-25 312,542
2012-09-01 309,537
2012-09-08 299,729
2012-09-15 330,454
2012-09-22 303,685
2012-09-29 301,046
2012-10-06 329,925
2012-10-13 362,730
2012-10-20 345,227
2012-10-27 339,924
2012-11-03 361,823
2012-11-10 478,551
2012-11-17 403,636
2012-11-24 358,865
2012-12-01 500,163
2012-12-08 429,191
2012-12-15 401,431
2012-12-22 457,584
2012-12-29 490,126
2013-01-05 557,424
2013-01-12 558,047
2013-01-19 437,360
2013-01-26 369,567
2013-02-02 388,708
2013-02-09 361,759
2013-02-16 351,087
2013-02-23 310,512
2013-03-02 335,794
2013-03-09 317,661
2013-03-16 301,471
2013-03-23 316,133
2013-03-30 317,494
2013-04-06 356,935
2013-04-13 359,415
2013-04-20 326,264
2013-04-27 301,622
2013-05-04 301,602
2013-05-11 320,253
2013-05-18 303,357
2013-05-25 319,508
2013-06-01 294,608
2013-06-08 332,964
2013-06-15 336,970
2013-06-22 336,901
2013-06-29 335,424
2013-07-06 383,811
2013-07-13 410,974
2013-07-20 340,457
2013-07-27 281,692
2013-08-03 288,861
2013-08-10 282,756
2013-08-17 281,164
2013-08-24 279,803
2013-08-31 269,359
2013-09-07 229,648
2013-09-14 272,946
2013-09-21 255,087
2013-09-28 252,196
2013-10-05 335,937
2013-10-12 360,957
2013-10-19 312,037
2013-10-26 325,326
2013-11-02 331,867
2013-11-09 364,167
2013-11-16 327,053
2013-11-23 369,197
2013-11-30 321,896
2013-12-07 463,413
2013-12-14 414,613
2013-12-21 418,272
2013-12-28 452,664
2014-01-04 488,537
2014-01-11 534,966
2014-01-18 416,116
2014-01-25 357,806
2014-02-01 357,742
2014-02-08 360,338
2014-02-15 322,761
2014-02-22 312,665
2014-03-01 317,832
2014-03-08 302,311
2014-03-15 285,970
2014-03-22 274,072
2014-03-29 294,862
2014-04-05 299,162
2014-04-12 318,793
2014-04-19 299,182
2014-04-26 318,127
2014-05-03 288,748
2014-05-10 270,738
2014-05-17 287,398
2014-05-24 275,412
2014-05-31 264,133
2014-06-07 313,371
2014-06-14 301,195
2014-06-21 305,029
2014-06-28 305,791
2014-07-05 322,753
2014-07-12 370,559
2014-07-19 287,049
2014-07-26 257,625
2014-08-02 247,877
2014-08-09 269,468
2014-08-16 249,463
2014-08-23 249,006
2014-08-30 249,780
2014-09-06 234,755
2014-09-13 242,318
2014-09-20 239,780
2014-09-27 227,571
2014-10-04 257,545
2014-10-11 273,756
2014-10-18 256,166
2014-10-25 271,331
2014-11-01 266,921
2014-11-08 309,338
2014-11-15 286,115
2014-11-22 357,202
2014-11-29 294,389
2014-12-06 389,284
2014-12-13 327,827
2014-12-20 340,827
2014-12-27 389,757
2015-01-03 439,342
2015-01-10 529,685
2015-01-17 383,538
2015-01-24 281,885
2015-01-31 306,643
2015-02-07 324,158
2015-02-14 277,904
2015-02-21 280,639
2015-02-28 315,566
2015-03-07 277,925
2015-03-14 260,242
2015-03-21 248,032
2015-03-28 239,748
2015-04-04 253,533
2015-04-11 308,173
2015-04-18 279,797
2015-04-25 250,780
2015-05-02 236,421
2015-05-09 242,882
2015-05-16 243,612
2015-05-23 253,454
2015-05-30 230,676
2015-06-06 275,619
2015-06-13 258,764
2015-06-20 263,199
2015-06-27 274,646
2015-07-04 303,585
2015-07-11 344,471
2015-07-18 262,949
2015-07-25 230,314
2015-08-01 224,104
2015-08-08 239,326
2015-08-15 229,251
2015-08-22 226,649
2015-08-29 230,079
2015-09-05 232,507
2015-09-12 198,903
2015-09-19 219,342
2015-09-26 215,116
2015-10-03 227,176
2015-10-10 256,522
2015-10-17 232,860
2015-10-24 245,365
2015-10-31 258,440
2015-11-07 291,098
2015-11-14 264,816
2015-11-21 305,424
2015-11-28 262,628
2015-12-05 384,491
2015-12-12 313,276
2015-12-19 319,641
2015-12-26 346,542
2016-01-02 405,368
2016-01-09 502,904
2016-01-16 378,747
2016-01-23 295,936
2016-01-30 311,940
2016-02-06 290,796
2016-02-13 258,380
2016-02-20 248,870
2016-02-27 265,802
2016-03-05 247,628
2016-03-12 236,888
2016-03-19 230,882
2016-03-26 235,716
2016-04-02 245,035
2016-04-09 270,419
2016-04-16 242,400
2016-04-23 245,040
2016-04-30 243,392
2016-05-07 261,899
2016-05-14 244,869
2016-05-21 240,798
2016-05-28 246,740
2016-06-04 232,300
2016-06-11 266,277
2016-06-18 247,968
2016-06-25 263,662
2016-07-02 267,437
2016-07-09 298,673
2016-07-16 268,526
2016-07-23 231,925
2016-07-30 219,202
2016-08-06 231,542
2016-08-13 219,570
2016-08-20 217,011
2016-08-27 215,688
2016-09-03 217,715
2016-09-10 193,291
2016-09-17 205,649
2016-09-24 198,455
2016-10-01 200,456
2016-10-08 238,581
2016-10-15 233,633
2016-10-22 237,314
2016-10-29 245,751
