Economic Indicators Jobs and unemployment

Every month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics releases a report on the employment situation for the previous month. Their release includes data on job growth, unemployment, and wage growth, which gives us a snapshot of the health of the economy and whether it’s working for ordinary Americans.

Key numbers • January

3.7% National unemployment rate
353,000 Net jobs in January
80.6% Share of prime working-age population with a job

January

Jobs report: A strong labor market continues into 2024 with 353,000 jobs added in January

Below, EPI economists offer their insights on the jobs report released this morning, which showed 353,000 jobs added in January.

From EPI senior economist, Elise Gould (@eliselgould):

Read the full thread here.

 

 

From EPI president, Heidi Shierholz (@hshierholz):

 

 

Charting jobs and unemployment

Current Employment Statistics Charts

The Current Employment Statistics (CES) program, also known as the establishment survey, is a monthly survey administered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) which provides estimates of employment, hours, and earnings based on payroll records of approximately 131,000 businesses and government agencies. 

Jobs day

Monthly change in payroll employment, January 2020–January 2024

Date Change in Employment
Jan-2020 253
Feb-2020 264
Mar-2020 -1411
Apr-2020 -20477
May-2020 2619
Jun-2020 4615
Jul-2020 1585
Aug-2020 1534
Sep-2020 1046
Oct-2020 673
Nov-2020 268
Dec-2020 -243
Jan-2021 398
Feb-2021 527
Mar-2021 831
Apr-2021 319
May-2021 451
Jun-2021 778
Jul-2021 939
Aug-2021 465
Sep-2021 480
Oct-2021 860
Nov-2021 631
Dec-2021 566
Jan-2022 251
Feb-2022 862
Mar-2022 494
Apr-2022 272
May-2022 286
Jun-2022 420
Jul-2022 690
Aug-2022 243
Sep-2022 255
Oct-2022 361
Nov-2022 258
Dec-2022 136
Jan-2023 482
Feb-2023 287
Mar-2023 146
Apr-2023 278
May-2023 303
Jun-2023 240
Jul-2023 184
Aug-2023 210
Sep-2023 246
Oct-2023 165
Nov-2023 182
Dec-2023 333
Jan-2024 353
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series.

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Jobs day

Measuring the job shortfall since February 2020: Actual and counterfactual employment, January 2019–January 2024

date Actual nonfarm payroll employment Employment if it had continued growing at the pre-recession level Employment if it had grown with population growth since February 2020
Sep-2019 151.4 NA NA
Oct-2019 151.5 NA NA
Nov-2019 151.7 NA NA
Dec-2019 151.8 NA NA
Jan-2020 152.0 NA NA
Feb-2020 152.3 152.3 152.3
Mar-2020 150.9 152.5 152.4
Apr-2020 130.4 152.7 152.5
May-2020 133.0 152.9 152.6
Jun-2020 137.7 153.1 152.7
Jul-2020 139.2 153.2 152.8
Aug-2020 140.8 153.4 152.9
Sep-2020 141.8 153.6 153.0
Oct-2020 142.5 153.8 153.1
Nov-2020 142.8 154.0 153.2
Dec-2020 142.5 154.2 153.3
Jan-2021 142.9 154.4 153.4
Feb-2021 143.4 154.6 153.5
Mar-2021 144.3 154.7 153.6
Apr-2021 144.6 154.9 153.7
May-2021 145.0 155.1 153.8
Jun-2021 145.8 155.3 153.9
Jul-2021 146.8 155.5 154.0
Aug-2021 147.2 155.7 154.1
Sep-2021 147.7 155.9 154.2
Oct-2021 148.6 156.0 154.3
Nov-2021 149.2 156.2 154.4
Dec-2021 149.8 156.4 154.5
Jan-2022 150.0 156.6 154.6
Feb-2022 150.9 156.8 154.7
Mar-2022 151.4 157.0 154.8
Apr-2022 151.6 157.2 154.9
May-2022 151.9 157.4 155.0
Jun-2022 152.3 157.5 155.1
Jul-2022 153.0 157.7 155.2
Aug-2022 153.3 157.9 155.3
Sep-2022 153.5 158.1 155.4
Oct-2022 153.9 158.3 155.5
Nov-2022 154.2 158.5 155.6
Dec-2022 154.3 158.7 155.7
Jan-2023 154.8 158.8 155.8
Feb-2023 155.1 159.0 155.9
Mar-2023 155.2 159.2 156.0
Apr-2023 155.5 159.4 156.1
May-2023 155.8 159.6 156.2
Jun-2023 156.0 159.8 156.3
Jul-2023 156.2 160.0 156.4
Aug-2023 156.4 160.2 156.5
Sep-2023 156.7 160.3 156.6
Oct-2023 156.8 160.5 156.7
Nov-2023 157.0 160.7 156.8
Dec-2023 157.3 160.9 156.9
Jan-2024 157.7 161.1 157.0
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Notes: Payroll employment growth averaged 202,000 in the 12 months leading up to the pandemic recession. Population-adjusted employment growth applies population growth in the latest month since February 2020 to payroll employment and interpolates in the intervening years.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series.

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Figure

Federal fiscal relief at the scale of the problem led to a faster recovery from the pandemic recession: Private-sector employment change since business cycle peak, December 2007 and February 2020

Months since peak 2007 2020
1 100.0 100.0
2 100.0 98.9
3 99.9 83.8
4 99.8 86.2
5 99.6 89.7
6 99.4 90.8
7 99.3 91.7
8 99.1 92.5
9 98.8 93.2
10 98.4 93.5
11 98.0 93.3
12 97.4 93.6
13 96.8 94.0
14 96.1 94.6
15 95.4 94.7
16 94.8 95.1
17 94.1 95.6
18 93.8 96.2
19 93.5 96.6
20 93.2 97.1
21 93.0 97.7
22 92.9 98.2
23 92.7 98.6
24 92.7 98.9
25 92.5 99.6
26 92.5 99.9
27 92.4 100.1
28 92.5 100.3
29 92.7 100.6
30 92.8 101.0
31 92.9 101.2
32 93.0 101.5
33 93.1 101.7
34 93.2 101.9
35 93.4 102.1
36 93.5 102.4
37 93.6 102.5
38 93.6 102.6
39 93.8 102.8
40 94.0 103.0
41 94.3 103.0
42 94.4 103.1
43 94.6 103.2
44 94.8 103.4
45 94.9 103.4
46 95.1 103.5
47 95.3 103.7
48 95.4
49 95.6
50 95.9
51 96.2
52 96.4
53 96.4
54 96.6
55 96.6
56 96.7
57 96.9
58 97.0
59 97.2
60 97.4
61 97.6
62 97.7
63 98.0
64 98.1
65 98.3
66 98.5
67 98.6
68 98.8
69 99.0
70 99.1
71 99.3
72 99.5
73 99.6
74 99.8
75 99.9
76 100.1
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series.

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Figure

Percent change in payrolls since February 2020, for all private and state and local government employment

 

date Total private-sector employment State and local government employment
Feb-2020 0.0% 0.0%
Mar-2020 -1.1% -0.3%
Apr-2020 -16.2% -4.9%
May-2020 -13.7% -7.5%
Jun-2020 -10.2% -7.4%
Jul-2020 -9.1% -6.9%
Aug-2020 -8.2% -5.9%
Sep-2020 -7.4% -6.0%
Oct-2020 -6.7% -6.2%
Nov-2020 -6.5% -6.1%
Dec-2020 -6.6% -6.2%
Jan-2021 -6.4% -5.6%
Feb-2021 -6.0% -5.6%
Mar-2021 -5.4% -5.2%
Apr-2021 -5.2% -5.0%
May-2021 -4.9% -4.9%
Jun-2021 -4.4% -4.4%
Jul-2021 -3.7% -4.1%
Aug-2021 -3.3% -4.1%
Sep-2021 -2.9% -4.1%
Oct-2021 -2.2% -4.3%
Nov-2021 -1.8% -4.3%
Dec-2021 -1.3% -4.2%
Jan-2022 -1.1% -4.2%
Feb-2022 -0.5% -4.2%
Mar-2022 -0.1% -4.2%
Apr-2022 0.1% -4.0%
May-2022 0.3% -3.8%
Jun-2022 0.6% -3.8%
Jul-2022 1.0% -3.1%
Aug-2022 1.2% -3.1%
Sep-2022 1.4% -3.0%
Oct-2022 1.7% -2.9%
Nov-2022 1.8% -2.6%
Dec-2022 1.9% -2.6%
Jan-2023 2.2% -2.0%
Feb-2023 2.4% -1.8%
Mar-2023 2.4% -1.5%
Apr-2023 2.6% -1.4%
May-2023 2.8% -1.1%
Jun-2023 3.0% -0.9%
Jul-2023 3.1% -0.8%
Aug-2023 3.2% -0.5%
Sep-2023 3.3% -0.3%
Oct-2023 3.4% 0.0%
Nov-2023 3.5% 0.2%
Dec-2023 3.7% 0.4%
Jan-2024 4.0% 0.5%
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Current Employment Statistics, Establishment Survey (CES) public data series.

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Figure

Employment change by industry (thousands) between December 2023 and January 2024

Industry Employment change, one month
Health care and social assistance 100
Professional and business services 74
Retail services 45
Government 36
Manufacturing 23
Transportation and warehousing 15.5
Information 15
Educational services 12
Leisure and hospitality 11
Construction 11
Financial activities 8
Other services 5
Wholesale trade 2
Utilities 2
Mining and logging -6
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Figure

Employment change by industry since February 2020: All employees (thousands), seasonally adjusted, January 2024

Industry Employment change since February 2020
Professional and business services 1541
Health care and social assistance 1313
Transportation and warehousing 777
Construction 522
Financial activities 375
Wholesale trade 273
Government 224
Manufacturing 199
Retail services 149
Information 125
Educational services 53
Utilities 38
Mining and logging -49
Other services -73
Leisure and hospitality -75
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Current Employment Statistics, Establishment Survey (CES) public data series.

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Nominal Wage Tracker

Year-over-year change in private-sector nominal average hourly earnings, 2007–2024

date All nonfarm employees Production/nonsupervisory workers
Mar-2007 3.4% 4.1%
Apr-2007 3.1% 3.8%
May-2007 3.5% 4.1%
Jun-2007 3.6% 4.2%
Jul-2007 3.3% 4.1%
Aug-2007 3.3% 4.0%
Sep-2007 3.1% 4.0%
Oct-2007 3.1% 3.8%
Nov-2007 3.1% 3.8%
Dec-2007 2.9% 3.8%
Jan-2008 3.0% 3.7%
Feb-2008 2.8% 3.8%
Mar-2008 3.0% 3.8%
Apr-2008 2.9% 3.7%
May-2008 3.0% 3.7%
Jun-2008 2.7% 3.6%
Jul-2008 3.1% 3.7%
Aug-2008 3.3% 3.9%
Sep-2008 3.2% 3.7%
Oct-2008 3.3% 3.8%
Nov-2008 3.6% 3.9%
Dec-2008 3.6% 3.9%
Jan-2009 3.6% 3.7%
Feb-2009 3.4% 3.6%
Mar-2009 3.3% 3.5%
Apr-2009 3.3% 3.4%
May-2009 3.0% 3.1%
Jun-2009 2.9% 2.9%
Jul-2009 2.7% 2.7%
Aug-2009 2.4% 2.7%
Sep-2009 2.5% 2.7%
Oct-2009 2.5% 2.7%
Nov-2009 2.2% 2.7%
Dec-2009 1.9% 2.5%
Jan-2010 2.0% 2.7%
Feb-2010 2.1% 2.5%
Mar-2010 1.8% 2.2%
Apr-2010 1.8% 2.4%
May-2010 1.9% 2.6%
Jun-2010 1.8% 2.5%
Jul-2010 1.8% 2.4%
Aug-2010 1.8% 2.4%
Sep-2010 1.8% 2.2%
Oct-2010 2.0% 2.5%
Nov-2010 1.7% 2.2%
Dec-2010 1.8% 2.0%
Jan-2011 2.0% 2.4%
Feb-2011 1.9% 2.1%
Mar-2011 1.8% 2.1%
Apr-2011 1.9% 2.1%
May-2011 2.0% 2.1%
Jun-2011 2.1% 2.0%
Jul-2011 2.3% 2.3%
Aug-2011 2.0% 1.9%
Sep-2011 2.0% 2.0%
Oct-2011 2.0% 1.9%
Nov-2011 2.0% 1.8%
Dec-2011 2.0% 1.8%
Jan-2012 1.7% 1.3%
Feb-2012 1.8% 1.5%
Mar-2012 2.1% 1.7%
Apr-2012 2.1% 1.7%
May-2012 1.8% 1.3%
Jun-2012 2.0% 1.5%
Jul-2012 1.7% 1.4%
Aug-2012 1.8% 1.4%
Sep-2012 1.9% 1.5%
Oct-2012 1.6% 1.2%
Nov-2012 1.9% 1.5%
Dec-2012 2.2% 1.7%
Jan-2013 2.2% 1.8%
Feb-2013 2.1% 2.0%
Mar-2013 1.9% 1.8%
Apr-2013 2.1% 1.8%
May-2013 2.1% 1.9%
Jun-2013 2.1% 2.1%
Jul-2013 2.0% 2.0%
Aug-2013 2.3% 2.2%
Sep-2013 2.1% 2.2%
Oct-2013 2.2% 2.3%
Nov-2013 2.2% 2.3%
Dec-2013 1.9% 2.2%
Jan-2014 2.0% 2.3%
Feb-2014 2.3% 2.6%
Mar-2014 2.2% 2.5%
Apr-2014 2.0% 2.3%
May-2014 2.1% 2.4%
Jun-2014 2.1% 2.3%
Jul-2014 2.1% 2.3%
Aug-2014 2.2% 2.4%
Sep-2014 2.0% 2.2%
Oct-2014 2.0% 2.2%
Nov-2014 2.1% 2.3%
Dec-2014 1.8% 1.8%
Jan-2015 2.1% 2.0%
Feb-2015 1.9% 1.6%
Mar-2015 2.2% 2.0%
Apr-2015 2.3% 2.0%
May-2015 2.3% 2.1%
Jun-2015 2.1% 2.0%
Jul-2015 2.1% 2.0%
Aug-2015 2.2% 2.1%
Sep-2015 2.3% 2.0%
Oct-2015 2.5% 2.4%
Nov-2015 2.4% 2.1%
Dec-2015 2.5% 2.5%
Jan-2016 2.5% 2.5%
Feb-2016 2.4% 2.4%
Mar-2016 2.4% 2.3%
Apr-2016 2.6% 2.6%
May-2016 2.4% 2.3%
Jun-2016 2.6% 2.5%
Jul-2016 2.8% 2.6%
Aug-2016 2.5% 2.4%
Sep-2016 2.6% 2.6%
Oct-2016 2.8% 2.5%
Nov-2016 2.6% 2.4%
Dec-2016 2.7% 2.5%
Jan-2017 2.4% 2.3%
Feb-2017 2.7% 2.4%
Mar-2017 2.6% 2.3%
Apr-2017 2.5% 2.2%
May-2017 2.5% 2.3%
Jun-2017 2.5% 2.3%
Jul-2017 2.6% 2.3%
Aug-2017 2.6% 2.4%
Sep-2017 2.8% 2.5%
Oct-2017 2.3% 2.2%
Nov-2017 2.4% 2.3%
Dec-2017 2.7% 2.5%
Jan-2018 2.8% 2.6%
Feb-2018 2.6% 2.7%
Mar-2018 2.9% 2.8%
Apr-2018 2.8% 2.7%
May-2018 2.9% 2.9%
Jun-2018 3.0% 2.9%
Jul-2018 2.8% 2.8%
Aug-2018 3.1% 3.0%
Sep-2018 3.1% 3.0%
Oct-2018 3.3% 3.2%
Nov-2018 3.4% 3.5%
Dec-2018 3.5% 3.6%
Jan-2019 3.2% 3.4%
Feb-2019 3.6% 3.5%
Mar-2019 3.5% 3.6%
Apr-2019 3.2% 3.5%
May-2019 3.3% 3.5%
Jun-2019 3.4% 3.6%
Jul-2019 3.4% 3.7%
Aug-2019 3.4% 3.7%
Sep-2019 3.1% 3.6%
Oct-2019 3.1% 3.7%
Nov-2019 3.3% 3.7%
Dec-2019 3.0% 3.1%
Jan-2020 3.1% 3.3%
Feb-2020 3.0% 3.4%
Mar-2020 3.5% 3.6%
Apr-2020 8.0% 7.8%
May-2020 6.7% 6.9%
Jun-2020 5.1% 5.6%
Jul-2020 4.9% 4.8%
Aug-2020 4.8% 5.1%
Sep-2020 4.8% 4.8%
Oct-2020 4.6% 4.6%
Nov-2020 4.5% 4.6%
Dec-2020 5.4% 5.6%
Jan-2021 5.2% 5.3%
Feb-2021 5.3% 5.2%
Mar-2021 4.5% 4.9%
Apr-2021 0.7% 1.5%
May-2021 2.3% 2.8%
Jun-2021 3.9% 4.1%
Jul-2021 4.3% 5.1%
Aug-2021 4.4% 5.2%
Sep-2021 4.9% 6.0%
Oct-2021 5.5% 6.5%
Nov-2021 5.4% 6.6%
Dec-2021 5.0% 6.4%
Jan-2022 5.7% 6.9%
Feb-2022 5.3% 6.8%
Mar-2022 5.9% 7.0%
Apr-2022 5.8% 6.9%
May-2022 5.6% 6.7%
Jun-2022 5.4% 6.7%
Jul-2022 5.5% 6.5%
Aug-2022 5.4% 6.2%
Sep-2022 5.1% 5.9%
Oct-2022 5.0% 5.8%
Nov-2022 5.1% 5.9%
Dec-2022 4.9% 5.5%
Jan-2023 4.6% 5.2%
Feb-2023 4.7% 5.4%
Mar-2023 4.6% 5.4%
Apr-2023 4.7% 5.2%
May-2023 4.6% 5.1%
Jun-2023 4.7% 5.0%
Jul-2023 4.7% 5.0%
Aug-2023 4.5% 4.8%
Sep-2023 4.5% 4.7%
Oct-2023 4.3% 4.6%
Nov-2023 4.3% 4.6%
Dec-2023 4.3% 4.6%
Jan-2024 4.5% 4.8%
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series. 

