Economic Indicators Jobs and unemployment

Every month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics releases a report on the employment situation for the previous month. Their release includes data on job growth, unemployment, and wage growth, which gives us a snapshot of the health of the economy and whether it’s working for ordinary Americans.

Key numbers • March

6.0% National unemployment rate
916,000 Net jobs in March
76.8% Share of prime working-age population with a job
8.4 million Number of jobs lost since February 2020

March

Jobs report: Strong job growth in March as vaccine distribution expands and the American Rescue Plan ramps up

A solid 916,000 jobs were added in March, the strongest job growth we’ve seen since the initial bounceback faded last summer. Even with these gains, the labor market is still down 8.4 million jobs from its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. In addition, thousands of jobs would have been added each month over the last year without the pandemic recession. If we count how many jobs may have been created if the recession hadn’t hit—consider average job growth (202,000) over the 12 months before the recession—we are now short 11.0 million jobs since February.

Even at this pace, it could take more than a year to dig out of the total jobs shortfall. However, today’s number is certainly a promising sign for the recovery, especially as vaccinations increase and vital provisions in the American Rescue Plan (ARP) have continued to ramp up since the March reference period to today’s data. The benefits of the ARP will continue to be captured in coming months.

Key points of note in today’s report:

  • The largest jobs gains were in the sector most hurt: leisure and hospitality employment increased by 280,000 in March. Even with this improvement, leisure and hospitality employment—the lowest-paid sector in the U.S. economy—is still down 3.1 million jobs since February 2020.
  • Public-sector employment—notably in state and local education jobs—finally saw signs of life in March, likely due at least in part to the impact of the state and local government aid in the ARP. State and local government employment rose 129,000 in March; 97% of that increase (125,600 jobs) were in state and local education employment. Even with these improvements, state and local education employment is still down 863,200 since February 2020. I’m hopeful here again that ARP provisions to state and local governments will provide a necessary boost in coming months.
  • About one-fifth (21.0%) of the workforce teleworked because of the coronavirus pandemic. This means the vast majority of workers—disproportionately low-wage workers—are physically going to work. While the ramp up in the distribution of the vaccine is a positive trend, we are still nowhere near herd immunity and need to heed health officials in opening guidelines.
  • While the overall unemployment rate fell from 6.2% to 6.0%, the labor participation rate only improved slightly. As it becomes safe to reopen, I expect many more workers to return to the labor market seeking jobs.
  • The Black unemployment rate improved last month, but remains at 9.6%, far higher than any other group.
  • Long-term unemployment continued to rise in March, with 4.2 million workers unemployed 27 weeks or more.

In addition to the 9.7 million officially unemployed workers in March 2021, we must add four more groups of economically hurt workers:

  • First, the  636,000 workers misclassified as “employed, not at work.”
  • Second, the 2.7 million undercount of unemployed workers, found even in normal times.
  • Third, the 4.8 million workers now out of the labor force and not counted among the unemployed—measured by the differential between the size of the current labor force and what the labor force would be if the labor force participation rate hadn’t dropped over the last year.
  • Fourth, the 5.8 million workers who experienced a drop in hours and pay because of the pandemic.

In total, this means that 23.6 million workers are currently harmed in the coronavirus downturn. We include the 5.7 million baseline unemployment level prior to COVID as part of the number hurt right now because job search was made much more difficult by the labor market impacts of the recession. We include the 2.7 million estimated undercount of the unemployed prior to the start of COVID based on Ahn and Hamilton (2021) because again job search was made much more difficult by the labor market impacts of the recession.