2016-11-05 258,608
2016-11-12 223,770
2016-11-19 287,794
2016-11-26 249,774
2016-12-03 351,580
2016-12-10 305,268
2016-12-17 315,068
2016-12-24 343,213
2016-12-31 350,561
2017-01-07 414,742
2017-01-14 352,799
2017-01-21 284,030
2017-01-28 280,983
2017-02-04 259,713
2017-02-11 245,886
2017-02-18 239,322
2017-02-25 212,829
2017-03-04 243,959
2017-03-11 222,227
2017-03-18 224,693
2017-03-25 228,269
2017-04-01 208,347
2017-04-08 239,823
2017-04-15 225,864
2017-04-22 241,611
2017-04-29 210,955
2017-05-06 215,040
2017-05-13 206,905
2017-05-20 210,544
2017-05-27 232,138
2017-06-03 212,696
2017-06-10 234,652
2017-06-17 228,883
2017-06-24 239,635
2017-07-01 252,886
2017-07-08 284,329
2017-07-15 257,763
2017-07-22 220,455
2017-07-29 198,776
2017-08-05 211,924
2017-08-12 198,280
2017-08-19 195,130
2017-08-26 196,227
2017-09-02 250,627
2017-09-09 211,923
2017-09-16 212,313
2017-09-23 212,987
2017-09-30 204,180
2017-10-07 229,241
2017-10-14 205,592
2017-10-21 216,004
2017-10-28 215,977
2017-11-04 242,111
2017-11-11 236,654
2017-11-18 275,004
2017-11-25 224,851
2017-12-02 326,052
2017-12-09 282,055
2017-12-16 287,479
2017-12-23 325,180
2017-12-30 351,500
2018-01-06 403,930
2018-01-13 354,708
2018-01-20 260,432
2018-01-27 268,197
2018-02-03 243,422
2018-02-10 233,252
2018-02-17 212,609
2018-02-24 196,294
2018-03-03 225,893
2018-03-10 205,185
2018-03-17 198,649
2018-03-24 195,433
2018-03-31 201,057
2018-04-07 231,759
2018-04-14 226,090
2018-04-21 200,139
2018-04-28 186,451
2018-05-05 190,262
2018-05-12 195,214
2018-05-19 207,043
2018-05-26 202,846
2018-06-02 191,523
2018-06-09 217,289
2018-06-16 206,023
2018-06-23 222,766
2018-06-30 231,539
2018-07-07 264,869
2018-07-14 232,238
2018-07-21 201,288
2018-07-28 179,880
2018-08-04 185,174
2018-08-11 180,038
2018-08-18 173,331
2018-08-25 175,745
2018-09-01 173,607
2018-09-08 162,640
2018-09-15 173,624
2018-09-22 172,930
2018-09-29 171,816
2018-10-06 193,936
2018-10-13 190,501
2018-10-20 198,733
2018-10-27 198,530
2018-11-03 214,814
2018-11-10 235,981
2018-11-17 226,576
2018-11-24 218,658
2018-12-01 317,936
2018-12-08 261,525
2018-12-15 255,195
2018-12-22 291,581
2018-12-29 327,388
2019-01-05 350,681
2019-01-12 343,678
2019-01-19 269,369
2019-01-26 250,580
2019-02-02 254,263
2019-02-09 242,762
2019-02-16 210,679
2019-02-23 203,049
2019-03-02 220,540
2019-03-09 209,302
2019-03-16 194,335
2019-03-23 190,023
2019-03-30 183,775
2019-04-06 196,071
2019-04-13 196,364
2019-04-20 211,762
2019-04-27 204,755
2019-05-04 204,033
2019-05-11 188,264
2019-05-18 191,931
2019-05-25 198,194
2019-06-01 189,577
2019-06-08 220,186
2019-06-15 205,921
2019-06-22 225,819
2019-06-29 224,565
2019-07-06 231,995
2019-07-13 243,621
2019-07-20 196,382
2019-07-27 178,897
2019-08-03 179,879
2019-08-10 186,914
2019-08-17 171,386
2019-08-24 176,867
2019-08-31 179,516
2019-09-07 160,342
2019-09-14 173,134
2019-09-21 175,394
2019-09-28 172,968
2019-10-05 188,106
2019-10-12 201,677
2019-10-19 186,748
2019-10-26 198,733
2019-11-02 205,625
2019-11-09 238,996
2019-11-16 227,892
2019-11-23 252,428
2019-11-30 216,827
2019-12-07 317,866
2019-12-14 270,547
2019-12-21 287,243
2019-12-28 312,524
2020-01-04 335,480
2020-01-11 338,550
2020-01-18 282,088
2020-01-25 229,002
2020-02-01 224,664
2020-02-08 219,601
2020-02-15 209,336
2020-02-22 199,278
2020-02-29 216,982
2020-03-07 200,382
2020-03-14 251,416
2020-03-21 2,920,162
2020-03-28 6,015,821
2020-04-04 6,211,406
2020-04-11 4,965,046
2020-04-18 4,281,648
2020-04-25 3,515,439
2020-05-02 2,855,560
2020-05-09 2,614,093
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Due to the scale of the chart and rapid increase in initial unemployment insurance (UI) claims, the initial UI claims for the last eight weeks appear to align vertically. These reports only include regular state unemployment insurance claims and do not include claims from the federal Pandemic Unemployment Assistance Program. Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: U.S. Employment and Training Administration, Initial Claims [ICSA], retrieved from Department of Labor (DOL), https://www.dol.gov/ui/data.pdf and https://oui.doleta.gov/unemploy/claims.asp, May 14, 2020