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Jobs day

Nominal wage growth in average hourly earnings for all workers, year over year change, three-month change annualized, and one-month change annualized

date Year-over-year change Three-month change, annualized One-month change, annualized
Jan-2019 3.2% 3.3% 1.8%
Feb-2019 3.6% 4.0% 5.3%
Mar-2019 3.5% 3.7% 4.0%
Apr-2019 3.2% 2.8% -0.9%
May-2019 3.3% 2.2% 3.5%
Jun-2019 3.4% 2.2% 3.9%
Jul-2019 3.4% 3.5% 3.0%
Aug-2019 3.4% 3.9% 4.8%
Sep-2019 3.1% 3.2% 1.7%
Oct-2019 3.1% 3.0% 2.6%
Nov-2019 3.3% 3.2% 5.2%
Dec-2019 3.0% 2.9% 0.8%
Jan-2020 3.1% 3.0% 3.0%
Feb-2020 3.0% 2.9% 4.7%
Mar-2020 3.5% 5.8% 9.6%
Apr-2020 8.0% 24.0% 65.9%
May-2020 6.7% 17.4% -11.0%
Jun-2020 5.1% 8.8% -12.9%
Jul-2020 4.9% -8.1% 0.0%
Aug-2020 4.8% -3.2% 4.2%
Sep-2020 4.8% 1.8% 1.2%
Oct-2020 4.6% 2.2% 1.2%
Nov-2020 4.5% 2.1% 3.7%
Dec-2020 5.4% 5.4% 11.5%
Jan-2021 5.2% 5.4% 1.2%
Feb-2021 5.3% 5.9% 5.3%
Mar-2021 4.5% 2.2% 0.0%
Apr-2021 0.7% 3.8% 6.2%
May-2021 2.3% 4.5% 7.4%
Jun-2021 3.9% 6.5% 6.1%
Jul-2021 4.3% 6.0% 4.4%
Aug-2021 4.4% 5.1% 4.8%
Sep-2021 4.9% 5.5% 7.3%
Oct-2021 5.5% 6.7% 8.0%
Nov-2021 5.4% 6.3% 3.5%
Dec-2021 5.0% 5.9% 6.3%
Jan-2022 5.7% 6.3% 9.2%
Feb-2022 5.3% 5.4% 0.8%
Mar-2022 5.9% 5.7% 7.4%
Apr-2022 5.8% 4.1% 4.2%
May-2022 5.6% 5.5% 5.0%
Jun-2022 5.4% 4.6% 4.6%
Jul-2022 5.5% 4.8% 5.0%
Aug-2022 5.4% 4.6% 4.2%
Sep-2022 5.1% 4.3% 3.8%
Oct-2022 5.0% 4.7% 6.1%
Nov-2022 5.1% 4.9% 4.9%
Dec-2022 4.9% 5.0% 4.1%
Jan-2023 4.6% 4.6% 4.8%
Feb-2023 4.7% 4.0% 2.9%
Mar-2023 4.6% 4.6% 5.9%
Apr-2023 4.7% 4.6% 4.8%
May-2023 4.6% 4.8% 3.6%
Jun-2023 4.7% 4.8% 5.9%
Jul-2023 4.7% 4.9% 5.1%
Aug-2023 4.5% 4.5% 2.5%
Sep-2023 4.5% 3.7% 3.6%
Oct-2023 4.3% 3.1% 3.2%
Nov-2023 4.3% 3.8% 4.7%
Dec-2023 4.3% 4.2% 4.7%
Jan-2024 4.5% 5.4% 6.8%
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series

 

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Current Population Survey Charts

The Current Population Survey (CPS), also known as the household survey, is sponsored jointly by the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Each month, it provides data on the labor force, employment, unemployment, persons not in the labor force, hours of work, earnings, and other demographic and labor force characteristics. 

Jobs Day

Employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, 1989–2024

Date Employment to population ratio
Jan-1989 80.0%
Feb-1989 79.9%
Mar-1989 79.9%
Apr-1989 79.8%
May-1989 79.8%
Jun-1989 79.8%
Jul-1989 79.8%
Aug-1989 79.9%
Sep-1989 80.0%
Oct-1989 79.9%
Nov-1989 80.2%
Dec-1989 80.1%
Jan-1990 80.2%
Feb-1990 80.2%
Mar-1990 80.1%
Apr-1990 79.9%
May-1990 79.9%
Jun-1990 79.8%
Jul-1990 79.6%
Aug-1990 79.5%
Sep-1990 79.4%
Oct-1990 79.4%
Nov-1990 79.2%
Dec-1990 79.0%
Jan-1991 78.9%
Feb-1991 78.9%
Mar-1991 78.7%
Apr-1991 79.0%
May-1991 78.6%
Jun-1991 78.7%
Jul-1991 78.6%
Aug-1991 78.5%
Sep-1991 78.6%
Oct-1991 78.5%
Nov-1991 78.4%
Dec-1991 78.3%
Jan-1992 78.4%
Feb-1992 78.2%
Mar-1992 78.2%
Apr-1992 78.4%
May-1992 78.4%
Jun-1992 78.5%
Jul-1992 78.4%
Aug-1992 78.4%
Sep-1992 78.3%
Oct-1992 78.2%
Nov-1992 78.2%
Dec-1992 78.2%
Jan-1993 78.2%
Feb-1993 78.1%
Mar-1993 78.2%
Apr-1993 78.2%
May-1993 78.5%
Jun-1993 78.6%
Jul-1993 78.6%
Aug-1993 78.8%
Sep-1993 78.6%
Oct-1993 78.7%
Nov-1993 79.0%
Dec-1993 79.0%
Jan-1994 78.9%
Feb-1994 78.9%
Mar-1994 78.9%
Apr-1994 79.0%
May-1994 79.2%
Jun-1994 78.8%
Jul-1994 79.1%
Aug-1994 79.2%
Sep-1994 79.6%
Oct-1994 79.6%
Nov-1994 79.8%
Dec-1994 79.8%
Jan-1995 79.7%
Feb-1995 80.0%
Mar-1995 79.9%
Apr-1995 79.8%
May-1995 79.7%
Jun-1995 79.5%
Jul-1995 79.7%
Aug-1995 79.6%
Sep-1995 79.8%
Oct-1995 79.8%
Nov-1995 79.7%
Dec-1995 79.7%
Jan-1996 79.8%
Feb-1996 79.9%
Mar-1996 79.9%
Apr-1996 79.9%
May-1996 80.0%
Jun-1996 80.1%
Jul-1996 80.4%
Aug-1996 80.5%
Sep-1996 80.4%
Oct-1996 80.6%
Nov-1996 80.5%
Dec-1996 80.5%
Jan-1997 80.5%
Feb-1997 80.4%
Mar-1997 80.6%
Apr-1997 80.7%
May-1997 80.6%
Jun-1997 80.9%
Jul-1997 81.1%
Aug-1997 81.3%
Sep-1997 81.1%
Oct-1997 81.1%
Nov-1997 81.0%
Dec-1997 81.0%
Jan-1998 81.0%
Feb-1998 81.0%
Mar-1998 81.0%
Apr-1998 81.1%
May-1998 81.0%
Jun-1998 81.0%
Jul-1998 81.1%
Aug-1998 81.2%
Sep-1998 81.3%
Oct-1998 81.1%
Nov-1998 81.2%
Dec-1998 81.3%
Jan-1999 81.8%
Feb-1999 81.5%
Mar-1999 81.3%
Apr-1999 81.3%
May-1999 81.4%
Jun-1999 81.4%
Jul-1999 81.2%
Aug-1999 81.3%
Sep-1999 81.3%
Oct-1999 81.5%
Nov-1999 81.6%
Dec-1999 81.5%
Jan-2000 81.8%
Feb-2000 81.8%
Mar-2000 81.7%
Apr-2000 81.9%
May-2000 81.5%
Jun-2000 81.5%
Jul-2000 81.3%
Aug-2000 81.1%
Sep-2000 81.1%
Oct-2000 81.1%
Nov-2000 81.3%
Dec-2000 81.4%
Jan-2001 81.4%
Feb-2001 81.3%
Mar-2001 81.3%
Apr-2001 80.9%
May-2001 80.8%
Jun-2001 80.6%
Jul-2001 80.5%
Aug-2001 80.2%
Sep-2001 80.2%
Oct-2001 79.9%
Nov-2001 79.7%
Dec-2001 79.8%
Jan-2002 79.6%
Feb-2002 79.8%
Mar-2002 79.6%
Apr-2002 79.5%
May-2002 79.4%
Jun-2002 79.2%
Jul-2002 79.1%
Aug-2002 79.3%
Sep-2002 79.4%
Oct-2002 79.2%
Nov-2002 78.8%
Dec-2002 79.0%
Jan-2003 78.9%
Feb-2003 78.9%
Mar-2003 79.0%
Apr-2003 79.1%
May-2003 78.9%
Jun-2003 78.9%
Jul-2003 78.8%
Aug-2003 78.7%
Sep-2003 78.6%
Oct-2003 78.6%
Nov-2003 78.7%
Dec-2003 78.8%
Jan-2004 78.9%
Feb-2004 78.8%
Mar-2004 78.7%
Apr-2004 78.9%
May-2004 79.0%
Jun-2004 79.1%
Jul-2004 79.2%
Aug-2004 79.0%
Sep-2004 79.0%
Oct-2004 79.0%
Nov-2004 79.1%
Dec-2004 78.9%
Jan-2005 79.2%
Feb-2005 79.2%
Mar-2005 79.2%
Apr-2005 79.4%
May-2005 79.5%
Jun-2005 79.2%
Jul-2005 79.4%
Aug-2005 79.6%
Sep-2005 79.4%
Oct-2005 79.3%
Nov-2005 79.2%
Dec-2005 79.3%
Jan-2006 79.6%
Feb-2006 79.7%
Mar-2006 79.8%
Apr-2006 79.6%
May-2006 79.7%
Jun-2006 79.8%
Jul-2006 79.8%
Aug-2006 79.8%
Sep-2006 79.9%
Oct-2006 80.1%
Nov-2006 80.0%
Dec-2006 80.1%
Jan-2007 80.3%
Feb-2007 80.1%
Mar-2007 80.2%
Apr-2007 80.0%
May-2007 80.0%
Jun-2007 79.9%
Jul-2007 79.8%
Aug-2007 79.8%
Sep-2007 79.7%
Oct-2007 79.6%
Nov-2007 79.7%
Dec-2007 79.7%
Jan-2008 80.0%
Feb-2008 79.9%
Mar-2008 79.8%
Apr-2008 79.6%
May-2008 79.5%
Jun-2008 79.4%
Jul-2008 79.2%
Aug-2008 78.8%
Sep-2008 78.8%
Oct-2008 78.4%
Nov-2008 78.1%
Dec-2008 77.6%
Jan-2009 77.0%
Feb-2009 76.7%
Mar-2009 76.2%
Apr-2009 76.2%
May-2009 75.9%
Jun-2009 75.9%
Jul-2009 75.8%
Aug-2009 75.6%
Sep-2009 75.1%
Oct-2009 75.0%
Nov-2009 75.2%
Dec-2009 74.8%
Jan-2010 75.1%
Feb-2010 75.1%
Mar-2010 75.1%
Apr-2010 75.4%
May-2010 75.1%
Jun-2010 75.2%
Jul-2010 75.1%
Aug-2010 75.0%
Sep-2010 75.1%
Oct-2010 75.0%
Nov-2010 74.8%
Dec-2010 75.0%
Jan-2011 75.2%
Feb-2011 75.1%
Mar-2011 75.3%
Apr-2011 75.1%
May-2011 75.2%
Jun-2011 75.0%
Jul-2011 75.0%
Aug-2011 75.1%
Sep-2011 74.9%
Oct-2011 74.9%
Nov-2011 75.3%
Dec-2011 75.4%
Jan-2012 75.5%
Feb-2012 75.5%
Mar-2012 75.7%
Apr-2012 75.7%
May-2012 75.7%
Jun-2012 75.6%
Jul-2012 75.6%
Aug-2012 75.7%
Sep-2012 76.0%
Oct-2012 76.1%
Nov-2012 75.8%
Dec-2012 76.0%
Jan-2013 75.6%
Feb-2013 75.8%
Mar-2013 75.8%
Apr-2013 75.8%
May-2013 76.0%
Jun-2013 75.9%
Jul-2013 76.0%
Aug-2013 76.0%
Sep-2013 76.0%
Oct-2013 75.6%
Nov-2013 76.1%
Dec-2013 76.1%
Jan-2014 76.4%
Feb-2014 76.4%
Mar-2014 76.5%
Apr-2014 76.5%
May-2014 76.4%
Jun-2014 76.9%
Jul-2014 76.7%
Aug-2014 76.9%
Sep-2014 76.8%
Oct-2014 76.9%
Nov-2014 76.9%
Dec-2014 77.1%
Jan-2015 77.1%
Feb-2015 77.2%
Mar-2015 77.1%
Apr-2015 77.2%
May-2015 77.2%
Jun-2015 77.4%
Jul-2015 77.1%
Aug-2015 77.3%
Sep-2015 77.2%
Oct-2015 77.2%
Nov-2015 77.4%
Dec-2015 77.4%
Jan-2016 77.7%
Feb-2016 77.8%
Mar-2016 77.9%
Apr-2016 77.8%
May-2016 77.9%
Jun-2016 77.9%
Jul-2016 78.0%
Aug-2016 77.9%
Sep-2016 78.0%
Oct-2016 78.1%
Nov-2016 78.1%
Dec-2016 78.1%
Jan-2017 78.2%
Feb-2017 78.3%
Mar-2017 78.5%
Apr-2017 78.6%
May-2017 78.5%
Jun-2017 78.6%
Jul-2017 78.8%
Aug-2017 78.4%
Sep-2017 79.0%
Oct-2017 78.7%
Nov-2017 78.9%
Dec-2017 79.0%
Jan-2018 78.9%
Feb-2018 79.3%
Mar-2018 79.2%
Apr-2018 79.2%
May-2018 79.4%
Jun-2018 79.4%
Jul-2018 79.6%
Aug-2018 79.3%
Sep-2018 79.4%
Oct-2018 79.6%
Nov-2018 79.6%
Dec-2018 79.5%
Jan-2019 79.8%
Feb-2019 79.9%
Mar-2019 79.8%
Apr-2019 79.7%
May-2019 79.8%
Jun-2019 79.7%
Jul-2019 79.6%
Aug-2019 80.0%
Sep-2019 80.2%
Oct-2019 80.3%
Nov-2019 80.3%
Dec-2019 80.4%
Jan-2020 80.6%
Feb-2020 80.5%
Mar-2020 79.5%
Apr-2020 69.6%
May-2020 71.4%
Jun-2020 73.5%
Jul-2020 73.9%
Aug-2020 75.3%
Sep-2020 75.2%
Oct-2020 76.0%
Nov-2020 75.9%
Dec-2020 76.2%
Jan-2021 76.4%
Feb-2021 76.6%
Mar-2021 76.9%
Apr-2021 77.0%
May-2021 77.2%
Jun-2021 77.2%
Jul-2021 77.9%
Aug-2021 78.0%
Sep-2021 78.1%
Oct-2021 78.3%
Nov-2021 78.8%
Dec-2021 79.0%
Jan-2022 79.1%
Feb-2022 79.5%
Mar-2022 80.0%
Apr-2022 79.9%
May-2022 80.0%
Jun-2022 79.8%
Jul-2022 80.0%
Aug-2022 80.3%
Sep-2022 80.2%
Oct-2022 79.8%
Nov-2022 79.7%
Dec-2022 80.1%
Jan-2023 80.2%
Feb-2023 80.5% 
Mar-2023 80.7%
Apr-2023 80.8% 
May-2023 80.7%
Jun-2023 80.9%
Jul-2023 80.9% 
Aug-2023 80.9% 
Sept-2023 80.8% 
Oct-2023 80.6%
Nov-2023 80.7%
Dec-2023 80.4%
Jan-2024 80.6%
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data. 