Charting jobs and unemployment

Monthly change in payroll employment, January 2020–March 2021

Date Change in Employment
Jan-2020 315
Feb-2020 289
Mar-2020 -1,683
Apr-2020 -20,679
May-2020 2,833
Jun-2020 4,846
Jul-2020 1,726
Aug-2020 1,583
Sep-2020 716
Oct-2020 680
Nov-2020 264
Dec-2020 -306
Jan-2021 233
Feb-2021 468
Mar-2021 916
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series

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Employment change by industry since February 2020: All employees (thousands), seasonally adjusted, March 2021

Industry Employment change since February 2020
Leisure and hospitality -3134
Government -1222
Education and health services -1172
Professional and business services -685
Manufacturing -515
Other services -396
Retail services -381
Information -241
Wholesale trade -234
Construction -182
Financial activities -87
Mining and logging -80
Transportation and warehousing -66
Utilities -8

 

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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Current Employment Statistics, Establishment Survey (CES) public data series.

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Note: The number of officially unemployed includes the 5.7 million baseline unemployment level prior to COVID. The number of unemployed but misclassified includes the 2.7 million estimated undercount of the unemployed prior to the start of COVID based on Ahn and Hamilton (2021). The 5.7 million and the 2.7 million are included in the calculation of those hit by COVID because job search was made much more difficult by the labor market impacts of the recession. Totals may not sum due to rounding.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series. Adapted from Figure A in The economy President-elect Biden is inheriting (Shierholz 2021).

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Workers are experiencing longer and longer periods of unemployment: Number of workers at each level of unemployment duration, by month, February 2020–March 2021

Date Less than 5 weeks 5–14 weeks 15–26 Weeks 27 weeks and over
Feb 20 2,082 1,753 817 1,111
Mar 20 3,424 1,785 784 1,188
Apr 20 14,282 6,992 763 1,004
May 20 3,875 14,804 997 1,203
Jun 20 2,853 11,544 1,907 1,358
Jul 20 3,188 5,175 6,488 1,483
Aug 20 2,312 3,213 6,536 1,593
Sep 20 2,552 2,754 4,934 2,405
Oct 20 2,494 2,341 2,651 3,534
Nov 20 2,455 2,404 1,875 3,929
Dec 20 2,904 2,222 1,572 3,956
Jan 21 2,278 2,528 1,346 4,023
Feb 21 2,185 2,254 1,407 4,148
Mar 21 2,177 1,941 1,391 4,218
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Note: Data are seasonally adjusted.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series.

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Unemployment rate of workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, January 2020–March 2021

Date White Black Hispanic Asian
Jan-2020 3.0% 6.1% 4.3% 3.1%
Feb-2020 3.0% 6.0% 4.4% 2.4%
Mar-2020 3.9% 6.8% 6.0% 4.1%
Apr-2020 14.1 16.7% 18.9% 14.5%
May-2020 12.3% 16.7% 17.6% 14.9%
Jun-2020 10.1% 15.3% 14.5% 13.9%
Jul-2020 9.2% 14.4% 12.7% 11.9%
Aug-2020 7.4% 12.8% 10.5% 10.6%
Sep-2020 7.0% 12.0% 10.3% 8.8%
Oct-2020 6.0% 10.8% 8.8% 7.6%
Nov-2020 5.9% 10.3% 8.4% 6.7%
Dec-2020 6.0% 9.9% 9.3% 5.9%
Jan-2021 5.7% 9.2% 8.6% 6.6%
Feb-2021 5.6% 9.9% 8.5% 5.1%
Mar-2021 5.4% 9.6% 7.9% 6.0%
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Unemployment rate of workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, 1995–2021