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Some good news is that regular state UI claims have declined in each of the last five weeks. Though last week’s number is still close to three times the worst week of the Great Recession, the improvement is welcome. However, regular state UI claims do not include people who applied for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA), the federal program that extends unemployment compensation coverage to many workers who are out of work because of the coronavirus but are not eligible for regular UI—people like independent contractors, gig workers, and people who had to leave their job to take care of a child whose school closed. It took quite some time for the PUA programs to get set up in most states, but they are now largely operational. The Department of Labor (DOL) reports that 3.4 million people had had PUA claims processed by April 25, and another 2.6 million have filed initial PUA claims on top of that.

Last Friday, the monthly employment situation report showed that the U.S. labor market saw a net decline of 20.5 million jobs between mid-March and mid-April. (Note, that number is not just layoffs where people filed for UI—it also accounts for a drop in hires, job losses where people didn’t file for UI, quits, and worker deaths.) The monthly employment numbers are from a survey that is taken mid-month. Today’s weekly UI claims numbers show that things have further deteriorated—drastically—since mid-April. An additional roughly 9.0 million people have applied for regular UI and 2.6 million have applied for PUA since that time. The May jobs number is going to be grim. And of course, workers aren’t just losing their jobs. Our health care system ties health insurance to work, so millions of workers have likely already lost their employer-provided health insurance.