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Jobs Day

Unemployment rate of workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, January 2020–January 2024

 

date White Black Hispanic Asian
Jan-2020 3.1% 6.4% 4.3% 3.0%
Feb-2020 3.0% 6.1% 4.3% 2.5%
Mar-2020 3.9% 7.0% 6.0% 4.1%
Apr-2020 14.2% 16.9% 18.9% 14.5%
May-2020 12.3% 16.8% 17.6% 15%
Jun-2020 10.0% 15.3% 14.5% 13.6%
Jul-2020 9.2% 14.3% 12.9% 12.0%
Aug-2020 7.4% 12.8% 10.5% 10.6%
Sep-2020 7.0% 11.9% 10.2% 8.9%
Oct-2020 6.0% 10.8% 8.8% 7.5%
Nov-2020 5.9% 10.2% 8.6% 6.7%
Dec-2020 6.1% 9.9% 9.3% 6.0%
Jan-2021 5.7% 9.3% 8.5% 6.6%
Feb-2021 5.6% 9.9% 8.5% 5.1%
Mar-2021 5.4% 9.9% 7.9% 5.9%
Apr-2021 5.3% 10.2% 7.9% 5.7%
May-2021 5.1% 9.1% 7.2% 5.7%
Jun-2021 5.2% 9.1% 7.3% 5.6%
Jul-2021 4.8% 8.1% 6.5% 5.3%
Aug-2021 4.5% 8.6% 6.1% 4.5%
Sep-2021 4.2% 7.7% 6.2% 4.2%
Oct-2021 3.9% 7.6% 5.7% 4.2%
Nov-2021 3.7% 6.4% 5.0% 3.8%
Dec-2021 3.3% 6.9% 4.6% 3.8%
Jan-2022 3.4% 7.0% 4.7% 3.6%
Feb-2022 3.3% 6.6% 4.3% 2.9%
Mar-2022 3.2% 6.4% 4.2% 2.7%
Apr-2022 3.3% 6.1% 4.2% 3.0%
May-2022 3.2% 6.2% 4.4% 2.4%
Jun-2022 3.3% 5.8% 4.3% 2.9%
Jul-2022 3.1% 5.9% 4.0% 2.7%
Aug-2022 3.2% 6.4% 4.5% 2.8%
Sep-2022 3.0% 5.8% 3.9%  2.5%
Oct-2022 3.2% 5.8% 4.2% 3.0%
Nov-2022 3.2% 5.6% 4.0% 2.6%
Dec-2022 3%  5.7% 4.2% 2.4%
Jan-2023 3.1% 5.4% 4.7% 2.9%
Feb-2023 3.2% 5.7% 5.4% 3.4%
Mar-2023 3.2% 5.1% 4.6% 2.8%
Apr-2023 3.1% 4.8%  4.4% 2.8%
May-2023 3.3% 5.7% 4.1% 3.0%
Jun-2023 3.1% 6.0% 4.2% 3.1%
Jul-2023 3.1% 5.7% 4.4% 2.3% 
Aug-2023 3.4% 5.3% 4.9% 3.2%
Sep-2023 3.4% 5.7% 4.6% 2.9%
Oct-2023 3.5% 5.8% 4.8% 3.1%
Nov-2023 3.3% 5.8% 4.6% 3.5%
Dec-2023 3.5% 5.2% 5.0% 3.1%
Jan-2024 3.4% 5.3% 5.0% 2.9%
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Note: AAPI refers to Asian American and Pacific Islander. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data. 

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Jobs Day

Employment-to-population ratios for workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, January 2020–January 2024

date White Black Hispanic
Jan-2020 61.3% 58.8% 65%
Feb-2020 61.3% 59.2% 64.8%
Mar-2020 60.1% 57.3% 63.0%
Apr-2020 51.7% 48.6% 51.2%
May-2020 53.5% 49.5% 52.9%
Jun-2020 55.5% 50.9% 55.8%
Jul-2020 55.8% 51.6% 56.6%
Aug-2020 57.2% 52.6% 58.3%
Sep-2020 57.3% 52.8% 58.3%
Oct-2020 58.1% 53.9% 59.8%
Nov-2020 57.9% 54.2% 59.9%
Dec-2020 57.9% 54.0% 59.3%
Jan-2021 57.8% 54.6% 59.4%
Feb-2021 58.0% 54.0% 59.9%
Mar-2021 58.1% 54.6% 60.2%
Apr-2021 58.2% 55.0% 60.1%
May-2021 58.3% 55.3% 60.3%
Jun-2021 58.2% 56.0% 60.6%
Jul-2021 58.6% 55.9% 61.4%
Aug-2021 58.7% 56.3% 61.5%
Sep-2021 58.9% 56.7% 61.6%
Oct-2021 59.1% 56.5% 62.0%
Nov-2021 59.4% 56.9% 63.0%
Dec-2021 59.7% 56.6% 62.9%
Jan-2022 59.9% 57.6% 63.2%
Feb-2022 60.1% 57.9% 63.7%
Mar-2022 60.3% 58.0% 63.6%
Apr-2022 59.9% 58.4% 63.3%
May-2022 59.9% 59.0% 63.5%
Jun-2022 59.9% 58.6% 63.6%
Jul-2022 59.9% 58.4% 63.1%
Aug-2022 60.1% 58.1% 63.8%
Sep-2022 60.1% 58.7% 63.5%
Oct-2022 60.0% 58.5% 63.4%
Nov-2022 59.8% 58.8% 63.1%
Dec-2022 60.2% 58.9% 63.6%
Jan-2023 60.2% 59.5% 63.3%
Feb-2023 60.1% 59.7% 63.3%
Mar-2023 60.2% 60.7% 63.7%
Apr-2023 60.3% 59.9% 63.8%
May-2023 60.2% 59.6% 64.1%
Jun-2023 60.4% 58.9% 64.4%
Jul-2023 60.3% 59.2% 64.3%
Aug-2023 60.4% 59.4% 63.9%
Sep-2023 60.3% 59.4% 64.1%
Oct-2023 60.1% 59.3% 63.8%
Nov-2023 60.3% 60.0% 63.9%
Dec-2023 59.9% 60.1% 63.4%
Jan-2024 60.0% 60.0% 63.5%
ChartData Download data

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Note: Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data. 

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A more comprehensive look at unemployment rates: Unemployment rates for select workers by race/ethnicity and gender, February 2020, April 2020, November 2023, and December 2023

characteristic February 2020 April 2020 November 2023 December 2023
White men 2.8% 12.3% 3.2% 3.3%
White women 2.7% 15.0% 2.7% 3.0%
Black men 6.1% 16.0% 6.4% 4.6%
Black women 4.8% 16.4% 4.8% 4.8%
Latinx men 3.1% 16.5% 4.2% 4.8%
Latinx women 4.8% 20.2% 3.9% 4.5%

 

ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Data are for workers ages 20 and older. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race. Unemployment levels are labeled for February, November, and the peak in between.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Household Data Table A-2, and Table A-3.

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A more comprehensive look at employment: Employment-to-population ratios for select workers by race/ethnicity and gender, February 2020, April 2020, November 2023, and December 2023

characteristic February 2020 April 2020 November 2023 December 2023
White men 69.6% 60.5% 68.1% 67.7%
White women 56.6% 47.1% 56.0% 55.5%
Black men 63.7% 53.1% 64.8% 66.0%
Black women 60.8% 49.6% 60.5% 60.2%
Latinx men 78.2% 64.3% 75.9% 75.3%
Latinx women 59.1% 45.2% 58.7% 58.5%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Data are for workers ages 20 and older. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race. Employment to population levels are labeled for February, April, and the trough in between.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Household Data Table A-2, and Table A-3.

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Figure

Unemployment rate for young workers, 16–24 years old, and workers 25+, 1979–2023

Ages 16–24 Ages 25+
1979-01-01 11.6% 4.0%
1979-02-01 11.7 4.0
1979-03-01 11.6 4.0
1979-04-01 11.6 4.0
1979-05-01 11.6 3.7
1979-06-01 11.5 3.8
1979-07-01 11.6 3.8
1979-08-01 12.2 4.1
1979-09-01 12.1 3.9
1979-10-01 12.1 4.0
1979-11-01 11.6 4.1
1979-12-01 12.4 3.9
1980-01-01 12.6 4.3
1980-02-01 12.5 4.3
1980-03-01 12.3 4.5
1980-04-01 13.1 5.0
1980-05-01 14.7 5.2
1980-06-01 14.7 5.4
1980-07-01 14.9 5.6
1980-08-01 14.7 5.6
1980-09-01 14.3 5.4
1980-10-01 14.5 5.4
1980-11-01 14.4 5.3
1980-12-01 13.7 5.2
1981-01-01 14.5 5.3
1981-02-01 14.6 5.3
1981-03-01 14.5 5.2
1981-04-01 14.5 5.0
1981-05-01 15.1 5.2
1981-06-01 14.9 5.3
1981-07-01 14.1 5.2
1981-08-01 14.5 5.2
1981-09-01 14.9 5.4
1981-10-01 15.3 5.7
1981-11-01 15.9 6.0
1981-12-01 16.1 6.3
1982-01-01 16.5 6.3
1982-02-01 17.0 6.5
1982-03-01 16.9 6.8
1982-04-01 17.4 7.0
1982-05-01 17.3 7.1
1982-06-01 17.5 7.3
1982-07-01 18.0 7.5
1982-08-01 18.1 7.4
1982-09-01 18.2 7.9
1982-10-01 18.5 8.1
1982-11-01 19.0 8.4
1982-12-01 18.9 8.6
1983-01-01 18.5 8.1
1983-02-01 18.4 8.2
1983-03-01 18.2 8.1
1983-04-01 18.0 8.0
1983-05-01 17.7 8.0
1983-06-01 17.8 7.9
1983-07-01 16.8 7.3
1983-08-01 17.3 7.3
1983-09-01 16.4 7.2
1983-10-01 16.2 6.8
1983-11-01 15.4 6.6
1983-12-01 14.9 6.6
1984-01-01 14.8 6.2
1984-02-01 14.3 6.1
1984-03-01 14.4 5.9
1984-04-01 14.5 6.0
1984-05-01 13.6 5.7
1984-06-01 13.2 5.6
1984-07-01 13.7 5.8
1984-08-01 14.1 5.7
1984-09-01 14.0 5.6
1984-10-01 13.6 5.7
1984-11-01 13.2 5.6
1984-12-01 13.7 5.6
1985-01-01 13.6 5.7
1985-02-01 13.6 5.6
1985-03-01 13.6 5.6
1985-04-01 13.2 5.8
1985-05-01 13.6 5.5
1985-06-01 13.5 5.8
1985-07-01 14.2 5.6
1985-08-01 13.3 5.6
1985-09-01 13.3 5.6
1985-10-01 14.1 5.4
1985-11-01 13.5 5.3
1985-12-01 13.5 5.4
1986-01-01 13.0 5.1
1986-02-01 13.6 5.6
1986-03-01 13.2 5.6
1986-04-01 13.7 5.5
1986-05-01 13.7 5.5
1986-06-01 13.5 5.6
1986-07-01 13.3 5.5
1986-08-01 13.1 5.4
1986-09-01 13.6 5.4
1986-10-01 13.0 5.5
1986-11-01 12.8 5.4
1986-12-01 13.0 5.1
1987-01-01 13.0 5.1
1987-02-01 13.1 5.0
1987-03-01 12.8 5.1
1987-04-01 12.6 4.9
1987-05-01 12.5 4.8
1987-06-01 12.3 4.7
1987-07-01 11.8 4.7
1987-08-01 11.7 4.7
1987-09-01 11.8 4.6
1987-10-01 11.8 4.6
1987-11-01 11.5 4.5
1987-12-01 11.2 4.5
1988-01-01 11.5 4.4
1988-02-01 11.3 4.4
1988-03-01 11.8 4.3
1988-04-01 11.2 4.2
1988-05-01 11.3 4.3
1988-06-01 10.5 4.2
1988-07-01 10.8 4.2
1988-08-01 11.0 4.4
1988-09-01 10.8 4.2
1988-10-01 10.8 4.1
1988-11-01 10.5 4.2
1988-12-01 10.8 4.1
1989-01-01 11.8 4.1
1989-02-01 10.6 4.0
1989-03-01 10.1 3.9
1989-04-01 10.6 4.1
1989-05-01 10.4 4.0
1989-06-01 11.2 4.0
1989-07-01 10.6 4.0
1989-08-01 10.9 4.0
1989-09-01 11.1 4.1
1989-10-01 11.0 4.1
1989-11-01 11.3 4.1
1989-12-01 11.2 4.1
1990-01-01 10.8 4.1
1990-02-01 10.7 4.1
1990-03-01 10.6 4.1
1990-04-01 11.1 4.2
1990-05-01 10.8 4.2
1990-06-01 10.4 4.1
1990-07-01 10.7 4.4
1990-08-01 11.5 4.5
1990-09-01 11.7 4.6
1990-10-01 11.8 4.7
1990-11-01 12.0 4.9
1990-12-01 12.0 5.0
1991-01-01 12.6 5.0
1991-02-01 12.8 5.3
1991-03-01 13.1 5.5
1991-04-01 12.7 5.4
1991-05-01 13.6 5.5
1991-06-01 13.6 5.5
1991-07-01 13.8 5.4
1991-08-01 13.5 5.5
1991-09-01 13.4 5.5
1991-10-01 13.9 5.6
1991-11-01 13.8 5.7
1991-12-01 14.6 5.8
1992-01-01 13.9 5.9
1992-02-01 14.2 6.0
1992-03-01 14.1 6.1
1992-04-01 13.6 6.1
1992-05-01 14.4 6.3
1992-06-01 15.2 6.3
1992-07-01 14.5 6.3
1992-08-01 14.2 6.3
1992-09-01 14.5 6.2
1992-10-01 13.5 6.1
1992-11-01 14.3 6.1
1992-12-01 14.2 6.1
1993-01-01 14.0 5.8
1993-02-01 14.1 5.7
1993-03-01 13.6 5.7
1993-04-01 13.8 5.7
1993-05-01 14.2 5.6
1993-06-01 13.7 5.7
1993-07-01 13.1 5.7
1993-08-01 13.0 5.5
1993-09-01 12.6 5.6
1993-10-01 13.0 5.6
1993-11-01 12.9 5.4
1993-12-01 12.5 5.4
1994-01-01 13.4 5.2
1994-02-01 12.9 5.3
1994-03-01 13.1 5.2
1994-04-01 13.3 5.0
1994-05-01 12.5 4.8
1994-06-01 12.4 4.8
1994-07-01 12.4 4.8
1994-08-01 12.5 4.8
1994-09-01 12.1 4.7
1994-10-01 12.0 4.6
1994-11-01 11.4 4.5
1994-12-01 11.5 4.3
1995-01-01 11.4 4.4
1995-02-01 11.7 4.2
1995-03-01 11.6 4.2
1995-04-01 12.0 4.5
1995-05-01 11.9 4.5
1995-06-01 12.0 4.4
1995-07-01 12.5 4.4
1995-08-01 12.5 4.4
1995-09-01 12.7 4.3
1995-10-01 12.4 4.2
1995-11-01 12.0 4.4
1995-12-01 12.4 4.3
1996-01-01 12.8 4.3
1996-02-01 12.2 4.2
1996-03-01 12.2 4.2
1996-04-01 12.0 4.3
1996-05-01 12.2 4.3
1996-06-01 11.8 4.1
1996-07-01 12.4 4.2
1996-08-01 11.6 4.0
1996-09-01 11.4 4.0
1996-10-01 11.6 4.0
1996-11-01 11.9 4.1
1996-12-01 11.8 4.1
1997-01-01 12.2 4.0
1997-02-01 11.8 4.0
1997-03-01 11.7 3.9
1997-04-01 11.6 3.8
1997-05-01 11.1 3.8
1997-06-01 11.4 3.8
1997-07-01 11.2 3.7
1997-08-01 11.1 3.7
1997-09-01 11.2 3.7
1997-10-01 11.0 3.5
1997-11-01 10.8 3.4
1997-12-01 10.5 3.6
1998-01-01 10.9 3.5
1998-02-01 10.6 3.5
1998-03-01 10.5 3.6
1998-04-01 9.7 3.4
1998-05-01 10.3 3.3
1998-06-01 10.6 3.4
1998-07-01 10.6 3.4
1998-08-01 10.8 3.3
1998-09-01 11.0 3.4
1998-10-01 10.5 3.4
1998-11-01 9.8 3.3
1998-12-01 9.6 3.3
1999-01-01 10.2 3.2
1999-02-01 10.1 3.3
1999-03-01 9.9 3.1
1999-04-01 10.0 3.3
1999-05-01 9.6 3.1
1999-06-01 10.0 3.2
1999-07-01 9.9 3.2
1999-08-01 9.6 3.2
1999-09-01 10.2 3.1
1999-10-01 10.0 3.0
1999-11-01 9.9 3.0
1999-12-01 9.6 2.9
2000-01-01 9.4 3.0
2000-02-01 9.9 3.0
2000-03-01 9.6 3.0
2000-04-01 9.2 2.9
2000-05-01 9.8 3.0
2000-06-01 9.3 3.0
2000-07-01 9.3 3.0
2000-08-01 9.3 3.1
2000-09-01 8.9 3.0
2000-10-01 8.9 2.9
2000-11-01 9.1 3.0
2000-12-01 9.2 2.9
2001-01-01 9.6 3.2
2001-02-01 9.6 3.2
2001-03-01 9.8 3.2
2001-04-01 10.2 3.3
2001-05-01 9.9 3.3
2001-06-01 10.4 3.5
2001-07-01 10.2 3.5
2001-08-01 11.2 3.8
2001-09-01 10.8 3.9
2001-10-01 11.5 4.2
2001-11-01 11.6 4.4
2001-12-01 12.2 4.5
2002-01-01 12.1 4.5
2002-02-01 11.8 4.5
2002-03-01 12.5 4.5
2002-04-01 12.3 4.8
2002-05-01 11.6 4.8
2002-06-01 11.8 4.7
2002-07-01 12.1 4.6
2002-08-01 12.0 4.6
2002-09-01 11.7 4.5
2002-10-01 11.8 4.6
2002-11-01 12.1 4.7
2002-12-01 12.1 4.8
2003-01-01 12.0 4.7
2003-02-01 12.1 4.8
2003-03-01 12.0 4.8
2003-04-01 12.6 4.9
2003-05-01 12.9 4.9
2003-06-01 13.2 5.1
2003-07-01 13.0 4.9
2003-08-01 12.3 5.0
2003-09-01 12.8 4.9
2003-10-01 12.2 4.9
2003-11-01 12.1 4.8
2003-12-01 11.7 4.6
2004-01-01 12.0 4.6
2004-02-01 11.7 4.5
2004-03-01 12.0 4.7
2004-04-01 11.6 4.5
2004-05-01 12.1 4.4
2004-06-01 12.0 4.5
2004-07-01 12.1 4.4
2004-08-01 11.5 4.3
2004-09-01 11.7 4.3
2004-10-01 12.1 4.2
2004-11-01 11.5 4.3
2004-12-01 11.7 4.2
2005-01-01 11.6 4.1
2005-02-01 12.4 4.2
2005-03-01 11.8 4.0
2005-04-01 11.8 4.0
2005-05-01 11.7 3.9
2005-06-01 11.1 4.0
2005-07-01 10.7 4.0
2005-08-01 11.1 3.8
2005-09-01 10.8 4.1
2005-10-01 10.8 3.9
2005-11-01 11.1 4.0
2005-12-01 10.5 3.9
2006-01-01 10.4 3.7
2006-02-01 10.8 3.7
2006-03-01 10.5 3.6
2006-04-01 10.3 3.7
2006-05-01 10.0 3.7
2006-06-01 10.4 3.6
2006-07-01 10.9 3.7
2006-08-01 10.7 3.6
2006-09-01 10.6 3.5
2006-10-01 10.6 3.3
2006-11-01 10.6 3.5
2006-12-01 10.0 3.5
2007-01-01 10.3 3.7
2007-02-01 9.9 3.6
2007-03-01 10.0 3.4
2007-04-01 10.3 3.5
2007-05-01 9.9 3.5
2007-06-01 10.6 3.5
2007-07-01 10.5 3.7
2007-08-01 10.7 3.6
2007-09-01 11.2 3.6
2007-10-01 10.7 3.7
2007-11-01 10.8 3.7
2007-12-01 11.7 3.8
2008-01-01 11.7 3.8
2008-02-01 11.4 3.8
2008-03-01 11.4 4.0
2008-04-01 11.0 4.0
2008-05-01 13.0 4.1
2008-06-01 12.9 4.3
2008-07-01 13.5 4.5
2008-08-01 13.1 4.9
2008-09-01 13.5 4.9
2008-10-01 13.6 5.3
2008-11-01 14.0 5.6
2008-12-01 14.8 6.1
2009-01-01 15.0 6.6
2009-02-01 16.0 7.1
2009-03-01 16.5 7.4
2009-04-01 16.7 7.7
2009-05-01 17.6 8.0
2009-06-01 18.0 8.1
2009-07-01 17.9 8.1
2009-08-01 18.1 8.3
2009-09-01 18.4 8.4
2009-10-01 19.1 8.6
2009-11-01 19.2 8.4
2009-12-01 18.8 8.4
2010-01-01 18.8 8.3
2010-02-01 18.7 8.4
2010-03-01 18.8 8.5
2010-04-01 19.5 8.4
2010-05-01 18.1 8.3
2010-06-01 18.2 8.1
2010-07-01 18.4 8.0
2010-08-01 17.7 8.2
2010-09-01 17.9 8.2
2010-10-01 18.7 8.1
2010-11-01 18.5 8.4
2010-12-01 17.9 8.0
2011-01-01 18.1 7.7
2011-02-01 17.7 7.6
2011-03-01 17.6 7.6
2011-04-01 17.6 7.7
2011-05-01 17.3 7.7
2011-06-01 17.1 7.9
2011-07-01 17.3 7.7
2011-08-01 17.4 7.7
2011-09-01 17.3 7.7
2011-10-01 16.7 7.6
2011-11-01 17.0 7.3
2011-12-01 16.7 7.2
2012-01-01 16.1 7.0
2012-02-01 16.5 7.0
2012-03-01 16.2 6.9
2012-04-01 16.6 6.8
2012-05-01 16.1 6.9
2012-06-01 16.2 7.0
2012-07-01 16.3 6.9
2012-08-01 16.7 6.7
2012-09-01 15.5 6.6
2012-10-01 16.0 6.5
2012-11-01 15.9 6.4
2012-12-01 16.5 6.5
2013-01-01 16.8 6.5
2013-02-01 16.3 6.3
2013-03-01 16.1 6.2
2013-04-01 16.3 6.2
2013-05-01 16.3 6.1
2013-06-01 16.0 6.2
2013-07-01 15.4 6.0
2013-08-01 15.7 5.9
2013-09-01 15.1 6.0
2013-10-01 14.8 6.0
2013-11-01 14.1 5.9
2013-12-01 13.4 5.6
2014-01-01 14.1 5.3
2014-02-01 14.5 5.4
2014-03-01 14.6 5.4
2014-04-01 13.0 5.2
2014-05-01 13.3 5.2
2014-06-01 13.1 5.0
2014-07-01 13.5 5.0
2014-08-01 13.2 5.0
2014-09-01 13.8 4.7
2014-10-01 12.6 4.7
2014-11-01 12.5 4.8
2014-12-01 12.2 4.5
2015-01-01 12.0 4.6
2015-02-01 11.8 4.5
2015-03-01 12.5 4.4
2015-04-01 11.8 4.5
2015-05-01 12.3 4.5
2015-06-01 11.9 4.2
2015-07-01 11.5 4.2
2015-08-01 11.1 4.1
2015-09-01 11.2 4.1
2015-10-01 11.0 4.1
2015-11-01 11.2 4.2
2015-12-01 11.1 4.0
2016-01-01 10.0 4.0
2016-02-01 10.5 4.0
2016-03-01 10.7 4.1
2016-04-01 11.0 4.1
2016-05-01 10.4 3.9
2016-06-01 10.5 4.0
2016-07-01 10.6 3.9
2016-08-01 10.2 4.1
2016-09-01 10.4 4.2
2016-10-01 10.6 4.0
2016-11-01 10.3 3.9
2016-12-01 10.0 3.9
2017-01-01 10.0 3.9
2017-02-01 9.8 3.9
2017-03-01 9.0 3.7
2017-04-01 9.3 3.6
2017-05-01 8.7 3.7
2017-06-01 9.1 3.6
2017-07-01 8.9 3.6
2017-08-01 8.9 3.7
2017-09-01 9.1 3.5
2017-10-01 9.2 3.4
2017-11-01 9.8 3.4
2017-12-01 9.1 3.4
2018-01-01 9.2 3.3
2018-02-01 9.0 3.4
2018-03-01 8.3 3.3
2018-04-01 8.4 3.3
2018-05-01 8.6 3.1
2018-06-01 8.8 3.2
2018-07-01 8.6 3.1
2018-08-01 8.2 3.1
2018-09-01 8.4 3.0
2018-10-01 8.5 3.1
2018-11-01 8.3 3.1
2018-12-01 8.9 3.2
2019-01-01 9.2 3.2
2019-02-01 9.1 3.0
2019-03-01 8.5 3.1
2019-04-01 8.1 2.9
2019-05-01 8.5 2.9
2019-06-01 7.9 3.0
2019-07-01 8.4 3.0
2019-08-01 8.4 2.9
2019-09-01 7.9 2.8
2019-10-01 8.0 2.9
2019-11-01 8.1 2.9
2019-12-01 8.3 2.9
2020-01-01 8.5 2.9
2020-02-01 7.9 2.9
2020-03-01 10.0 3.6
2020-04-01 27.4 13.0
2020-05-01 25.1 11.5
2020-06-01 20.4 9.7
2020-07-01 18.4 9.0
2020-08-01 14.7 7.5
2020-09-01 13.6 7.0
2020-10-01 11.8 6.2
2020-11-01 11.6 6.0
2020-12-01 12.6 5.9
2021-01-01 11.3 5.6
2021-02-01 11.0 5.6
2021-03-01 10.9 5.3
2021-04-01 10.8 5.3
2021-05-01 10.1 5.1
2021-06-01 9.7 5.4
2021-07-01 9.5 4.8
2021-08-01 9.8 4.5
2021-09-01 8.8 4.1
2021-10-01 8.5 3.9
2021-11-01 8.4 3.6
2021-12-01 8.2 3.3
2022-01-01 8.3 3.4
2022-02-01 8.3 3.2
2022-03-01 8.2 2.9
2022-04-01 7.9 3.0
2022-05-01 7.9 3.0
2022-06-01 8.1 3.0
2022-07-01 7.9 2.8
2022-08-01 8.0 3.0
2022-09-01 8.3 2.8
2022-10-01 8.1 3.0
2022-11-01 8.2 3.0
2022-12-01 8.2 2.8
2023-01-01 8.0 2.8
2023-02-01 8.1 2.9
2023-03-01 7.5 2.9
2023-04-01 6.5 2.9
2023-05-01 7.4 3.0
2023-06-01 7.5 3.0
2023-07-01 8.0 2.8
2023-08-01 8.6 3.0
2023-09-01 8.4 3.0
2023-10-01 8.8 3.1
2023-11-01 8.1 3.1
2023-12-01 8.0 3.2
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Shaded areas represent recessions.