Date White Black Hispanic
Jan-1995 4.8 10.3 10.2
Feb-1995 4.7 10.1 9
Mar-1995 4.7 9.7 8.9
Apr-1995 5 10.7 8.9
May-1995 5 10 9.8
Jun-1995 4.9 10.7 9.1
Jul-1995 4.9 10.9 8.8
Aug-1995 4.9 11.1 9.6
Sep-1995 4.9 11.1 9.1
Oct-1995 4.9 10 9.4
Nov-1995 5 9.7 9.5
Dec-1995 4.9 10.2 9.3
Jan-1996 4.9 10.6 9.4
Feb-1996 4.8 10 9.6
Mar-1996 4.8 10.6 9.6
Apr-1996 4.8 10.7 9.6
May-1996 4.9 10.2 9.6
Jun-1996 4.6 10.4 8.8
Jul-1996 4.7 10.6 8.8
Aug-1996 4.4 10.6 8.8
Sep-1996 4.5 10.6 8.2
Oct-1996 4.5 10.7 8
Nov-1996 4.6 10.6 8.5
Dec-1996 4.6 10.5 7.4
Jan-1997 4.5 10.8 8.4
Feb-1997 4.5 10.7 8.2
Mar-1997 4.4 10.5 8.3
Apr-1997 4.3 10.2 8.2
May-1997 4.1 10.3 7.7
Jun-1997 4.2 10.8 7.5
Jul-1997 4.2 9.5 7.9
Aug-1997 4.2 9.4 7.2
Sep-1997 4.2 9.5 7.4
Oct-1997 4.1 9.5 7.8
Nov-1997 3.9 9.5 7
Dec-1997 3.9 10 7.3
Jan-1998 4 9.4 7.1
Feb-1998 3.9 9.3 6.9
Mar-1998 4 9.2 6.9
Apr-1998 3.7 9.1 6.7
May-1998 3.8 8.9 6.9
Jun-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Jul-1998 3.8 9.5 7.3
Aug-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Sep-1998 3.9 9.1 7.3
Oct-1998 3.9 8.6 7.2
Nov-1998 3.8 8.6 7.1
Dec-1998 3.8 7.7 7.7
Jan-1999 3.8 7.8 6.7
Feb-1999 3.8 8.2 6.7
Mar-1999 3.6 8 5.8
Apr-1999 3.8 7.8 7
May-1999 3.7 7.4 6.7
Jun-1999 3.8 7.7 6.6
Jul-1999 3.7 8.7 6.5
Aug-1999 3.7 7.7 6.5
Sep-1999 3.6 8.5 6.7
Oct-1999 3.5 8.4 6.4
Nov-1999 3.5 8 6
Dec-1999 3.5 7.8 5.8
Jan-2000 3.4 8.2 5.6
Feb-2000 3.6 8.1 5.7
Mar-2000 3.5 7.4 6.1
Apr-2000 3.4 7% 5.5
May-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Jun-2000 3.4 7.8 5.6
Jul-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Aug-2000 3.6 7.9 5.9
Sep-2000 3.5 7.3 5.8
Oct-2000 3.4% 7.3 5.1
Nov-2000 3.5 7.3 6
Dec-2000 3.5 7.4 5.7
Jan-2001 3.6 8.2 5.8
Feb-2001 3.7 7.7 6.1
Mar-2001 3.7 8.3 6.2
Apr-2001 3.9 8 6.4
May-2001 3.8 7.9 6.3
Jun-2001 4 8.3 6.6
Jul-2001 4 8 6.2
Aug-2001 4.3 9.1 6.5
Sep-2001 4.3 8.9 6.7
Oct-2001 4.7 9.5 7.1
Nov-2001 4.9 9.8 7.3
Dec-2001 5.1 10.1 7.7
Jan-2002 5.1 10 7.8
Feb-2002 5 9.9 7
Mar-2002 5 10.5 7.5
Apr-2002 5.2 10.7 8
May-2002 5.1 10.2 7.1
Jun-2002 5.1 10.5 7.4
Jul-2002 5.2 9.8 7.4
Aug-2002 5.1 9.8 7.5
Sep-2002 5.1 9.7 7.4
Oct-2002 5.1 9.8 7.9
Nov-2002 5.1 10.7 7.8
Dec-2002 5.1 11.3 7.9
Jan-2003 5.2 10.5 7.9
Feb-2003 5.1 10.7 7.7
Mar-2003 5.1 10.3 7.8
Apr-2003 5.3 10.9 7.6
May-2003 5.4 10.9 8
Jun-2003 5.5 11.5 8.3