Read more

As economic forecasts worsen, up to $1 trillion in federal aid to state and local governments could be needed by the end of 2021

Key takeaways:

  • Congress should prioritize federal aid to state and local governments in the next relief and recovery legislation.
  • New estimates show that the economic shock of the coronavirus could lead to a revenue shortfall of nearly $1 trillion by 2021 for state and local governments.
  • Unemployment is forecast to be quite elevated even by the end of 2021, and so federal aid should continue as long as economic conditions warrant and not be set by arbitrary timelines.

As the next round of legislative relief and recovery packages are debated, federal aid to state and local governments has emerged as a high priority. This aid is absolutely crucial for avoiding a deep and prolonged recession.

The revenue shortfall facing state and local governments stemming from the collapse in economic activity—driven by the shock of the coronavirus—could reach nearly $1 trillion by the end of 2021. And even at the end of 2021, recent economic projections indicate that unless more relief and recovery is passed, the unemployment rate could still sit at just under 10%. In short, all facets of relief and recovery—including substantial aid to state and local governments—could well be needed for a long time, and their continuation should be tied explicitly to economic conditions and not to arbitrary timelines.

Tim Bartik at the Upjohn Institute has released updated projections of the revenue shortfall facing state and local governments. His projections are transparent and are largely based on estimated parameters from publicly available academic research. Bartik finds that if the recent projections for the path of the unemployment rate estimated by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) come to pass, state and local governments will be facing a revenue shortfall of nearly $1 trillion by the end of 2021.*

Read more

Updated state unemployment numbers: Large shares of the labor force have filed for unemployment in every state

The Department of Labor released the most recent unemployment insurance (UI) claims data yesterday, showing that another 2.8 million people filed for unemployment last week (not seasonally adjusted). In the past seven weeks, more than 30 million workers applied for UI benefits across the country, or nearly one in five workers.

Despite most states seeing a decline in UI claims filed relative to last week, six states saw increases in UI claims. Maine saw the largest percent increase in claims (111.1%) compared with the prior week, followed by Maryland (72.1%), New Mexico (38.9%), Oklahoma (30.0%), New Jersey (21.6%), and Connecticut (9.5%).

After California, Texas residents filed the second most UI claims last week, followed by Georgia. This comes after several states have allowed restaurants and similar businesses to reopen, including many in the South and Midwest, indicating that state policymakers are risking a greater outbreak with very little of the economic benefits they had expected.

Figure A and Table 1 below compare UI claims filed last week with the prior week and the pre-virus period, in both level and percent terms. It also shows the cumulative number of unemployment claims since March 7 and that number as a share of each state’s labor force. In three states, almost a third of the workforce filed an initial claim during the past two months: Kentucky (32.3%), Hawaii (31.7%), and Georgia (31.1%).

Read more

The pandemic sparked more appreciation for teachers, but will it give them a voice in education and their working conditions?

This year’s National Teacher Appreciation Week is happening under the unprecedented hardships that the COVID-19 pandemic has imposed on us. The health emergency forced the closing of schools all over the country, sending over 55 million K-12 students and about four million teachers home for the remainder of the school year.