Source: Authors' analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey public data.

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Jobs Day

Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month

date Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month
Apr-1990 61.9%
May-1990 62.6%
Jun-1990 62.0%
Jul-1990 62.0%
Aug-1990 61.6%
Sep-1990 62.3%
Oct-1990 61.0%
Nov-1990 61.2%
Dec-1990 60.4%
Jan-1991 59.9%
Feb-1991 59.0%
Mar-1991 58.5%
Apr-1991 57.7%
May-1991 57.6%
Jun-1991 57.2%
Jul-1991 58.0%
Aug-1991 57.8%
Sep-1991 57.7%
Oct-1991 57.3%
Nov-1991 56.9%
Dec-1991 57.0%
Jan-1992 56.8%
Feb-1992 57.1%
Mar-1992 57.1%
Apr-1992 57.2%
May-1992 57.3%
Jun-1992 56.6%
Jul-1992 56.4%
Aug-1992 56.1%
Sep-1992 55.9%
Oct-1992 55.7%
Nov-1992 55.8%
Dec-1992 56.1%
Jan-1993 56.6%
Feb-1993 57.7%
Mar-1993 58.3%
Apr-1993 58.4%
May-1993 58.2%
Jun-1993 58.1%
Jul-1993 57.5%
Aug-1993 57.5%
Sep-1993 58.0%
Oct-1993 58.9%
Nov-1993 58.5%
Dec-1993 58.3%
Jan-1994 58.8%
Feb-1994 59.2%
Mar-1994 59.1%
Apr-1994 58.7%
May-1994 58.3%
Jun-1994 58.5%
Jul-1994 58.6%
Aug-1994 59.0%
Sep-1994 59.1%
Oct-1994 59.8%
Nov-1994 60.1%
Dec-1994 60.3%
Jan-1995 60.4%
Feb-1995 59.5%
Mar-1995 59.7%
Apr-1995 59.7%
May-1995 59.2%
Jun-1995 59.5%
Jul-1995 59.5%
Aug-1995 60.0%
Sep-1995 60.2%
Oct-1995 59.9%
Nov-1995 60.6%
Dec-1995 59.9%
Jan-1996 59.8%
Feb-1996 60.3%
Mar-1996 60.7%
Apr-1996 61.0%
May-1996 60.7%
Jun-1996 60.8%
Jul-1996 61.5%
Aug-1996 60.8%
Sep-1996 60.9%
Oct-1996 60.2%
Nov-1996 60.6%
Dec-1996 59.6%
Jan-1997 59.1%
Feb-1997 58.9%
Mar-1997 60.3%
Apr-1997 61.4%
May-1997 61.8%
Jun-1997 61.1%
Jul-1997 60.4%
Aug-1997 61.3%
Sep-1997 61.9%
Oct-1997 62.5%
Nov-1997 62.7%
Dec-1997 62.8%
Jan-1998 63.3%
Feb-1998 62.7%
Mar-1998 62.9%
Apr-1998 62.4%
May-1998 63.5%
Jun-1998 63.2%
Jul-1998 64.2%
Aug-1998 64.0%
Sep-1998 65.2%
Oct-1998 65.1%
Nov-1998 65.1%
Dec-1998 64.9%
Jan-1999 65.6%
Feb-1999 65.5%
Mar-1999 64.2%
Apr-1999 65.3%
May-1999 66.1%
Jun-1999 67.4%
Jul-1999 66.4%
Aug-1999 65.7%
Sep-1999 65.3%
Oct-1999 65.5%
Nov-1999 65.3%
Dec-1999 65.1%
Jan-2000 64.4%
Feb-2000 65.4%
Mar-2000 65.7%
Apr-2000 65.9%
May-2000 65.6%
Jun-2000 65.9%
Jul-2000 65.4%
Aug-2000 65.5%
Sep-2000 65.6%
Oct-2000 66.5%
Nov-2000 67.4%
Dec-2000 68.1%
Jan-2001 69.0%
Feb-2001 68.6%
Mar-2001 67.9%
Apr-2001 66.9%
May-2001 65.8%
Jun-2001 65.3%
Jul-2001 65.7%
Aug-2001 66.2%
Sep-2001 66.6%
Oct-2001 65.5%
Nov-2001 64.4%
Dec-2001 62.9%
Jan-2002 62.6%
Feb-2002 62.3%
Mar-2002 61.7%
Apr-2002 61.9%
May-2002 62.8%
Jun-2002 64.4%
Jul-2002 64.5%
Aug-2002 64.0%
Sep-2002 63.1%
Oct-2002 63.1%
Nov-2002 63.7%
Dec-2002 64.1%
Jan-2003 64.2%
Feb-2003 64.2%
Mar-2003 64.5%
Apr-2003 64.3%
May-2003 63.7%
Jun-2003 63.5%
Jul-2003 63.1%
Aug-2003 63.2%
Sep-2003 63.4%
Oct-2003 64.3%
Nov-2003 64.7%
Dec-2003 63.7%
Jan-2004 63.6%
Feb-2004 63.4%
Mar-2004 64.9%
Apr-2004 64.3%
May-2004 64.3%
Jun-2004 63.7%
Jul-2004 64.2%
Aug-2004 64.5%
Sep-2004 64.1%
Oct-2004 64.2%
Nov-2004 64.0%
Dec-2004 64.4%
Jan-2005 64.6%
Feb-2005 64.8%
Mar-2005 64.9%
Apr-2005 65.1%
May-2005 65.8%
Jun-2005 66.1%
Jul-2005 66.6%
Aug-2005 65.9%
Sep-2005 66.5%
Oct-2005 66.2%
Nov-2005 66.0%
Dec-2005 65.9%
Jan-2006 65.8%
Feb-2006 67.3%
Mar-2006 67.3%
Apr-2006 67.6%
May-2006 67.3%
Jun-2006 67.2%
Jul-2006 66.7%
Aug-2006 66.4%
Sep-2006 65.9%
Oct-2006 66.9%
Nov-2006 67.6%
Dec-2006 68.3%
Jan-2007 68.0%
Feb-2007 67.0%
Mar-2007 66.5%
Apr-2007 65.8%
May-2007 66.2%
Jun-2007 67.6%
Jul-2007 67.7%
Aug-2007 67.6%
Sep-2007 66.9%
Oct-2007 67.0%
Nov-2007 67.5%
Dec-2007 66.6%
Jan-2008 66.4%
Feb-2008 65.4%
Mar-2008 65.6%
Apr-2008 64.7%
May-2008 65.1%
Jun-2008 64.9%
Jul-2008 65.3%
Aug-2008 64.2%
Sep-2008 62.9%
Oct-2008 62.1%
Nov-2008 61.9%
Dec-2008 62.3%
Jan-2009 62.2%
Feb-2009 61.6%
Mar-2009 60.8%
Apr-2009 59.8%
May-2009 59.6%
Jun-2009 58.3%
Jul-2009 57.5%
Aug-2009 57.0%
Sep-2009 56.8%
Oct-2009 57.6%
Nov-2009 56.7%
Dec-2009 57.7%
Jan-2010 57.9%
Feb-2010 58.8%
Mar-2010 58.7%
Apr-2010 57.4%
May-2010 56.4%
Jun-2010 56.6%
Jul-2010 57.2%
Aug-2010 58.4%
Sep-2010 58.8%
Oct-2010 58.9%
Nov-2010 58.9%
Dec-2010 58.4%
Jan-2011 59.1%
Feb-2011 59.5%
Mar-2011 60.1%
Apr-2011 60.4%
May-2011 60.2%
Jun-2011 59.7%
Jul-2011 59.8%
Aug-2011 59.6%
Sep-2011 60.6%
Oct-2011 59.8%
Nov-2011 59.8%
Dec-2011 59.1%
Jan-2012 59.2%
Feb-2012 59.1%
Mar-2012 59.4%
Apr-2012 60.3%
May-2012 60.9%
Jun-2012 61.6%
Jul-2012 61.8%
Aug-2012 62.3%
Sep-2012 62.3%
Oct-2012 62.0%
Nov-2012 61.8%
Dec-2012 62.5%
Jan-2013 62.2%
Feb-2013 61.5%
Mar-2013 61.6%
Apr-2013 63.1%
May-2013 63.5%
Jun-2013 63.2%
Jul-2013 62.3%
Aug-2013 62.9%
Sep-2013 63.5%
Oct-2013 64.3%
Nov-2013 64.1%
Dec-2013 63.6%
Jan-2014 63.9%
Feb-2014 63.6%
Mar-2014 63.9%
Apr-2014 62.8%
May-2014 64.2%
Jun-2014 64.5%
Jul-2014 66.0%
Aug-2014 65.5%
Sep-2014 65.3%
Oct-2014 64.9%
Nov-2014 65.3%
Dec-2014 65.8%
Jan-2015 67.2%
Feb-2015 67.8%
Mar-2015 68.5%
Apr-2015 68.1%
May-2015 68.5%
Jun-2015 68.1%
Jul-2015 68.9%
Aug-2015 68.6%
Sep-2015 68.8%
Oct-2015 68.7%
Nov-2015 68.5%
Dec-2015 69.0%
Jan-2016 68.7%
Feb-2016 70.2%
Mar-2016 71.2%
Apr-2016 71.2%
May-2016 69.5%
Jun-2016 68.6%
Jul-2016 68.6%
Aug-2016 69.5%
Sep-2016 69.1%
Oct-2016 67.9%
Nov-2016 67.4%
Dec-2016 68.6%
Jan-2017 69.5%
Feb-2017 69.5%
Mar-2017 69.6%
Apr-2017 70.0%
May-2017 70.2%
Jun-2017 70.5%
Jul-2017 70.1%
Aug-2017 70.7%
Sep-2017 70.3%
Oct-2017 70.2%
Nov-2017 70.2%
Dec-2017 70.2%
Jan-2018 71.2%
Feb-2018 71.4%
Mar-2018 71.5%
Apr-2018 71.5%
May-2018 71.5%
Jun-2018 72.3%
Jul-2018 72.8%
Aug-2018 72.8%
Sep-2018 72.8%
Oct-2018 72.4%
Nov-2018 72.6%
Dec-2018 72.5%
Jan-2019 72.4%
Feb-2019 72.5%
Mar-2019 72.0%
Apr-2019 72.4%
May-2019 73.1%
Jun-2019 73.8%
Jul-2019 74.2%
Aug-2019 73.7%
Sep-2019 73.6%
Oct-2019 74.1%
Nov-2019 74.4%
Dec-2019 74.2%
Jan-2020 73.1%
Feb-2020 72.6%
Mar-2020 73.0%
Apr-2020 73.0%
May-2020 62.3%
Jun-2020 50.2%
Jul-2020 41.2%
Aug-2020 44.3%
Sep-2020 50.2%
Oct-2020 54.4%
Nov-2020 58.3%
Dec-2020 61.6%
Jan-2021 62.7%
Feb-2021 63.1%
Mar-2021 63.5%
Apr-2021 65.3%
May-2021 66.5%
Jun-2021 67.1%
Jul-2021 67.5%
Aug-2021 67.8%
Sep-2021 68.3%
Oct-2021 69.1%
Nov-2021 70.1%
Dec-2021 70.4%
Jan-2022 71.0%
Feb-2022 70.7%
Mar-2022 71.1%
Apr-2022 71.7%
May-2022 72.8%
Jun-2022 73.1%
Jul-2022 72.5%
Aug-2022 72.3%
Sep-2022 72.7%
Oct-2022 73.7%
Nov-2022 73.5%
Dec-2022 73.6%
Jan-2023 73.9%
Feb-2023 74.9%
Mar-2023 74.9%
Apr-2023 74.4%
May-2023 74.4%
Jun-2023 74.6%
Jul-2023 73.9%
Aug-2023 73.9%
Sep-2023 72.9%
Oct-2023 72.8%
Nov-2023 71.6%
Dec-2023 70.9%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Labor Force Flows: Unemployed to Employed (16 Years and Over) [LNS17100000], and Not in Labor Force to Employed (16 years and over) [LNS17200000]. Because of volatility in these data, the line reflects a three month moving averages.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series.