Jul-2003 5.4 10.9 8
Aug-2003 5.4 10.9 7.7
Sep-2003 5.3 11.1 7.3
Oct-2003 5.1 11.4 7.5
Nov-2003 5.2 10.2 7.4
Dec-2003 5 10.1 6.7
Jan-2004 5 10.4 7.3
Feb-2004 4.9 9.7 7.4
Mar-2004 5.1 10.3 7.6
Apr-2004 5 9.8 7.1
May-2004 4.9 10.1 6.9
Jun-2004 5 10.2 6.6
Jul-2004 4.7 11 6.8
Aug-2004 4.7 10.5 6.8
Sep-2004 4.6 10.3 6.8
Oct-2004 4.6 10.8 6.8
Nov-2004 4.6 10.7 6.7
Dec-2004 4.5 10.7 6.6
Jan-2005 4.5 10.6 6
Feb-2005 4.6 10.9 6.3
Mar-2005 4.5 10.5 5.8
Apr-2005 4.4 10.3 6.4
May-2005 4.4 10.1 6
Jun-2005 4.3 10.2 5.7
Jul-2005 4.2 9.2 5.5
Aug-2005 4.2 9.7 5.8
Sep-2005 4.4 9.4 6.4
Oct-2005 4.4 9.1 6
Nov-2005 4.3 10.6 6.1
Dec-2005 4.2 9.2 6.1
Jan-2006 4.1 8.9 5.5
Feb-2006 4.1 9.5 5.4
Mar-2006 4 9.5 5.2
Apr-2006 4.1 9.4 5.5
May-2006 4.1 8.7 5
Jun-2006 4.1 8.9 5.2
Jul-2006 4.1 9.5 5.2
Aug-2006 4.1 8.8 5.3
Sep-2006 3.9 9 5.5
Oct-2006 3.9 8.4 4.8%
Nov-2006 4 8.5 5.1
Dec-2006 3.9 8.3 5
Jan-2007 4.2 7.9 5.5
Feb-2007 4.1 8 5.1
Mar-2007 3.8 8.4 5
Apr-2007 4 8.3 5.6
May-2007 3.9 8.3 5.8
Jun-2007 4.1 8.5 5.5
Jul-2007 4.2 8.1 5.9
Aug-2007 4.2 7.6 5.5
Sep-2007 4.2 8 5.9
Oct-2007 4.1 8.5 5.7
Nov-2007 4.2 8.5 5.9
Dec-2007 4.4 9 6.3
Jan-2008 4.4 9.1 6.3
Feb-2008 4.4 8.4 6.2
Mar-2008 4.5 9.2 6.9
Apr-2008 4.4 8.6 7.1
May-2008 4.8 9.6 6.9
Jun-2008 5 9.4 7.6
Jul-2008 5.2 10 7.5
Aug-2008 5.4 10.6 8
Sep-2008 5.4 11.3 8
Oct-2008 5.9 11.4 8.8
Nov-2008 6.2 11.5 8.7
Dec-2008 6.7 12.1 9.4
Jan-2009 7.1 12.7 10.1
Feb-2009 7.6 13.7 11.3
Mar-2009 8 13.7 11.7
Apr-2009 8.1 15 11.4
May-2009 8.5 15 12.3
Jun-2009 8.7 14.8 12.1
Jul-2009 8.7 14.8 12.5
Aug-2009 8.9 16.8% 13
Sep-2009 8.9 15.3 12.6
Oct-2009 9.2 15.8 12.8
Nov-2009 9.2% 15.7 12.4
Dec-2009 9 16.1 12.8
Jan-2010 8.8 16.5 12.9
Feb-2010 8.9 16.1 12.7
Mar-2010 8.9 16.8 13%
Apr-2010 9 16.6 12.5
May-2010 8.7 15.5 12
Jun-2010 8.6 15.2 12.3
Jul-2010 8.5 15.6 12.2
Aug-2010 8.6 15.9 12
Sep-2010 8.6 16 12.3
Oct-2010 8.6 15.6 12.3
Nov-2010 8.9 16.2 12.9
Dec-2010 8.5 15.5 12.9
Jan-2011 8.1 15.8 12.3
Feb-2011 8.1 15.5 11.8
Mar-2011 8 15.8 11.6
Apr-2011 8.1 16.5 11.9
May-2011 7.9 16.3 11.6
Jun-2011 8.1 16.2 11.5
Jul-2011 8 15.9 11.2
Aug-2011 7.9 16.4 11.2
Sep-2011 7.9 15.9 11.2
Oct-2011 7.9 14.6 11.3
Nov-2011 7.7 15.6 11.2
Dec-2011 7.5 15.4 11.1
Jan-2012 7.4 13.6 10.7
Feb-2012 7.4 14 10.9
Mar-2012 7.3 14 10.6
Apr-2012 7.4 13.3 10.3
May-2012 7.4 13.5 10.9