But amidst the pain so many are enduring is a bright spot: Some teachers feel the appreciation is deeper than ever before.

With so much at stakes in the aftermath of this crisis, this can be an opportunity to turn that appreciation into the fuel that will finally restore the prestige of the teaching profession and improve teachers’ working conditions.

Overnight, the pandemic imposed a radical switch to remote teaching and learning that many hoped would be temporary. We soon learned, however, the school closings would last indefinitely as the country coped with the most severe worldwide public health crisis of our lifetimes complete with dramatic economic consequences.

With the support from parents and communities, teachers and students are carrying on with their respective endeavors as well as they can. In watching them, we’re all reminded of what learning and teaching entails: the mysteries embedded in each of the subjects, the lectures, the assignments, the projects, the questions, among so many others. But we’ve also realized that teaching goes beyond these day-in-and-day-out activities in the countless moments when we saw teachers go beyond the call of duty.Read more

What to watch on jobs day: Job losses in April may set U.S. employment levels back 20 years

Key takeaways:

  • Job losses in the last two months likely set us back two decades.
  • Aggregate weekly work hours will continue to fall precipitously.
  • Don’t be misled by stronger-than-expected nominal wage growth.
  • The unemployment rate will exceed the high-water mark in the Great Recession. Black unemployment could hit 20% in April.
  • The employment-to-population ratio, or the share of the population with a job, will drop sharply.

On Friday, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will release the latest monthly employment situation report for April and, based on the weekly numbers of workers who’ve applied for unemployment insurance, the labor market losses will be enormous. Last month’s report was just the tip of the iceberg of the labor market devastation experienced across the country over the last several weeks. By the reference week for the April report, an astounding 24.4 million workers had applied for claims. At the same time, millions more have been unsuccessful at filing claims either because they couldn’t get through or found the process too difficult.

Workers have been laid off, furloughed, or have needed to leave their jobs for COVID-19-related reasons. Because of the uncertainty in how many workers have lost their jobs and how they will be counted in the latest statistics—and uncertainty about how many workers have not been hired because job openings have dried up in this crisis—there are a wide range of projections for what we will see on Friday.

Here, I’m going to unpack a few of the key statistics and speculate on just how deep and wide-reaching this recession already is for workers across the economy.

Read more

Nearly one in five workers applied for state unemployment insurance benefits in the last seven weeks: Congress must act to mitigate harm from unprecedented joblessness

A previously unimaginable number of workers have applied for state unemployment insurance (UI) benefits as a result of the coronavirus shock. In the last seven weeks alone, more than 30 million workers have applied for unemployment compensation. That is nearly one in five workers. And it is nearly five times the worst seven-week stretch of the Great Recession.

These figures do not include people who applied for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance (PUA), the new federal program that extends unemployment compensation coverage to many workers who are not eligible for regular UI but are nevertheless out of work as a result of the virus—people like independent contractors, gig workers, and people who had to leave their job to take care of a child whose school closed. It took a while for the PUA programs to get set up, but they are now operational in many states. With today’s data release, the Department of Labor (DOL) began providing PUA claims numbers, reporting that nearly a million people had had PUA claims processed by April 18, and at least another 1.4 million had filed PUA claims since that time.

It is worth noting that the DOL reports that 33.5 million workers applied for regular state unemployment compensation during the last seven weeks on a “seasonally adjusted” basis, compared with 30.7 million on an unadjusted basis. Seasonal adjustments are usually helpful—they are used to even out seasonal changes in claims that have nothing to do with the underlying strength or weakness of the labor market, typically providing a clearer picture of underlying trends. However, the way DOL does seasonal adjustments is distortionary at a time like this, so I focus on unadjusted numbers here.

Read more

Congress must include worker protections in the next coronavirus relief bill: We need an Essential Workers Bill of Rights

In response to the coronavirus pandemic, Congress has now passed four separate relief and recovery measures allocating trillions of dollars in aid, but none have provided meaningful protections to working people. Workers continue to be required to work without protective gear. Sick workers continue to lack access to paid sick leave. And when workers try and speak up for themselves and each other, they are fired. Workers are dying as a result.