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Economic indicators

Number of workers at each level of unemployment duration, by month, February 2020–December 2023

date Less than 5 weeks 5–14 weeks 15–26 weeks 27–51 weeks 52 weeks and over
Feb 20 2,105 1,785 766 408 717
Mar 20 3,422 1,860 836 290 792
Apr 20 14,261 7,066 713 453 512
May 20 3,868 14,806 1,077 587 537
Jun 20 2,896 11,522 1,923 731 624
Jul 20 3,152 5,145 6,498 781 737
Aug 20 2,336 3,105 6,491 875 778
Sep 20 2,547 2,735 4,921 1611 836
Oct 20 2,466 2,342 2,624 2785 815
Nov 20 2,487 2,440 1,878 3067 870
Dec 20 2,902 2,344 1,590 3083 872
Jan 21 2,291 2,474 1,321 3080 975
Feb 21 2,216 2,214 1,399 2900 1218
Mar 21 2,179 1,991 1,386 1862 2312
Apr 21 2,409 1,992 1,256 1525 2528
May 21 1,998 2,181 1,240 1275 2482
Jun 21 1,985 2,188 1,387 1342 2591
Jul 21 2,257 1,836 1,134 1229 2279
Aug 21 2,103 1,914 1,206 966 2189
Sep 21 2,238 1,720 979 825 1917
Oct 21 2,049 1,875 969 669 1714
Nov 21 1,988 1,682 880 621 1570
Dec 21 1,974 1,595 823 555 1413
Jan 22 2,472 1,611 786 432 1283
Feb 22 2,145 1,768 803 349 1266
Mar 22 2,305 1,723 567 338 1084
Apr 22 2,277 1,608 647 351 1003
May 22 2,030 1,757 696 411 922
Jun 22 2,240 1,536 816 426 870
Jul 22 2,097 1,849 656 342 824
Aug 22 2,214 1,828 864 371 810
Sep 22 2,156 1,619 822 468 696
Oct 22 2,189 1,803 775 454 762
Nov 22 2,247 1,665 815 439 790
Dec 22 2,218 1,645 792 464 642
Jan 23 1,942 1,795 929 349 724
Feb 23 2,294 1,838 812 400 651
Mar 23 2,279 1,765 797 360 690
Apr 23 1,867 1,920 748 390 699
May 23 2,080 1,863 911 412 720
Jun 23 2,065 1,850 905 445 672
Jul 23 2,007 1,741 956 515 690
Aug 23 2,224 1,913 970 573 753
Sep 23 2,053 2,043 985 569 734
Oct 23 2,269 1,836 1,079 525 766
Nov 23 2,069 2,060 931 593 627
Dec 23 2,191 1,791 1,104 533 712
ChartData Download data

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Notes: Data are seasonally adjusted. Seasonally adjusted data for Less than 5 weeks, 5-14 weeks, 15-26 weeks, and 27+ weeks are provided by BLS. Seasonally adjusted data are not available for 52+ so we applied the ratio of not-seasonally adjusted 52+ to not-seasonally adjusted 27+ to the seasonally adjusted 27+ to impute a seasonally adjusted 52+. Seasonally adjusted data for 27-51 is estimated as the difference between our estimated 52+ seasonally adjust data and the 27+ seasonally adjusted data.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series.

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Longer-term labor market trends

Jobs day

Monthly change in payroll employment, 2007–2023

date Change in Employment
Jan-2007 223
Feb-2007 78
Mar-2007 227
Apr-2007 62
May-2007 150
Jun-2007 79
Jul-2007 -30
Aug-2007 -25
Sep-2007 86
Oct-2007 71
Nov-2007 118
Dec-2007 106
Jan-2008 1
Feb-2008 -76
Mar-2008 -68
Apr-2008 -217
May-2008 -191
Jun-2008 -158
Jul-2008 -197
Aug-2008 -283
Sep-2008 -451
Oct-2008 -464
Nov-2008 -748
Dec-2008 -697
Jan-2009 -780
Feb-2009 -758
Mar-2009 -818
Apr-2009 -668
May-2009 -355
Jun-2009 -468
Jul-2009 -341
Aug-2009 -181
Sep-2009 -240
Oct-2009 -178
Nov-2009 -3
Dec-2009 -251
Jan-2010 -10
Feb-2010 -98
Mar-2010 164
Apr-2010 251
May-2010 530
Jun-2010 -144
Jul-2010 -81
Aug-2010 4
Sep-2010 -85
Oct-2010 281
Nov-2010 134
Dec-2010 81
Jan-2011 7
Feb-2011 210
Mar-2011 225
Apr-2011 327
May-2011 100
Jun-2011 232
Jul-2011 55
Aug-2011 133
Sep-2011 221
Oct-2011 212
Nov-2011 144
Dec-2011 200
Jan-2012 345
Feb-2012 272
Mar-2012 226
Apr-2012 83
May-2012 108
Jun-2012 72
Jul-2012 146
Aug-2012 177
Sep-2012 182
Oct-2012 159
Nov-2012 163
Dec-2012 241
Jan-2013 190
Feb-2013 279
Mar-2013 145
Apr-2013 187
May-2013 215
Jun-2013 178
Jul-2013 122
Aug-2013 244
Sep-2013 184
Oct-2013 220
Nov-2013 275
Dec-2013 54
Jan-2014 184
Feb-2014 155
Mar-2014 279
Apr-2014 312
May-2014 203
Jun-2014 332
Jul-2014 243
Aug-2014 182
Sep-2014 305
Oct-2014 242
Nov-2014 284
Dec-2014 277
Jan-2015 196
Feb-2015 267
Mar-2015 95
Apr-2015 278
May-2015 338
Jun-2015 155
Jul-2015 294
Aug-2015 141
Sep-2015 135
Oct-2015 320
Nov-2015 225
Dec-2015 273
Jan-2016 115
Feb-2016 212
Mar-2016 256
Apr-2016 190
May-2016 45
Jun-2016 251
Jul-2016 363
Aug-2016 149
Sep-2016 297
Oct-2016 108
Nov-2016 120
Dec-2016 219
Jan-2017 231
Feb-2017 206
Mar-2017 130
Apr-2017 197
May-2017 217
Jun-2017 199
Jul-2017 184
Aug-2017 135
Sep-2017 92
Oct-2017 148
Nov-2017 230
Dec-2017 144
Jan-2018 149
Feb-2018 388
Mar-2018 223
Apr-2018 145
May-2018 329
Jun-2018 211
Jul-2018 56
Aug-2018 250
Sep-2018 89
Oct-2018 165
Nov-2018 96
Dec-2018 183
Jan-2019 309
Feb-2019 -22
Mar-2019 228
Apr-2019 243
May-2019 67
Jun-2019 167
Jul-2019 82
Aug-2019 232
Sep-2019 207
Oct-2019 129
Nov-2019 215
Dec-2019 102
Jan-2020 334
Feb-2020 273
Mar-2020 -1427
Apr-2020 -20514
May-2020 2625
Jun-2020 4565
Jul-2020 1444
Aug-2020 1735
Sep-2020 961
Oct-2020 719
Nov-2020 264
Dec-2020 -268
Jan-2021 494
Feb-2021 575
Mar-2021 784
Apr-2021 286
May-2021 482
Jun-2021 693
Jul-2021 769
Aug-2021 663
Sep-2021 557
Oct-2021 781
Nov-2021 614
Dec-2021 569
Jan-2022 364
Feb-2022 904
Mar-2022 414
Apr-2022 254
May-2022 364
Jun-2022 370
Jul-2022 568
Aug-2022 352
Sep-2022 350
Oct-2022 324
Nov-2022 290
Dec-2022 239
Jan-2023 472
Feb-2023 248
Mar-2023 217
Apr-2023 217
May-2023 281
Jun-2023 105
Jul-2023 236
Aug-2023 165
Sept-2023 262
Oct-2023 105
Nov-2023 173
Dec-2023 216

 

ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series. 