Jun-2012 7.3 14.5 10.9
Jul-2012 7.3 14.2 10.2
Aug-2012 7.2 13.8 10.1
Sep-2012 7 13.6 9.7
Oct-2012 6.9 14.1 10
Nov-2012 6.8 13.3 9.9
Dec-2012 6.9 14 9.6
Jan-2013 7.1 13.7 9.7
Feb-2013 6.8 13.8 9.7
Mar-2013 6.7 13 9.3
Apr-2013 6.7 13.3 9
May-2013 6.7 13.4 9
Jun-2013 6.6 14.2 9.1
Jul-2013 6.5 12.6 9.4
Aug-2013 6.4 12.8 9.2
Sep-2013 6.3 13 8.8
Oct-2013 6.3 12.8 9.1
Nov-2013 6.1 12.3 8.7
Dec-2013 5.9 11.9 8.3
Jan-2014 5.7 12.1 8.3
Feb-2014 5.8 11.8 8.2
Mar-2014 5.8 12.1 7.9
Apr-2014 5.3 11.6 7.2
May-2014 5.4 11.4 7.7
Jun-2014 5.3 11 7.8
Jul-2014 5.3 11.6 7.7
Aug-2014 5.3 11.4 7.4
Sep-2014 5.1 11 6.8
Oct-2014 4.9 10.6 6.8
Nov-2014 5 10.9 6.6
Dec-2014 4.7 10.6 6.4
Jan-2015 4.9 10.3 6.7
Feb-2015 4.7 10.1 6.8
Mar-2015 4.8 9.9 6.8
Apr-2015 4.7 9.7 6.8
May-2015 4.8 10.3 6.8
Jun-2015 4.6 9.7 6.7
Jul-2015 4.5 9.1 6.9
Aug-2015 4.4 9.4 6.6
Sep-2015 4.4 9.3 6.2
Oct-2015 4.4 9 6.3
Nov-2015 4.4 9.4 6.4
Dec-2015 4.4 8.5 6.2
Jan-2016 4.2 8.5 5.9
Feb-2016 4.2 8.6 5.5
Mar-2016 4.3 8.9 5.6
Apr-2016 4.4 8.8 6.2
May-2016 4.2 8.2 5.7
Jun-2016 4.3 8.7 6
Jul-2016 4.2 8.2 5.4
Aug-2016 4.4 8 5.6
Sep-2016 4.4 8.5 6.2
Oct-2016 4.4 8.5 5.7
Nov-2016 4.2 8.2 5.6
Dec-2016 4.2 8 5.8
Jan-2017 4.2 7.4 5.8
Feb-2017 4 8 5.6
Mar-2017 3.9 7.9 5
Apr-2017 3.9 7.8 5.2
May-2017 3.8 7.6 5.2
Jun-2017 3.8 7.1 5
Jul-2017 3.7 7.2 5.1
Aug-2017 3.9 7.5 5.1
Sep-2017 3.7 7.2 5.1
Oct-2017 3.6 7.6 5
Nov-2017 3.7 7.5 4.9
Dec-2017 3.7 6.9 5
Jan-2018 3.5 7.5 4.9
Feb-2018 3.6 6.8 4.9
Mar-2018 3.5 6.6 4.9
Apr-2018 3.6 6.5 4.8
May-2018 3.5 5.8 4.8
Jun-2018 3.5 6.5 4.6
Jul-2018 3.3 6.4 4.5
Aug-2018 3.4 6.2 4.7
Sep-2018 3.3 6.2 4.6
Oct-2018 3.3 6.4 4.4
Nov-2018 3.4 6.2 4.6
Dec-2018 3.4 6.8 4.5
Jan-2019 3.5 6.9 4.8
Feb-2019 3.2 7 4.3
Mar-2019 3.3 6.5 4.5
Apr-2019 3.2 6.6 4.1
May-2019 3.3 6.1 4.1
Jun-2019 3.3 6 4.3
Jul-2019 3.3 5.6 4.4
Aug-2019 3.4 5.2 4.2
Sep-2019 3.2 5.4 4
Oct-2019 3.3 5.6 4.2
Nov-2019 3.3 5.7 4.3
Dec-2019 3.1 6.2 4.3
Jan-2020 3 6.1 4.3
Feb-2020 3 6 4.4
Mar-2020 3.9 6.8 6
Apr-2020 14.1 16.7 18.9
May-2020 12.3 16.7 17.6
Jun-2020 10.1 15.3 14.5
Jul-2020 9.2 14.4 12.7
Aug-2020 7.4 12.8 10.5
Sep-2020 7 12 10.3
Oct-2020 6 10.8 8.8
Nov-2020 5.9 10.3 8.4
Dec-2020 6 9.9 9.3
Jan-2021 5.7 9.2 8.6
Feb-2021 5.6 9.9 8.5
Mar-2021 5.4% 9.6% 7.9%
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey, public data series