Even a global pandemic has not been enough for policymakers to place the needs of working people ahead of corporate interests. As Congress turns its attention to another relief and recovery package, it must prioritize policies and investments that help working families mitigate the economic and public health disaster they are experiencing.

In the last six weeks, nearly 28 million workers have applied for unemployment insurance (UI). That is more than one in six workers and over five times the worst period of the Great Recession. All else equal, this level of job loss would translate into an unemployment rate of 20.5%. Further, 12.7 million workers have likely lost their employer-provided health insurance since the beginning of the pandemic.

Congress must act and pass legislation that is responsive to the magnitude of this crisis and direct assistance to the tens of millions of working families most impacted by the public health and economic emergencies.

The Essential Workers Bill of Rights, introduced by Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) and Rep. Ro Khanna (D-Calif.), would provide front-line workers—including nurses, grocery and drug store workers, janitors, public transit workers, child care workers, and postal workers—the protections they need while providing essential services during the coronavirus pandemic. The following are key worker protections that should be included in the next coronavirus relief bill.

Read more

The extra $600 in unemployment insurance has been the best response yet to the economic shock of the coronavirus and should be extended

The CARES Act, the $2 trillion-plus package to provide economic relief and recovery from the coronavirus shock in early April was, for many reasons, deeply imperfect. But the modifications the CARES Act made to the nation’s unemployment insurance (UI) system are an utterly crucial lifeline for tens of millions of American workers. Besides temporarily expanding the eligibility criteria for who qualifies for unemployment benefits through the end of the year and providing an additional 13 weeks of state UI benefits, the CARES Act also provided an extra $600 per week in UI payments through the end of July.

This $600 top-up has been fiercely criticized by some since the Act passed—e.g., Senator Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) stated that it would be extended past July only “over our dead bodies”—but the criticism is either ill-informed or in bad faith. The extra $600 has been by far the most effective part our economic policy response to the coronavirus shock. It is likely improving—not degrading—labor market efficiency, and we should build on this and make the nation’s unemployment insurance system well-resourced and far more generous even in normal times.

The history of how a flat $600 in additional UI benefits was agreed upon by policymakers is straightforward, if depressing. In normal times, these benefits are stingy, typically replacing between one-third and one-half of a typical worker’s weekly wage. For decades, too many economists and policymakers have labored under a number of wrong preconceptions about the labor market, and one of the most damaging was that decent jobs were plentiful and easy to get, and the only thing keeping potential workers out of these jobs for any stretch of time was workers’ own motivation, which could be sapped if benefits were too generous. It was the old and dumb idea that the U.S. social safety net—despite being by far the stingiest in the advanced world—had become a too-comfortable “hammock.” (For what it’s worth, the evidence from the aftermath of the Great Recession reveals that extended UI benefits had little or no effect on whether a worker found a job—meaning it wasn’t UI benefits that were keeping workers out of work—it was a lack of demand for workers.)

The economic shock of the coronavirus was an event so obviously unrelated to the motivations of individual workers that policymakers were willing to substantially (if temporarily) increase the generosity of unemployment benefits. Our preference would have been for a 100% replacement rate up to a quite generous maximum benefit. But decades of disinvestment in the administrative capacity of state UI offices left them incapable of flexibly calculating each new applicant’s benefit amount with a 100% replacement rate. (Case in point: most offices are still using the 1970s-era programming language COBOL to run their computers). State offices are capable of administering a flat-rate increase, however. So, policymakers in Congress came up with a smart and compassionate second-best solution of picking a flat-rate boost to benefits that would leave the average worker (and most workers overall) with 100% of their pre-crisis earnings.

But the necessity of the one-size-fits-all approach means that workers who earned less than the average worker before the crisis will receive benefits that are somewhat higher than 100% of their previous wage. Many conservatives claim this is somehow an economic disaster. They’re wrong—it’s actually great.

Read more

Thank you, D.C. Board of Elections, for making voting easier: I dedicate my favorite rap song to you

As I awoke today, preparing myself for another workday by listening to music, one of my favorite songs “Foldin Clothes” by J. Cole had me “feeling like best version of me so happy,” just one of the great lyrics from the rap song.