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Jobs Day

Unemployment rate, 1948–2023

date Unemployment Rate
Jan-1948 3.40%
Feb-1948 3.80%
Mar-1948 4.00%
Apr-1948 3.90%
May-1948 3.50%
Jun-1948 3.60%
Jul-1948 3.60%
Aug-1948 3.90%
Sep-1948 3.80%
Oct-1948 3.70%
Nov-1948 3.80%
Dec-1948 4.00%
Jan-1949 4.30%
Feb-1949 4.70%
Mar-1949 5.00%
Apr-1949 5.30%
May-1949 6.10%
Jun-1949 6.20%
Jul-1949 6.70%
Aug-1949 6.80%
Sep-1949 6.60%
Oct-1949 7.90%
Nov-1949 6.40%
Dec-1949 6.60%
Jan-1950 6.50%
Feb-1950 6.40%
Mar-1950 6.30%
Apr-1950 5.80%
May-1950 5.50%
Jun-1950 5.40%
Jul-1950 5.00%
Aug-1950 4.50%
Sep-1950 4.40%
Oct-1950 4.20%
Nov-1950 4.20%
Dec-1950 4.30%
Jan-1951 3.70%
Feb-1951 3.40%
Mar-1951 3.40%
Apr-1951 3.10%
May-1951 3.00%
Jun-1951 3.20%
Jul-1951 3.10%
Aug-1951 3.10%
Sep-1951 3.30%
Oct-1951 3.50%
Nov-1951 3.50%
Dec-1951 3.10%
Jan-1952 3.20%
Feb-1952 3.10%
Mar-1952 2.90%
Apr-1952 2.90%
May-1952 3.00%
Jun-1952 3.00%
Jul-1952 3.20%
Aug-1952 3.40%
Sep-1952 3.10%
Oct-1952 3.00%
Nov-1952 2.80%
Dec-1952 2.70%
Jan-1953 2.90%
Feb-1953 2.60%
Mar-1953 2.60%
Apr-1953 2.70%
May-1953 2.50%
Jun-1953 2.50%
Jul-1953 2.60%
Aug-1953 2.70%
Sep-1953 2.90%
Oct-1953 3.10%
Nov-1953 3.50%
Dec-1953 4.50%
Jan-1954 4.90%
Feb-1954 5.20%
Mar-1954 5.70%
Apr-1954 5.90%
May-1954 5.90%
Jun-1954 5.60%
Jul-1954 5.80%
Aug-1954 6.00%
Sep-1954 6.10%
Oct-1954 5.70%
Nov-1954 5.30%
Dec-1954 5.00%
Jan-1955 4.90%
Feb-1955 4.70%
Mar-1955 4.60%
Apr-1955 4.70%
May-1955 4.30%
Jun-1955 4.20%
Jul-1955 4.00%
Aug-1955 4.20%
Sep-1955 4.10%
Oct-1955 4.30%
Nov-1955 4.20%
Dec-1955 4.20%
Jan-1956 4.00%
Feb-1956 3.90%
Mar-1956 4.20%
Apr-1956 4.00%
May-1956 4.30%
Jun-1956 4.30%
Jul-1956 4.40%
Aug-1956 4.10%
Sep-1956 3.90%
Oct-1956 3.90%
Nov-1956 4.30%
Dec-1956 4.20%
Jan-1957 4.20%
Feb-1957 3.90%
Mar-1957 3.70%
Apr-1957 3.90%
May-1957 4.10%
Jun-1957 4.30%
Jul-1957 4.20%
Aug-1957 4.10%
Sep-1957 4.40%
Oct-1957 4.50%
Nov-1957 5.10%
Dec-1957 5.20%
Jan-1958 5.80%
Feb-1958 6.40%
Mar-1958 6.70%
Apr-1958 7.40%
May-1958 7.40%
Jun-1958 7.30%
Jul-1958 7.50%
Aug-1958 7.40%
Sep-1958 7.10%
Oct-1958 6.70%
Nov-1958 6.20%
Dec-1958 6.20%
Jan-1959 6.00%
Feb-1959 5.90%
Mar-1959 5.60%
Apr-1959 5.20%
May-1959 5.10%
Jun-1959 5.00%
Jul-1959 5.10%
Aug-1959 5.20%
Sep-1959 5.50%
Oct-1959 5.70%
Nov-1959 5.80%
Dec-1959 5.30%
Jan-1960 5.20%
Feb-1960 4.80%
Mar-1960 5.40%
Apr-1960 5.20%
May-1960 5.10%
Jun-1960 5.40%
Jul-1960 5.50%
Aug-1960 5.60%
Sep-1960 5.50%
Oct-1960 6.10%
Nov-1960 6.10%
Dec-1960 6.60%
Jan-1961 6.60%
Feb-1961 6.90%
Mar-1961 6.90%
Apr-1961 7.00%
May-1961 7.10%
Jun-1961 6.90%
Jul-1961 7.00%
Aug-1961 6.60%
Sep-1961 6.70%
Oct-1961 6.50%
Nov-1961 6.10%
Dec-1961 6.00%
Jan-1962 5.80%
Feb-1962 5.50%
Mar-1962 5.60%
Apr-1962 5.60%
May-1962 5.50%
Jun-1962 5.50%
Jul-1962 5.40%
Aug-1962 5.70%
Sep-1962 5.60%
Oct-1962 5.40%
Nov-1962 5.70%
Dec-1962 5.50%
Jan-1963 5.70%
Feb-1963 5.90%
Mar-1963 5.70%
Apr-1963 5.70%
May-1963 5.90%
Jun-1963 5.60%
Jul-1963 5.60%
Aug-1963 5.40%
Sep-1963 5.50%
Oct-1963 5.50%
Nov-1963 5.70%
Dec-1963 5.50%
Jan-1964 5.60%
Feb-1964 5.40%
Mar-1964 5.40%
Apr-1964 5.30%
May-1964 5.10%
Jun-1964 5.20%
Jul-1964 4.90%
Aug-1964 5.00%
Sep-1964 5.10%
Oct-1964 5.10%
Nov-1964 4.80%
Dec-1964 5.00%
Jan-1965 4.90%
Feb-1965 5.10%
Mar-1965 4.70%
Apr-1965 4.80%
May-1965 4.60%
Jun-1965 4.60%
Jul-1965 4.40%
Aug-1965 4.40%
Sep-1965 4.30%
Oct-1965 4.20%
Nov-1965 4.10%
Dec-1965 4.00%
Jan-1966 4.00%
Feb-1966 3.80%
Mar-1966 3.80%
Apr-1966 3.80%
May-1966 3.90%
Jun-1966 3.80%
Jul-1966 3.80%
Aug-1966 3.80%
Sep-1966 3.70%
Oct-1966 3.70%
Nov-1966 3.60%
Dec-1966 3.80%
Jan-1967 3.90%
Feb-1967 3.80%
Mar-1967 3.80%
Apr-1967 3.80%
May-1967 3.80%
Jun-1967 3.90%
Jul-1967 3.80%
Aug-1967 3.80%
Sep-1967 3.80%
Oct-1967 4.00%
Nov-1967 3.90%
Dec-1967 3.80%
Jan-1968 3.70%
Feb-1968 3.80%
Mar-1968 3.70%
Apr-1968 3.50%
May-1968 3.50%
Jun-1968 3.70%
Jul-1968 3.70%
Aug-1968 3.50%
Sep-1968 3.40%
Oct-1968 3.40%
Nov-1968 3.40%
Dec-1968 3.40%
Jan-1969 3.40%
Feb-1969 3.40%
Mar-1969 3.40%
Apr-1969 3.40%
May-1969 3.40%
Jun-1969 3.50%
Jul-1969 3.50%
Aug-1969 3.50%
Sep-1969 3.70%
Oct-1969 3.70%
Nov-1969 3.50%
Dec-1969 3.50%
Jan-1970 3.90%
Feb-1970 4.20%
Mar-1970 4.40%
Apr-1970 4.60%
May-1970 4.80%
Jun-1970 4.90%
Jul-1970 5.00%
Aug-1970 5.10%
Sep-1970 5.40%
Oct-1970 5.50%
Nov-1970 5.90%
Dec-1970 6.10%
Jan-1971 5.90%
Feb-1971 5.90%
Mar-1971 6.00%
Apr-1971 5.90%
May-1971 5.90%
Jun-1971 5.90%
Jul-1971 6.00%
Aug-1971 6.10%
Sep-1971 6.00%
Oct-1971 5.80%
Nov-1971 6.00%
Dec-1971 6.00%
Jan-1972 5.80%
Feb-1972 5.70%
Mar-1972 5.80%
Apr-1972 5.70%
May-1972 5.70%
Jun-1972 5.70%
Jul-1972 5.60%
Aug-1972 5.60%
Sep-1972 5.50%
Oct-1972 5.60%
Nov-1972 5.30%
Dec-1972 5.20%
Jan-1973 4.90%
Feb-1973 5.00%
Mar-1973 4.90%
Apr-1973 5.00%
May-1973 4.90%
Jun-1973 4.90%
Jul-1973 4.80%
Aug-1973 4.80%
Sep-1973 4.80%
Oct-1973 4.60%
Nov-1973 4.80%
Dec-1973 4.90%
Jan-1974 5.10%
Feb-1974 5.20%
Mar-1974 5.10%
Apr-1974 5.10%
May-1974 5.10%
Jun-1974 5.40%
Jul-1974 5.50%
Aug-1974 5.50%
Sep-1974 5.90%
Oct-1974 6.00%
Nov-1974 6.60%
Dec-1974 7.20%
Jan-1975 8.10%
Feb-1975 8.10%
Mar-1975 8.60%
Apr-1975 8.80%
May-1975 9.00%
Jun-1975 8.80%
Jul-1975 8.60%
Aug-1975 8.40%
Sep-1975 8.40%
Oct-1975 8.40%
Nov-1975 8.30%
Dec-1975 8.20%
Jan-1976 7.90%
Feb-1976 7.70%
Mar-1976 7.60%
Apr-1976 7.70%
May-1976 7.40%
Jun-1976 7.60%
Jul-1976 7.80%
Aug-1976 7.80%
Sep-1976 7.60%
Oct-1976 7.70%
Nov-1976 7.80%
Dec-1976 7.80%
Jan-1977 7.50%
Feb-1977 7.60%
Mar-1977 7.40%
Apr-1977 7.20%
May-1977 7.00%
Jun-1977 7.20%
Jul-1977 6.90%
Aug-1977 7.00%
Sep-1977 6.80%
Oct-1977 6.80%
Nov-1977 6.80%
Dec-1977 6.40%
Jan-1978 6.40%
Feb-1978 6.30%
Mar-1978 6.30%
Apr-1978 6.10%
May-1978 6.00%
Jun-1978 5.90%
Jul-1978 6.20%
Aug-1978 5.90%
Sep-1978 6.00%
Oct-1978 5.80%
Nov-1978 5.90%
Dec-1978 6.00%
Jan-1979 5.90%
Feb-1979 5.90%
Mar-1979 5.80%
Apr-1979 5.80%
May-1979 5.60%
Jun-1979 5.70%
Jul-1979 5.70%
Aug-1979 6.00%
Sep-1979 5.90%
Oct-1979 6.00%
Nov-1979 5.90%
Dec-1979 6.00%
Jan-1980 6.30%
Feb-1980 6.30%
Mar-1980 6.30%
Apr-1980 6.90%
May-1980 7.50%
Jun-1980 7.60%
Jul-1980 7.80%
Aug-1980 7.70%
Sep-1980 7.50%
Oct-1980 7.50%
Nov-1980 7.50%
Dec-1980 7.20%
Jan-1981 7.50%
Feb-1981 7.40%
Mar-1981 7.40%
Apr-1981 7.20%
May-1981 7.50%
Jun-1981 7.50%
Jul-1981 7.20%
Aug-1981 7.40%
Sep-1981 7.60%
Oct-1981 7.90%
Nov-1981 8.30%
Dec-1981 8.50%
Jan-1982 8.60%
Feb-1982 8.90%
Mar-1982 9.00%
Apr-1982 9.30%
May-1982 9.40%
Jun-1982 9.60%
Jul-1982 9.80%
Aug-1982 9.80%
Sep-1982 10.10%
Oct-1982 10.40%
Nov-1982 10.80%
Dec-1982 10.80%
Jan-1983 10.40%
Feb-1983 10.40%
Mar-1983 10.30%
Apr-1983 10.20%
May-1983 10.10%
Jun-1983 10.10%
Jul-1983 9.40%
Aug-1983 9.50%
Sep-1983 9.20%
Oct-1983 8.80%
Nov-1983 8.50%
Dec-1983 8.30%
Jan-1984 8.00%
Feb-1984 7.80%
Mar-1984 7.80%
Apr-1984 7.70%
May-1984 7.40%
Jun-1984 7.20%
Jul-1984 7.50%
Aug-1984 7.50%
Sep-1984 7.30%
Oct-1984 7.40%
Nov-1984 7.20%
Dec-1984 7.30%
Jan-1985 7.30%
Feb-1985 7.20%
Mar-1985 7.20%
Apr-1985 7.30%
May-1985 7.20%
Jun-1985 7.40%
Jul-1985 7.40%
Aug-1985 7.10%
Sep-1985 7.10%
Oct-1985 7.10%
Nov-1985 7.00%
Dec-1985 7.00%
Jan-1986 6.70%
Feb-1986 7.20%
Mar-1986 7.20%
Apr-1986 7.10%
May-1986 7.20%
Jun-1986 7.20%
Jul-1986 7.00%
Aug-1986 6.90%
Sep-1986 7.00%
Oct-1986 7.00%
Nov-1986 6.90%
Dec-1986 6.60%
Jan-1987 6.60%
Feb-1987 6.60%
Mar-1987 6.60%
Apr-1987 6.30%
May-1987 6.30%
Jun-1987 6.20%
Jul-1987 6.10%
Aug-1987 6.00%
Sep-1987 5.90%
Oct-1987 6.00%
Nov-1987 5.80%
Dec-1987 5.70%
Jan-1988 5.70%
Feb-1988 5.70%
Mar-1988 5.70%
Apr-1988 5.40%
May-1988 5.60%
Jun-1988 5.40%
Jul-1988 5.40%
Aug-1988 5.60%
Sep-1988 5.40%
Oct-1988 5.40%
Nov-1988 5.30%
Dec-1988 5.30%
Jan-1989 5.40%
Feb-1989 5.20%
Mar-1989 5.00%
Apr-1989 5.20%
May-1989 5.20%
Jun-1989 5.30%
Jul-1989 5.20%
Aug-1989 5.20%
Sep-1989 5.30%
Oct-1989 5.30%
Nov-1989 5.40%
Dec-1989 5.40%
Jan-1990 5.40%
Feb-1990 5.30%
Mar-1990 5.20%
Apr-1990 5.40%
May-1990 5.40%
Jun-1990 5.20%
Jul-1990 5.50%
Aug-1990 5.70%
Sep-1990 5.90%
Oct-1990 5.90%
Nov-1990 6.20%
Dec-1990 6.30%
Jan-1991 6.40%
Feb-1991 6.60%
Mar-1991 6.80%
Apr-1991 6.70%
May-1991 6.90%
Jun-1991 6.90%
Jul-1991 6.80%
Aug-1991 6.90%
Sep-1991 6.90%
Oct-1991 7.00%
Nov-1991 7.00%
Dec-1991 7.30%
Jan-1992 7.30%
Feb-1992 7.40%
Mar-1992 7.40%
Apr-1992 7.40%
May-1992 7.60%
Jun-1992 7.80%
Jul-1992 7.70%
Aug-1992 7.60%
Sep-1992 7.60%
Oct-1992 7.30%
Nov-1992 7.40%
Dec-1992 7.40%
Jan-1993 7.30%
Feb-1993 7.10%
Mar-1993 7.00%
Apr-1993 7.10%
May-1993 7.10%
Jun-1993 7.00%
Jul-1993 6.90%
Aug-1993 6.80%
Sep-1993 6.70%
Oct-1993 6.80%
Nov-1993 6.60%
Dec-1993 6.50%
Jan-1994 6.60%
Feb-1994 6.60%
Mar-1994 6.50%
Apr-1994 6.40%
May-1994 6.10%
Jun-1994 6.10%
Jul-1994 6.10%
Aug-1994 6.00%
Sep-1994 5.90%
Oct-1994 5.80%
Nov-1994 5.60%
Dec-1994 5.50%
Jan-1995 5.60%
Feb-1995 5.40%
Mar-1995 5.40%
Apr-1995 5.80%
May-1995 5.60%
Jun-1995 5.60%
Jul-1995 5.70%
Aug-1995 5.70%
Sep-1995 5.60%
Oct-1995 5.50%
Nov-1995 5.60%
Dec-1995 5.60%
Jan-1996 5.60%
Feb-1996 5.50%
Mar-1996 5.50%
Apr-1996 5.60%
May-1996 5.60%
Jun-1996 5.30%
Jul-1996 5.50%
Aug-1996 5.10%
Sep-1996 5.20%
Oct-1996 5.20%
Nov-1996 5.40%
Dec-1996 5.40%
Jan-1997 5.30%
Feb-1997 5.20%
Mar-1997 5.20%
Apr-1997 5.10%
May-1997 4.90%
Jun-1997 5.00%
Jul-1997 4.90%
Aug-1997 4.80%
Sep-1997 4.90%
Oct-1997 4.70%
Nov-1997 4.60%
Dec-1997 4.70%
Jan-1998 4.60%
Feb-1998 4.60%
Mar-1998 4.70%
Apr-1998 4.30%
May-1998 4.40%
Jun-1998 4.50%
Jul-1998 4.50%
Aug-1998 4.50%
Sep-1998 4.60%
Oct-1998 4.50%
Nov-1998 4.40%
Dec-1998 4.40%
Jan-1999 4.30%
Feb-1999 4.40%
Mar-1999 4.20%
Apr-1999 4.30%
May-1999 4.20%
Jun-1999 4.30%
Jul-1999 4.30%
Aug-1999 4.20%
Sep-1999 4.20%
Oct-1999 4.10%
Nov-1999 4.10%
Dec-1999 4.00%
Jan-2000 4.00%
Feb-2000 4.10%
Mar-2000 4.00%
Apr-2000 3.80%
May-2000 4.00%
Jun-2000 4.00%
Jul-2000 4.00%
Aug-2000 4.10%
Sep-2000 3.90%
Oct-2000 3.90%
Nov-2000 3.90%
Dec-2000 3.90%
Jan-2001 4.20%
Feb-2001 4.20%
Mar-2001 4.30%
Apr-2001 4.40%
May-2001 4.30%
Jun-2001 4.50%
Jul-2001 4.60%
Aug-2001 4.90%
Sep-2001 5.00%
Oct-2001 5.30%
Nov-2001 5.50%
Dec-2001 5.70%
Jan-2002 5.70%
Feb-2002 5.70%
Mar-2002 5.70%
Apr-2002 5.90%
May-2002 5.80%
Jun-2002 5.80%
Jul-2002 5.80%
Aug-2002 5.70%
Sep-2002 5.70%
Oct-2002 5.70%
Nov-2002 5.90%
Dec-2002 6.00%
Jan-2003 5.80%
Feb-2003 5.90%
Mar-2003 5.90%
Apr-2003 6.00%
May-2003 6.10%
Jun-2003 6.30%
Jul-2003 6.20%
Aug-2003 6.10%
Sep-2003 6.10%
Oct-2003 6.00%
Nov-2003 5.80%
Dec-2003 5.70%
Jan-2004 5.70%
Feb-2004 5.60%
Mar-2004 5.80%
Apr-2004 5.60%
May-2004 5.60%
Jun-2004 5.60%
Jul-2004 5.50%
Aug-2004 5.40%
Sep-2004 5.40%
Oct-2004 5.50%
Nov-2004 5.40%
Dec-2004 5.40%
Jan-2005 5.30%
Feb-2005 5.40%
Mar-2005 5.20%
Apr-2005 5.20%
May-2005 5.10%
Jun-2005 5.00%
Jul-2005 5.00%
Aug-2005 4.90%
Sep-2005 5.00%
Oct-2005 5.00%
Nov-2005 5.00%
Dec-2005 4.90%
Jan-2006 4.70%
Feb-2006 4.80%
Mar-2006 4.70%
Apr-2006 4.70%
May-2006 4.60%
Jun-2006 4.60%
Jul-2006 4.70%
Aug-2006 4.70%
Sep-2006 4.50%
Oct-2006 4.40%
Nov-2006 4.50%
Dec-2006 4.40%
Jan-2007 4.60%
Feb-2007 4.50%
Mar-2007 4.40%
Apr-2007 4.50%
May-2007 4.40%
Jun-2007 4.60%
Jul-2007 4.70%
Aug-2007 4.60%
Sep-2007 4.70%
Oct-2007 4.70%
Nov-2007 4.70%
Dec-2007 5.00%
Jan-2008 5.00%
Feb-2008 4.90%
Mar-2008 5.10%
Apr-2008 5.00%
May-2008 5.40%
Jun-2008 5.60%
Jul-2008 5.80%
Aug-2008 6.10%
Sep-2008 6.10%
Oct-2008 6.50%
Nov-2008 6.80%
Dec-2008 7.30%
Jan-2009 7.80%
Feb-2009 8.30%
Mar-2009 8.70%
Apr-2009 9.00%
May-2009 9.40%
Jun-2009 9.50%
Jul-2009 9.50%
Aug-2009 9.60%
Sep-2009 9.80%
Oct-2009 10.00%
Nov-2009 9.90%
Dec-2009 9.90%
Jan-2010 9.80%
Feb-2010 9.80%
Mar-2010 9.90%
Apr-2010 9.90%
May-2010 9.60%
Jun-2010 9.40%
Jul-2010 9.40%
Aug-2010 9.50%
Sep-2010 9.50%
Oct-2010 9.40%
Nov-2010 9.80%
Dec-2010 9.30%
Jan-2011 9.10%
Feb-2011 9.00%
Mar-2011 9.00%
Apr-2011 9.10%
May-2011 9.00%
Jun-2011 9.10%
Jul-2011 9.00%
Aug-2011 9.00%
Sep-2011 9.00%
Oct-2011 8.80%
Nov-2011 8.60%
Dec-2011 8.50%
Jan-2012 8.30%
Feb-2012 8.30%
Mar-2012 8.20%
Apr-2012 8.20%
May-2012 8.20%
Jun-2012 8.20%
Jul-2012 8.20%
Aug-2012 8.10%
Sep-2012 7.80%
Oct-2012 7.80%
Nov-2012 7.70%
Dec-2012 7.90%
Jan-2013 8.00%
Feb-2013 7.70%
Mar-2013 7.50%
Apr-2013 7.60%
May-2013 7.50%
Jun-2013 7.50%
Jul-2013 7.30%
Aug-2013 7.20%
Sep-2013 7.20%
Oct-2013 7.20%
Nov-2013 6.90%
Dec-2013 6.70%
Jan-2014 6.60%
Feb-2014 6.70%
Mar-2014 6.70%
Apr-2014 6.20%
May-2014 6.30%
Jun-2014 6.10%
Jul-2014 6.20%
Aug-2014 6.10%
Sep-2014 5.90%
Oct-2014 5.70%
Nov-2014 5.80%
Dec-2014 5.60%
Jan-2015 5.70%
Feb-2015 5.50%
Mar-2015 5.40%
Apr-2015 5.40%
May-2015 5.60%
Jun-2015 5.30%
Jul-2015 5.20%
Aug-2015 5.10%
Sep-2015 5.00%
Oct-2015 5.00%
Nov-2015 5.10%
Dec-2015 5.00%
Jan-2016 4.80%
Feb-2016 4.90%
Mar-2016 5.00%
Apr-2016 5.10%
May-2016 4.80%
Jun-2016 4.90%
Jul-2016 4.80%
Aug-2016 4.90%
Sep-2016 5.00%
Oct-2016 4.90%
Nov-2016 4.70%
Dec-2016 4.70%
Jan-2017 4.70%
Feb-2017 4.60%
Mar-2017 4.40%
Apr-2017 4.40%
May-2017 4.40%
Jun-2017 4.30%
Jul-2017 4.30%
Aug-2017 4.40%
Sep-2017 4.30%
Oct-2017 4.20%
Nov-2017 4.20%
Dec-2017 4.10%
Jan-2018 4.00%
Feb-2018 4.10%
Mar-2018 4.00%
Apr-2018 4.00%
May-2018 3.80%
Jun-2018 4.00%
Jul-2018 3.80%
Aug-2018 3.80%
Sep-2018 3.70%
Oct-2018 3.80%
Nov-2018 3.80%
Dec-2018 3.90%
Jan-2019 4.00%
Feb-2019 3.80%
Mar-2019 3.80%
Apr-2019 3.60%
May-2019 3.60%
Jun-2019 3.60%
Jul-2019 3.70%
Aug-2019 3.70%
Sep-2019 3.50%
Oct-2019 3.60%
Nov-2019 3.60%
Dec-2019 3.60%
Jan-2020 3.50%
Feb-2020 3.50%
Mar-2020 4.40%
Apr-2020 14.70%
May-2020 13.20%
Jun-2020 11.00%
Jul-2020 10.20%
Aug-2020 8.40%
Sep-2020 7.90%
Oct-2020 6.90%
Nov-2020 6.70%
Dec-2020 6.70%
Jan-2021 6.40%
Feb-2021 6.20%
Mar-2021 6.00%
Apr-2021 6.00%
May-2021 5.80%
Jun-2021 5.90%
Jul-2021 5.40%
Aug-2021 5.20%
Sep-2021 4.70%
Oct-2021 4.60%
Nov-2021 4.20%
Dec-2021 3.90%
Jan-2022 4.00%
Feb-2022 3.80%
Mar-2022 3.60%
Apr-2022 3.60%
May-2022 3.60%
Jun-2022 3.60%
Jul-2022 3.50%
Aug-2022 3.70%
Sep-2022 3.50%
Oct-2022 3.70%
Nov-2022 3.60%
Dec-2022 3.50%
Jan-2023 3.40%
Feb-2023 3.60%
Mar-2023 3.50%
Apr-2023 3.40%
May-2023 3.70%
Jun-2023 3.6%
Jul-2023 3.5%
Aug-2023 3.8%
Sep-2023 3.8%
Oct-2023 3.8%
Nov-2023 3.7%
Dec-2023 3.7
ChartData Download data

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Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey. 