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Labor force participation rate and employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, by gender, 1989–2021

date Labor force participation rate, men Labor force participation rate, women Employment-to-population ratio, men Employment-to-population ratio, women
Jan-1989 93.8 73.6 89.9 70.5
Feb-1989 93.7 73.5 89.8 70.4
Mar-1989 93.7 73.4 89.9 70.2
Apr-1989 93.7 73.5 89.7 70.3
May-1989 93.5 73.4 89.8 70.1
Jun-1989 93.5 73.3 90 70.1
Jul-1989 93.6 73.4 89.9 70
Aug-1989 93.5 73.5 90 70.2
Sep-1989 93.6 74 89.7 70.7
Oct-1989 93.7 73.8 89.8 70.5
Nov-1989 93.9 74.1 89.9 70.8
Dec-1989 93.8 74.1 90 70.7
Jan-1990 93.9 74.1 89.9 70.9
Feb-1990 94 74 90.1 70.8
Mar-1990 93.6 74 89.8 70.8
Apr-1990 93.5 73.9 89.4 70.7
May-1990 93.3 74.1 89.3 70.8
Jun-1990 93.3 73.9 89.3 70.6
Jul-1990 93.2 74 89 70.6
Aug-1990 93.3 74 88.9 70.5
Sep-1990 93.1 74 88.7 70.5
Oct-1990 93.2 73.9 88.6 70.4
Nov-1990 93.4 73.9 88.5 70.2
Dec-1990 93.1 73.9 88.1 70.1
Jan-1991 93.2 73.7 88.2 69.9
Feb-1991 93.4 73.9 88 70.1
Mar-1991 93.3 74 87.7 70
Apr-1991 93.4 74.3 87.9 70.3
May-1991 93 74.1 87.4 70.1
Jun-1991 93.1 74.2 87.5 70.2
Jul-1991 93 73.9 87.5 70.1
Aug-1991 92.9 74.1 87.4 70
Sep-1991 93.1 74.1 87.5 70.1
Oct-1991 92.9 74.2 87.2 70
Nov-1991 92.9 74.1 87.1 70
Dec-1991 92.7 74.1 86.9 69.9
Jan-1992 93 74.4 86.9 70.1
Feb-1992 92.8 74.4 86.6 70
Mar-1992 92.9 74.5 86.8 70
Apr-1992 93 74.7 86.9 70.2
May-1992 93.2 74.8 86.8 70.3
Jun-1992 93.3 74.9 86.9 70.3
Jul-1992 93.1 74.8 86.9 70.2
Aug-1992 93.2 74.8 86.9 70.2
Sep-1992 93.1 74.5 86.8 70.1
Oct-1992 93 74.4 86.7 70
Nov-1992 92.7 74.6 86.6 70.1
Dec-1992 92.6 74.6 86.7 69.9
Jan-1993 92.6 74.3 86.8 69.9
Feb-1993 92.4 74.2 86.7 69.9
Mar-1993 92.4 74.4 86.5 70.3
Apr-1993 92.5 74.1 86.8 69.9