Why was I so happy? I got an email from the D.C. Board of Elections describing voting procedures that were much easier than in my home state of Louisiana, which recently passed an election plan that limits who has access to mail-in ballots. The email invited me, a new resident to Washington, to request a mail-in ballot for the 2020 election cycle which could be done one of six ways: online, email, fax, mail, phone, or in person.

Anyone who knows me knows I love to talk about voting. My dissertation examined the history of voting in America, including how the ghosts of lynchings still suppress the black vote in this country today. With all that’s going on to suppress minorities from voting—most recently the outrage of the Supreme Court’s refusal to extend the deadline for mail-in voting in Wisconsin in the middle of the pandemic—it’s been exhausting to keep beating the voting rights drum.

Every time I mention the importance of updating our voting methods, I am met with opposition. “You want people to vote by mail?! ONLINE?! There is no way it can be done securely,” many say. Regardless of the evidence I’ve provided that it has already been done securely in several states, people still resist the idea of adding more voting options nationally.

Well, turns out it’s not that difficult after all. D.C., which has had its own voting issues, is trying to make the process easier.

So, I’m dedicating “Foldin Clothes” to the D.C. elections leadership because they’re “doing the right thing.” I was able to download the Vote 4 DC app and it “felt so much better than doing the wrong thing” of not using the latest technology to make voting more accessible. To my surprise, this app allowed me to request a mail-in-ballot in less than two minutes! Having several options to request a ballot, including online options, “saved me some time and alleviated stress from my mind” of having to vote in person during a pandemic.

Read more

Updated state unemployment numbers: More than a quarter of the workforce has filed for unemployment in six states

Another 3.5 million U.S. workers filed for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits last week, according to the Department of Labor’s most recent data released this morning (not seasonally adjusted). In the past six weeks, nearly 28 million, or one in six, workers applied for UI benefits across the country.

Despite most states seeing a decline in UI claims filed relative to last week, eight states continued to see increases in UI claims. Last week, Washington saw the largest percent increase in claims (74.6%) compared with the prior week, followed by Oregon (25.6%) and Nevada (14.0%).

Figure A and Table 1 allow you to compare state UI claims filed last week with the prior week and the pre-virus period, in both level and percent terms. It also shows the cumulative number of unemployment claims since March 7 and that number as a share of each state’s labor force.

Figure A

New and cumulative jobless claims by state: Unemployment insurance (UI) claims filed during the week ending April 25, change in claims , and total claims as share of state labor force