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Jobs Day

Unemployment rate of workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, 1995–2023

Date White Black Hispanic AAPI
Jan-1995 4.8 10.3 10.2
Feb-1995 4.7 10.1 9
Mar-1995 4.7 9.7 8.9
Apr-1995 5 10.7 8.9
May-1995 5 10 9.8
Jun-1995 4.9 10.7 9.1
Jul-1995 4.9 10.9 8.8
Aug-1995 4.9 11.1 9.6
Sep-1995 4.9 11.1 9.1
Oct-1995 4.9 10 9.4
Nov-1995 5 9.7 9.5
Dec-1995 4.9 10.2 9.3
Jan-1996 4.9 10.6 9.4
Feb-1996 4.8 10 9.6
Mar-1996 4.8 10.6 9.6
Apr-1996 4.8 10.7 9.6
May-1996 4.9 10.2 9.6
Jun-1996 4.6 10.4 8.8
Jul-1996 4.7 10.6 8.8
Aug-1996 4.4 10.6 8.8
Sep-1996 4.5 10.6 8.2
Oct-1996 4.5 10.7 8
Nov-1996 4.6 10.6 8.5
Dec-1996 4.6 10.5 7.4
Jan-1997 4.5 10.8 8.4
Feb-1997 4.5 10.7 8.2
Mar-1997 4.4 10.5 8.3
Apr-1997 4.3 10.2 8.2
May-1997 4.1 10.3 7.7
Jun-1997 4.2 10.8 7.5
Jul-1997 4.2 9.5 7.9
Aug-1997 4.2 9.4 7.2
Sep-1997 4.2 9.5 7.4
Oct-1997 4.1 9.5 7.8
Nov-1997 3.9 9.5 7
Dec-1997 3.9 10 7.3
Jan-1998 4 9.4 7.1
Feb-1998 3.9 9.3 6.9
Mar-1998 4 9.2 6.9
Apr-1998 3.7 9.1 6.7
May-1998 3.8 8.9 6.9
Jun-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Jul-1998 3.8 9.5 7.3
Aug-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Sep-1998 3.9 9.1 7.3
Oct-1998 3.9 8.6 7.2
Nov-1998 3.8 8.6 7.1
Dec-1998 3.8 7.7 7.7
Jan-1999 3.8 7.8 6.7
Feb-1999 3.8 8.2 6.7
Mar-1999 3.6 8 5.8
Apr-1999 3.8 7.8 7
May-1999 3.7 7.4 6.7
Jun-1999 3.8 7.7 6.6
Jul-1999 3.7 8.7 6.5
Aug-1999 3.7 7.7 6.5
Sep-1999 3.6 8.5 6.7
Oct-1999 3.5 8.4 6.4
Nov-1999 3.5 8 6
Dec-1999 3.5 7.8 5.8
Jan-2000 3.4 8.2 5.6
Feb-2000 3.6 8.1 5.7
Mar-2000 3.5 7.4 6.1
Apr-2000 3.4 7% 5.5
May-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Jun-2000 3.4 7.8 5.6
Jul-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Aug-2000 3.6 7.9 5.9
Sep-2000 3.5 7.3 5.8
Oct-2000 3.4% 7.3 5.1
Nov-2000 3.5 7.3 6
Dec-2000 3.5 7.4 5.7
Jan-2001 3.6 8.2 5.8
Feb-2001 3.7 7.7 6.1
Mar-2001 3.7 8.3 6.2
Apr-2001 3.9 8 6.4
May-2001 3.8 7.9 6.3
Jun-2001 4 8.3 6.6
Jul-2001 4 8 6.2
Aug-2001 4.3 9.1 6.5
Sep-2001 4.3 8.9 6.7
Oct-2001 4.7 9.5 7.1
Nov-2001 4.9 9.8 7.3
Dec-2001 5.1 10.1 7.7
Jan-2002 5.1 10 7.8
Feb-2002 5 9.9 7
Mar-2002 5 10.5 7.5
Apr-2002 5.2 10.7 8
May-2002 5.1 10.2 7.1
Jun-2002 5.1 10.5 7.4
Jul-2002 5.2 9.8 7.4
Aug-2002 5.1 9.8 7.5
Sep-2002 5.1 9.7 7.4
Oct-2002 5.1 9.8 7.9
Nov-2002 5.1 10.7 7.8
Dec-2002 5.1 11.3 7.9
Jan-2003 5.2 10.5 7.9 5.5
Feb-2003 5.1 10.7 7.7 5.8
Mar-2003 5.1 10.3 7.8 6.5
Apr-2003 5.3 10.9 7.6 6
May-2003 5.4 10.9 8 5.5
Jun-2003 5.5 11.5 8.3 7.4
Jul-2003 5.4 10.9 8 5.9
Aug-2003 5.4 10.9 7.7 6
Sep-2003 5.3 11.1 7.3 6.4
Oct-2003 5.1 11.4 7.5 6.2
Nov-2003 5.2 10.2 7.4 5.2
Dec-2003 5 10.1 6.7 5.4
Jan-2004 5 10.4 7.3 5
Feb-2004 4.9 9.7 7.4 4.5
Mar-2004 5.1 10.3 7.6 4.3
Apr-2004 5 9.8 7.1 4.7
May-2004 4.9 10.1 6.9 4.6
Jun-2004 5 10.2 6.6 4.6
Jul-2004 4.7 11 6.8 3.9
Aug-2004 4.7 10.5 6.8 3.7
Sep-2004 4.6 10.3 6.8 4.5
Oct-2004 4.6 10.8 6.8 4.9
Nov-2004 4.6 10.7 6.7 4.1
Dec-2004 4.5 10.7 6.6 4.2
Jan-2005 4.5 10.6 6 4.1
Feb-2005 4.6 10.9 6.3 4.3
Mar-2005 4.5 10.5 5.8 3.9
Apr-2005 4.4 10.3 6.4 4.2
May-2005 4.4 10.1 6 4.2
Jun-2005 4.3 10.2 5.7 3.6
Jul-2005 4.2 9.2 5.5 4.8
Aug-2005 4.2 9.7 5.8 3.7
Sep-2005 4.4 9.4 6.4 4.3
Oct-2005 4.4 9.1 6 3.2
Nov-2005 4.3 10.6 6.1 3.6
Dec-2005 4.2 9.2 6.1 3.8
Jan-2006 4.1 8.9 5.5 3
Feb-2006 4.1 9.5 5.4 3
Mar-2006 4 9.5 5.2 3.5
Apr-2006 4.1 9.4 5.5 3.9
May-2006 4.1 8.7 5 3.3
Jun-2006 4.1 8.9 5.2 3.1
Jul-2006 4.1 9.5 5.2 2.4
Aug-2006 4.1 8.8 5.3 3
Sep-2006 3.9 9 5.5 3
Oct-2006 3.9 8.4 4.8% 2.8
Nov-2006 4 8.5 5.1 3.1
Dec-2006 3.9 8.3 5 2.5
Jan-2007 4.2 7.9 5.5 3.1
Feb-2007 4.1 8 5.1 2.6
Mar-2007 3.8 8.4 5 3
Apr-2007 4 8.3 5.6 3.5
May-2007 3.9 8.3 5.8 3.2
Jun-2007 4.1 8.5 5.5 2.7
Jul-2007 4.2 8.1 5.9 2.7
Aug-2007 4.2 7.6 5.5 3.5
Sep-2007 4.2 8 5.9 3.4
Oct-2007 4.1 8.5 5.7 3.8
Nov-2007 4.2 8.5 5.9 3.6
Dec-2007 4.4 9 6.3 3.7
Jan-2008 4.4 9.1 6.3 3.1
Feb-2008 4.4 8.4 6.2 2.9
Mar-2008 4.5 9.2 6.9 3.6
Apr-2008 4.4 8.6 7.1 3.5
May-2008 4.8 9.6 6.9 4.1
Jun-2008 5 9.4 7.6 4.2
Jul-2008 5.2 10 7.5 3.7
Aug-2008 5.4 10.6 8 4.5
Sep-2008 5.4 11.3 8 4
Oct-2008 5.9 11.4 8.8 3.9
Nov-2008 6.2 11.5 8.7 4.8
Dec-2008 6.7 12.1 9.4 5.1
Jan-2009 7.1 12.7 10.1 6.1
Feb-2009 7.6 13.7 11.3 6.7
Mar-2009 8 13.7 11.7 6.5
Apr-2009 8.1 15 11.4 6.8
May-2009 8.5 15 12.3 7
Jun-2009 8.7 14.8 12.1 7.9
Jul-2009 8.7 14.8 12.5 8.1
Aug-2009 8.9 16.8% 13 7.6
Sep-2009 8.9 15.3 12.6 7.6
Oct-2009 9.2 15.8 12.8 7.6
Nov-2009 9.2% 15.7 12.4 7.2
Dec-2009 9 16.1 12.8 8.4
Jan-2010 8.8 16.5 12.9 8.3
Feb-2010 8.9 16.1 12.7 8.2
Mar-2010 8.9 16.8 13% 7.6
Apr-2010 9 16.6 12.5 7
May-2010 8.7 15.5 12 7.8
Jun-2010 8.6 15.2 12.3 7.4
Jul-2010 8.5 15.6 12.2 7.9
Aug-2010 8.6 15.9 12 7.3
Sep-2010 8.6 16 12.3 6.6
Oct-2010 8.6 15.6 12.3 7.2
Nov-2010 8.9 16.2 12.9 7.5
Dec-2010 8.5 15.5 12.9 7.2
Jan-2011 8.1 15.8 12.3 6.8
Feb-2011 8.1 15.5 11.8 6.7
Mar-2011 8 15.8 11.6 7.3
Apr-2011 8.1 16.5 11.9 6.5
May-2011 7.9 16.3 11.6 7.2
Jun-2011 8.1 16.2 11.5 6.5
Jul-2011 8 15.9 11.2 7.4
Aug-2011 7.9 16.4 11.2 7.2
Sep-2011 7.9 15.9 11.2 8
Oct-2011 7.9 14.6 11.3 7.4
Nov-2011 7.7 15.6 11.2 6.4
Dec-2011 7.5 15.4 11.1 6.8
Jan-2012 7.4 13.6 10.7 6.7
Feb-2012 7.4 14 10.9 6.2
Mar-2012 7.3 14 10.6 6.4
Apr-2012 7.4 13.3 10.3 5.4
May-2012 7.4 13.5 10.9 5.5
Jun-2012 7.3 14.5 10.9 6.1
Jul-2012 7.3 14.2 10.2 5.9
Aug-2012 7.2 13.8 10.1 5.9
Sep-2012 7 13.6 9.7 4.9
Oct-2012 6.9 14.1 10 4.9
Nov-2012 6.8 13.3 9.9 6.3
Dec-2012 6.9 14 9.6 6.6
Jan-2013 7.1 13.7 9.7 6.4
Feb-2013 6.8 13.8 9.7 6
Mar-2013 6.7 13 9.3 5.1
Apr-2013 6.7 13.3 9 5.3
May-2013 6.7 13.4 9 4.5
Jun-2013 6.6 14.2 9.1 4.7
Jul-2013 6.5 12.6 9.4 5.3
Aug-2013 6.4 12.8 9.2 5.1
Sep-2013 6.3 13 8.8 5.4
Oct-2013 6.3 12.8 9.1 5.4
Nov-2013 6.1 12.3 8.7 5.2
Dec-2013 5.9 11.9 8.3 4.3
Jan-2014 5.7 12.1 8.3 4.7
Feb-2014 5.8 11.8 8.2 5.9
Mar-2014 5.8 12.1 7.9 5.5
Apr-2014 5.3 11.6 7.2 5.9
May-2014 5.4 11.4 7.7 5.7
Jun-2014 5.3 11 7.8 4.7
Jul-2014 5.3 11.6 7.7 4.2
Aug-2014 5.3 11.4 7.4 4.5
Sep-2014 5.1 11 6.8 4.4
Oct-2014 4.9 10.6 6.8 5.1
Nov-2014 5 10.9 6.6 4.8
Dec-2014 4.7 10.6 6.4 4.4
Jan-2015 4.9 10.3 6.7 4
Feb-2015 4.7 10.1 6.8 4
Mar-2015 4.8 9.9 6.8 3.2
Apr-2015 4.7 9.7 6.8 4.4
May-2015 4.8 10.3 6.8 4.1
Jun-2015 4.6 9.7 6.7 3.9
Jul-2015 4.5 9.1 6.9 3.9
Aug-2015 4.4 9.4 6.6 3.4
Sep-2015 4.4 9.3 6.2 3.5
Oct-2015 4.4 9 6.3 3.5
Nov-2015 4.4 9.4 6.4 3.9
Dec-2015 4.4 8.5 6.2 4.1
Jan-2016 4.2 8.5 5.9 3.6
Feb-2016 4.2 8.6 5.5 3.8
Mar-2016 4.3 8.9 5.6 3.9
Apr-2016 4.4 8.8 6.2 3.8
May-2016 4.2 8.2 5.7 4.1
Jun-2016 4.3 8.7 6 3.6
Jul-2016 4.2 8.2 5.4 3.8
Aug-2016 4.4 8 5.6 4.1
Sep-2016 4.4 8.5 6.2 3.8
Oct-2016 4.4 8.5 5.7 3.4
Nov-2016 4.2 8.2 5.6 3.1
Dec-2016 4.2 8 5.8 2.7
Jan-2017 4.2 7.4 5.8 3.7
Feb-2017 4 8 5.6 3.4
Mar-2017 3.9 7.9 5 3.3
Apr-2017 3.9 7.8 5.2 3.3
May-2017 3.8 7.6 5.2 3.6
Jun-2017 3.8 7.1 5 3.7
Jul-2017 3.7 7.2 5.1 3.8
Aug-2017 3.9 7.5 5.1 3.9
Sep-2017 3.7 7.2 5.1 3.6
Oct-2017 3.6 7.6 5 3
Nov-2017 3.7 7.5 4.9 3
Dec-2017 3.7 6.9 5 2.5
Jan-2018 3.5 7.5 4.9 3
Feb-2018 3.6 6.8 4.9 2.9
Mar-2018 3.5 6.6 4.9 3.1
Apr-2018 3.6 6.5 4.8 2.9
May-2018 3.5 5.8 4.8 2.2
Jun-2018 3.5 6.5 4.6 3.3
Jul-2018 3.3 6.4 4.5 3.1
Aug-2018 3.4 6.2 4.7 2.9
Sep-2018 3.3 6.2 4.6 3.5
Oct-2018 3.3 6.4 4.4 3.1
Nov-2018 3.4 6.2 4.6 2.8
Dec-2018 3.4 6.8 4.5 3.3
Jan-2019 3.5 6.9 4.8 3
Feb-2019 3.2 7 4.3 3.1
Mar-2019 3.3 6.5 4.5 3.1
Apr-2019 3.2 6.6 4.1 2.3
May-2019 3.3 6.1 4.1 2.5
Jun-2019 3.3 6 4.3 2.2
Jul-2019 3.3 5.6 4.4 2.8
Aug-2019 3.4 5.2 4.2 2.8
Sep-2019 3.2 5.4 4 2.5
Oct-2019 3.3 5.6 4.2 2.9
Nov-2019 3.3 5.7 4.3 2.6
Dec-2019 3.1 6.2 4.3 2.6
Jan-2020 3 6.1 4.3 3.1
Feb-2020 3 6 4.4 2.4
Mar-2020 3.9 6.8 6 4.1
Apr-2020 14.1 16.7 18.9 14.5
May-2020 12.3 16.7 17.6 14.9
Jun-2020 10.1 15.3 14.5 13.9
Jul-2020 9.2 14.4 12.7 11.9
Aug-2020 7.4 12.8 10.5 10.6
Sep-2020 7 12 10.3 8.8
Oct-2020 6 10.8 8.8 7.6
Nov-2020 5.9 10.3 8.4 6.7
Dec-2020 6 9.9 9.3 5.9
Jan-2021 5.7 9.2 8.6 6.6
Feb-2021 5.6 9.9 8.5 5.1
Mar-2021 5.4 9.6 7.9 6
Apr-2021 5.3 9.7 7.9 5.7
May-2021 5.1 9.1 7.3 5.5
Jun-2021 5.2 9.2 7.4 5.8
Jul-2021 4.8 8.2 6.6 5.3
Aug-2021 4.5 8.8 6.4 4.6
Sep-2021 4.2 7.9 6.3 4.2
Oct-2021 4 7.9 5.9 4.2
Nov-2021 3.7 6.5 5.2 3.9
Dec-2021 3.2 7.1 4.9 3.8 
Jan-2022 3.4  6.9 4.9 3.6 
Feb-2022 3.3  6.6 4.4  3.1 
Mar-2022  3.2 6.2 4.2 2.8
Apr-2022 3.2  5.9 4.1 3.1
May-2022  3.2  6.2  4.3 2.4 
Jun-2022 3.3 5.8 4.3 3
Jul-2022 3.1  6.0 3.9 2.6
Aug-2022 3.2%  6.4 4.5 2.8
Sep-2022 3.1%  5.8%  3.8%  2.5%
Oct-2022 3.3%  5.9%  4.2%  2.9% 
Nov-2022 3.3%  5.7%  4.0% 2.6% 
Dec-2022 3.0%  5.7%  4.1%  2.4% 
Jan-2023 3.1%  5.4%  4.5%  2.8%
Feb-2023 3.2%  5.7%  5.3%  3.4% 
Mar-2023 3.2%  5.0%  4.6%  2.8% 
Apr-2023 3.1%  4.7%  4.4%  2.8% 
May-2023 3.3%  5.6%  4.0%  2.9% 
June-2023 3.1%  6.0%  4.3%  3.2% 
Jul-2023 3.1%  5.8%  4.4%  2.3% 
Aug-2023 3.4%  5.3% 4.9%  3.2% 
Sep-2023 3.4 5.7  4.6  2.9
Oct-2023 3.5%  5.8% 4.8% 3.1% 
Nov-2023 3.3%  5.8%  4.6%  3.5% 
Dec-2023 3.5% 5.2% 5.0% 3.1%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: AAPI refers to Asian American and Pacific Islander. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race. Low-point and high-point of each series prior to the recovery from the Great Recession marked.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey, public data series. 

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Jobs Day

Employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, by gender, 1989–2024

Date Men Women
Jan-1989 89.9 70.5
Feb-1989 89.8 70.4
Mar-1989 89.9 70.2
Apr-1989 89.7 70.3
May-1989 89.8 70.1
Jun-1989 90 70.1
Jul-1989 89.9 70
Aug-1989 90 70.2
Sep-1989 89.7 70.7
Oct-1989 89.8 70.5
Nov-1989 89.9 70.8
Dec-1989 90 70.7
Jan-1990 89.9 70.9
Feb-1990 90.1 70.8
Mar-1990 89.8 70.8
Apr-1990 89.4 70.7
May-1990 89.3 70.8
Jun-1990 89.3 70.6
Jul-1990 89 70.6
Aug-1990 88.9 70.5
Sep-1990 88.7 70.5
Oct-1990 88.6 70.4
Nov-1990 88.5 70.2
Dec-1990 88.1 70.1
Jan-1991 88.2 69.9
Feb-1991 88 70.1
Mar-1991 87.7 70
Apr-1991 87.9 70.3
May-1991 87.4 70.1
Jun-1991 87.5 70.2
Jul-1991 87.5 70.1
Aug-1991 87.4 70
Sep-1991 87.5 70.1
Oct-1991 87.2 70
Nov-1991 87.1 70
Dec-1991 86.9 69.9 
Jan-1992 86.9 70.1
Feb-1992 86.6  70
Mar-1992 86.8 70
Apr-1992 86.9 70.2
May-1992 86.8 70.3
Jun-1992 86.9 70.3
Jul-1992 86.9 70.2
Aug-1992 86.9 70.2
Sep-1992 86.8 70.1
Oct-1992 86.7 70
Nov-1992 86.6 70.1
Dec-1992 86.7 69.9
Jan-1993 86.8 69.9
Feb-1993 86.7 69.9
Mar-1993 86.5 70.3
Apr-1993 86.8 69.9
May-1993 87 70.2
Jun-1993 87.1 70.4
Jul-1993 87.1 70.4
Aug-1993 87.2 70.6
Sep-1993 87.1 70.5
Oct-1993 87.1 70.5
Nov-1993 87.5 70.7
Dec-1993 87.4 71
Jan-1994 87.1 71
Feb-1994 86.8 71.3
Mar-1994 87 71.1
Apr-1994 87.1 71.2
May-1994 87.3 71.3
Jun-1994 87 70.9
Jul-1994 87 71.4
Aug-1994 87 71.7
Sep-1994 87.4 72.1
Oct-1994 87.5 71.9
Nov-1994 87.9 72
Dec-1994 88 71.8
Jan-1995 87.9 71.8
Feb-1995 88.1 72.2
Mar-1995 87.9 72.1
Apr-1995 87.7 72.2
May-1995 87.6 72.1
Jun-1995 87.6 71.7
Jul-1995 87.5 72.2
Aug-1995 87.4 72.1
Sep-1995 87.6 72.3
Oct-1995 87.6 72.3
Nov-1995 87.2 72.6
Dec-1995 87.2 72.4
Jan-1996 87.5 72.4
Feb-1996 87.7 72.4
Mar-1996 87.5 72.6
Apr-1996 87.5 72.6
May-1996 87.6 72.5
Jun-1996 87.8 72.7
Jul-1996 88.1 72.9
Aug-1996 88.4 73
Sep-1996 88.1 73
Oct-1996 88.3 73.1
Nov-1996 88.2 73
Dec-1996 88.3 73
Jan-1997 88.2 73.2
Feb-1997 88.2 72.9
Mar-1997 88.2 73.3
Apr-1997 88.1 73.5
May-1997 88.1 73.3
Jun-1997 88.4 73.6
Jul-1997 88.6 73.9
Aug-1997 88.7 74.1
Sep-1997 88.6 73.9
Oct-1997 88.6 73.8
Nov-1997 88.7 73.6
Dec-1997 88.6 73.6
Jan-1998 88.8 73.4
Feb-1998 88.9 73.4
Mar-1998 88.8 73.5
Apr-1998 88.9 73.5
May-1998 88.8 73.4
Jun-1998 88.7 73.6
Jul-1998 88.7 73.8
Aug-1998 88.8 73.9
Sep-1998 88.8 74
Oct-1998 88.8 73.7
Nov-1998 89.1 73.7
Dec-1998 88.9 74
Jan-1999 89.7 74.3
Feb-1999 89.2 74.1
Mar-1999 89.2 73.8
Apr-1999 89.1 73.8
May-1999 88.9 74.1
Jun-1999 88.8 74.2
Jul-1999 88.8 73.8
Aug-1999 88.7 74.1
Sep-1999 88.6 74.3
Oct-1999 88.7 74.5
Nov-1999 89 74.5
Dec-1999 89 74.3
Jan-2000 89.5 74.4
Feb-2000 89.4 74.5
Mar-2000 89.3 74.5
Apr-2000 89.2 74.9
May-2000 89 74.4
Jun-2000 89.1 74.2
Jul-2000 88.9 73.9
Aug-2000 88.9 73.6
Sep-2000 88.6 73.9
Oct-2000 88.6 73.9
Nov-2000 88.8 74.1
Dec-2000 88.9 74.1
Jan-2001 88.9  74.2 
Feb-2001 88.8 74.2
Mar-2001 88.5 74.3
Apr-2001 88.3 73.7
May-2001 88.3 73.7
Jun-2001 88.1 73.4
Jul-2001 87.9 73.4
Aug-2001 87.6 73.2
Sep-2001 87.6 73.1
Oct-2001 87.4 72.7
Nov-2001 87 72.6
Dec-2001 87.1 72.6
Jan-2002 86.8 72.5
Feb-2002 87.1 72.7
Mar-2002 87 72.5
Apr-2002 86.8 72.5
May-2002 86.9 72.2
Jun-2002 86.5  72.1
Jul-2002 86.5 71.9 
Aug-2002 86.8 72.1
Sep-2002 86.8 72.2
Oct-2002 86.6 72.1
Nov-2002 85.9 71.9
Dec-2002 86 72.2
Jan-2003 85.6 72.4
Feb-2003 85.9 72.1
Mar-2003 85.8 72.4
Apr-2003 85.9 72.4
May-2003 85.7 72.2
Jun-2003 85.8 72.3
Jul-2003 85.8 71.9
Aug-2003 85.7 72
Sep-2003 85.9 71.6 
Oct-2003 85.9 71.6
Nov-2003 86 71.7
Dec-2003 86.4 71.4
Jan-2004 86.4 71.6
Feb-2004 86.2 71.7
Mar-2004 86 71.8
Apr-2004 86.2 71.8
May-2004 86.3 71.9
Jun-2004 86.5 71.9
Jul-2004 86.7 71.9
Aug-2004 86.5 71.8
Sep-2004 86.4 71.9
Oct-2004 86.3 71.9
Nov-2004 86.5 72
Dec-2004 86.2 71.8
Jan-2005 86.5 72
Feb-2005 86.7 71.9
Mar-2005 86.8 71.8
Apr-2005 87 72
May-2005 87.1 72.1
Jun-2005 87 71.7
Jul-2005 87 71.9
Aug-2005 87.4 72.1
Sep-2005 87 72.1
Oct-2005 87 71.9
Nov-2005 86.8 71.9
Dec-2005 86.7 72.1
Jan-2006 87.2 72.2
Feb-2006 87.1 72.4
Mar-2006 87.4 72.3
Apr-2006 87.2 72.1
May-2006 87.2 72.3
Jun-2006 87.2 72.5
Jul-2006 87.1 72.7
Aug-2006 87.1 72.6
Sep-2006 87.4 72.5
Oct-2006 87.4 72.9
Nov-2006 87.5 72.7
Dec-2006 87.7 72.7
Jan-2007 88 72.8
Feb-2007 87.9 72.6
Mar-2007 88 72.7
Apr-2007 87.9 72.2
May-2007 87.7 72.5
Jun-2007 87.5 72.5
Jul-2007 87.3 72.4
Aug-2007 87.2 72.6
Sep-2007 87.1 72.5
Oct-2007 86.9 72.4
Nov-2007 87.2 72.5
Dec-2007 87.2 72.4
Jan-2008 87.4 72.7
Feb-2008 87.4 72.6
Mar-2008 87.1 72.6
Apr-2008 86.7 72.7
May-2008 86.5 72.6
Jun-2008 86.3 72.6
Jul-2008 86.2 72.4
Aug-2008 85.8 72.1
Sep-2008 85.4 72.3
Oct-2008 85.2 71.9
Nov-2008 84.7 71.7
Dec-2008 83.7 71.6
Jan-2009 83.1 71.1
Feb-2009 82.5 71
Mar-2009 82 70.6
Apr-2009 81.8 70.7
May-2009 81.5 70.4
Jun-2009 81.5 70.4
Jul-2009 81.3 70.4
Aug-2009 81.2 70
Sep-2009 80.8 69.5
Oct-2009 80.8 69.4
Nov-2009 80.7 69.8
Dec-2009 80.4 69.2
Jan-2010 80.7 69.8
Feb-2010 80.6 69.7
Mar-2010 80.8 69.5
Apr-2010 81.3 69.6
May-2010 81.1 69.3
Jun-2010 81.1 69.5
Jul-2010 81.1 69.1
Aug-2010 81.2 69 
Sep-2010 81.2 69.1
Oct-2010 81.1 69
Nov-2010 80.7 69.1
Dec-2010 80.8 69.4
Jan-2011 81.2 69.3
Feb-2011 81.4 69
Mar-2011 81.4 69.3
Apr-2011 81.2 69.1
May-2011 81.6 68.9
Jun-2011 81.3 68.8 
Jul-2011 81.1 69
Aug-2011 81.4 68.9
Sep-2011 81.3 68.7
Oct-2011 81.1 68.9
Nov-2011 81.9 68.8
Dec-2011 82.1 68.9
Jan-2012 82.5 68.9
Feb-2012 82.4 68.9
Mar-2012 82.5 69.2
Apr-2012 82.5 69.1
May-2012 82.5 69.2
Jun-2012 82.6 69
Jul-2012 82.4 69.1
Aug-2012 82.4 69.2
Sep-2012 82.7 69.5
Oct-2012 82.9 69.6
Nov-2012 82.5 69.4
Dec-2012 82.8 69.4
Jan-2013 82.6 68.9
Feb-2013 82.8 69
Mar-2013 82.8 69
Apr-2013 82.8 69.1
May-2013 83 69.3
Jun-2013 82.9 69.2
Jul-2013 82.9 69.4
Aug-2013 82.6 69.6
Sep-2013 82.6 69.6
Oct-2013 82.4 69
Nov-2013 83 69.3
Dec-2013 83 69.5
Jan-2014 83.2 69.8
Feb-2014 83 70.1
Mar-2014 83.5 69.8
Apr-2014 83.2 69.9
May-2014 83.3 69.8
Jun-2014 83.8 70.2
Jul-2014 83.8 69.8
Aug-2014 83.9 70.1
Sep-2014 84.1 69.8
Oct-2014 84 70.1
Nov-2014 83.9 70.3
Dec-2014 84.2 70.3
Jan-2015 84.3 70.2
Feb-2015 84.3 70.3
Mar-2015 84.5 70
Apr-2015 84.4 70.2
May-2015 84.3 70.4
Jun-2015 84.5 70.5
Jul-2015 84.4 70.1
Aug-2015 84.6 70.2
Sep-2015 84.6 70.2
Oct-2015 84.4 70.3
Nov-2015 84.4 70.7
Dec-2015 84.5 70.6
Jan-2016 84.9 70.7
Feb-2016 84.9 70.8
Mar-2016 85.2 70.9
Apr-2016 84.8 70.9
May-2016 84.9 71
Jun-2016 85.1 71
Jul-2016 84.9 71.4
Aug-2016 84.9 71.1
Sep-2016 84.9 71.4
Oct-2016 85 71.5
Nov-2016 85 71.4
Dec-2016 85 71.4
Jan-2017 85.3 71.3
Feb-2017 85.1 71.6
Mar-2017 85.2 72
Apr-2017 85.4 72
May-2017 85.3 71.9
Jun-2017 85.3 72.2
Jul-2017 85.3 72.4
Aug-2017 85 72.1
Sep-2017 85.6 72.5
Oct-2017 85.6 72.2
Nov-2017 85.6 72.5
Dec-2017 86 72.2
Jan-2018 85.9 72.1
Feb-2018 86.4 72.3
Mar-2018 86.2 72.4
Apr-2018 86.3 72.2
May-2018 86.3 72.5
Jun-2018 86.1 72.8
Jul-2018 86.3 73.1
Aug-2018 86 72.9
Sep-2018 85.9 73.1
Oct-2018 86.2 73.4
Nov-2018 86.3 73.1
Dec-2018 86 73.3
Jan-2019 86.4 73.3
Feb-2019 86.5 73.3
Mar-2019 86.7 73.1
Apr-2019 86.4 73.2
May-2019 86.3 73.3
Jun-2019 86.1 73.6
Jul-2019 86.2 73.2
Aug-2019 86.3 74
Sep-2019 86.4 74.2
Oct-2019 86.5 74.4
Nov-2019 86.7 74.1
Dec-2019 86.5 74.5
Jan-2020 86.6 74.6
Feb-2020 86.4 74.5
Mar-2020 85.8 73.3
Apr-2020 76 63.4
May-2020 77.9 64.9
Jun-2020 79.6 67.7
Jul-2020 79.9 68.1
Aug-2020 81.6 69.3
Sep-2020 81.5 68.9
Oct-2020 82.1 70.1
Nov-2020 81.9 70.2
Dec-2020 82.3 70.4
Jan-2021 82.5 70.4
Feb-2021 82.6 70.6
Mar-2021 82.8 71
Apr-2021 82.9 71.1
May-2021 82.9 71.3
Jun-2021 83.2 71.4
Jul-2021 83.8 71.9
Aug-2021 84 72
Sep-2021 84.1 72
Oct-2021 84.5 72.2
Nov-2021 84.8 72.9
Dec-2021 85.0 73.2
Jan-2022 85.1 73.3
Feb-2022 85.9 73.2
Mar-2022 86.1 74.1
Apr-2022 86.0 73.9
May-2022 86 74.1
Jun-2022 85.8 73.9
Jul-2022 85.9 74.2
Aug-2022 85.9 74.8
Sep-2022 86.2 74.4
Oct-2022 85.7 74
Nov-2022 85.7 73.8
Dec-2022 86.1 74.1
Jan-2023 85.8 74.7
Feb-2023 86.2 74.8
Mar-2023 86.5 74.9
Apr-2023 86.4 75.1
May-2023 86.4 75.1
Jun-2023 86.5 75.3
Jul-2023 86.6 75.3
Aug-2023 86.4 75.3
Sept-2023 86.4 75.3
Oct-2023 85.9% 75.3%
Nov-2023 86.2% 75.1%
Dec-2023 86.1% 74.8%
Jan-2024 86.2% 75.0%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data.

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Past employment reports