State Initial claims filed % change from the prior week Level change from the prior week % change from pre-virus period Level change from pre-virus period Sum of initial claims for the seven weeks ending April 25 Sum of initial claims as a share of labor force
Alabama 64,170 -3.4% -2,262 2,944% 62,062 408,551 18.2%
Alaska 11,187 -8.3% -1,014 1,225% 10,343 72,726 21.1%
Arizona 52,098 -28.1% -20,359 1,487% 48,815 477,646 13.2%
Arkansas 16,745 -34.1% -8,659 1,032% 15,266 178,277 13.0%
California 328,042 -37.9% -200,318 703% 287,170 3,732,952 19.1%
Colorado 38,367 -43.3% -29,272 1,915% 36,463 340,837 10.7%
Connecticut 33,037 -67.9% -69,771 1,180% 30,456 265,126 13.7%
Delaware 7,754 -17.9% -1,692 1,258% 7,183 79,694 16.3%
Washington D.C. 8,158 -5.6% -481 1,695% 7,704 73,644 17.8%
Florida 432,465 -14.6% -74,205 8,435% 427,398 1,598,699 15.3%
Georgia 264,818 7.2% 17,815 4,847% 259,465 1,372,939 26.6%
Hawaii 22,615 -15.0% -3,976 1,891% 21,479 196,024 29.3%
Idaho 8,268 -36.5% -4,755 651% 7,167 118,284 13.3%
Illinois 81,245 -21.1% -21,691 765% 71,854 829,787 13.0%
Indiana 57,397 -21.1% -15,359 2,188% 54,889 572,443 16.9%
Iowa 28,827 7.2% 1,926 1,136% 26,494 262,958 15.0%
Kansas 28,054 -8.3% -2,542 1,639% 26,441 217,477 14.5%
Kentucky 90,824 -12.7% -13,157 3,530% 88,322 593,614 28.5%
Louisiana 66,167 -28.0% -25,756 3,824% 64,481 510,457 24.2%
Maine 7,478 -36.5% -4,291 864% 6,702 109,508 15.8%
Maryland 36,471 -24.8% -12,024 1,221% 33,711 389,521 11.9%
Massachusetts 70,714 -12.7% -10,255 1,067% 64,656 732,467 19.1%
Michigan 81,312 -40.5% -55,395 1,372% 75,788 1,266,459 25.6%
Minnesota 53,561 -28.4% -21,268 1,422% 50,042 560,661 18.0%
Mississippi 35,843 -2.9% -1,070 4,230% 35,015 203,037 15.9%
Missouri 52,403 -12.1% -7,199 1,625% 49,365 456,142 14.7%
Montana 6,619 -40.8% -4,557 747% 5,838 90,243 16.8%
Nebraska 8,197 -32.9% -4,025 1,513% 7,689 104,972 10.1%
Nevada 45,043 14.0% 5,547 1,852% 42,736 393,061 25.2%
New Hampshire 14,347 -29.7% -6,067 2,443% 13,783 160,635 20.6%
New Jersey 71,017 -49.3% -69,122 768% 62,838 898,947 19.7%
New Mexico 13,712 0.7% 91 1,836% 13,004 119,331 12.4%
New York 218,912 6.7% 13,728 1,088% 200,482 1,624,114 17.0%
North Carolina 97,232 -8.5% -9,034 3,680% 94,660 750,836 14.7%
North Dakota 6,996 -13.3% -1,069 1,568% 6,577 57,583 14.2%
Ohio 90,760 -17.4% -19,070 1,143% 83,460 1,063,741 18.2%
Oklahoma 42,577 -8.8% -4,119 2,661% 41,035 275,794 15.0%
Oregon 46,722 25.6% 9,513 1,076% 42,750 283,121 13.4%
Pennsylvania 131,282 -32.5% -63,312 940% 118,661 1,635,951 24.9%
Rhode Island 13,138 -27.3% -4,940 1,070% 12,015 146,723 26.3%
South Carolina 65,159 -12.4% -9,203 3,251% 63,215 415,635 17.4%
South Dakota 5,389 1.8% 94 2,857% 5,207 33,933 7.3%
Tennessee 43,792 -34.9% -23,434 2,078% 41,782 428,370 12.7%
Texas 254,199 -9.5% -26,562 1,860% 241,228 1,572,171 11.1%
Utah 11,830 -39.8% -7,819 1,082% 10,829 138,561 8.5%
Vermont 4,971 -24.7% -1,627 708% 4,356 56,781 16.7%
Virginia 74,043 -10.5% -8,686 2,703% 71,402 570,240 12.8%
Washington 145,757 74.6% 62,282 2,301% 139,687 871,937 22.0%
West Virginia 29,576 -36.7% -17,179 2,517% 28,446 124,693 15.5%
Wisconsin 49,910 -10.7% -5,973 783% 44,256 447,771 14.4%
Wyoming 2,886 -34.1% -1,495 480% 2,388 30,170 10.3%

Notes: Initial claims for the week ending April 25 reflect advance state claims, not seasonally adjusted. For comparisons with the “pre-virus period,” we use a four-week average of initial claims for the weeks ending February 15–March 7, 2020. For comparisons to the size of the labor force, we use February 2020 levels.

Source: U.S. Employment and Training Administration, Initial Claims [ICSA], retrieved from Department of Labor (DOL), https://www.dol.gov/ui/data.pdf and https://oui.doleta.gov/unemploy/claims.asp, April 30, 2020

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

Read more