May-1993 92.6 74.5 87 70.2
Jun-1993 92.8 74.6 87.1 70.4
Jul-1993 92.7 74.6 87.1 70.4
Aug-1993 92.7 74.8 87.2 70.6
Sep-1993 92.5 74.7 87.1 70.5
Oct-1993 92.5 74.8 87.1 70.5
Nov-1993 92.6 74.9 87.5 70.7
Dec-1993 92.4 75.2 87.4 71
Jan-1994 92.1 75 87.1 71
Feb-1994 91.9 75.3 86.8 71.3
Mar-1994 91.7 75.2 87 71.1
Apr-1994 91.7 75.1 87.1 71.2
May-1994 91.6 75.2 87.3 71.3
Jun-1994 91.4 74.7 87 70.9
Jul-1994 91.5 75.1 87 71.4
Aug-1994 91.4 75.4 87 71.7
Sep-1994 91.6 76 87.4 72.1
Oct-1994 91.8 75.5 87.5 71.9
Nov-1994 91.9 75.6 87.9 72
Dec-1994 92 75.2 88 71.8
Jan-1995 92 75.3 87.9 71.8
Feb-1995 92 75.5 88.1 72.2
Mar-1995 91.8 75.5 87.9 72.1
Apr-1995 91.8 75.9 87.7 72.2
May-1995 91.8 75.5 87.6 72.1
Jun-1995 91.6 75.2 87.6 71.7
Jul-1995 91.4 75.7 87.5 72.2
Aug-1995 91.4 75.6 87.4 72.1
Sep-1995 91.5 75.7 87.6 72.3
Oct-1995 91.3 75.8 87.6 72.3
Nov-1995 91.3 76 87.2 72.6
Dec-1995 91.3 75.7 87.2 72.4
Jan-1996 91.5 75.8 87.5 72.4
Feb-1996 91.7 75.7 87.7 72.4
Mar-1996 91.5 75.8 87.5 72.6
Apr-1996 91.6 75.9 87.5 72.6
May-1996 91.6 76 87.6 72.5
Jun-1996 91.6 76 87.8 72.7
Jul-1996 91.8 76.3 88.1 72.9
Aug-1996 92 76.3 88.4 73
Sep-1996 91.9 76.2 88.1 73
Oct-1996 92 76.4 88.3 73.1
Nov-1996 92 76.5 88.2 73
Dec-1996 91.9 76.6 88.3 73
Jan-1997 91.9 76.5 88.2 73.2
Feb-1997 91.9 76.3 88.2 72.9
Mar-1997 91.8 76.6 88.2 73.3
Apr-1997 91.7 76.5 88.1 73.5
May-1997 91.5 76.4 88.1 73.3
Jun-1997 91.8 76.7 88.4 73.6
Jul-1997 91.9 77 88.6 73.9
Aug-1997 92 77.2 88.7 74.1
Sep-1997 91.9 77 88.6 73.9
Oct-1997 91.8 76.8 88.6 73.8
Nov-1997 91.8 76.5 88.7 73.6
Dec-1997 91.8 76.6 88.6 73.6
Jan-1998 91.9 76.4 88.8 73.4
Feb-1998 91.8 76.5 88.9 73.4
Mar-1998 92 76.7 88.8 73.5
Apr-1998 91.8 76.3 88.9 73.5
May-1998 91.7 76.3 88.8 73.4
Jun-1998 91.7 76.4 88.7 73.6
Jul-1998 91.9 76.5 88.7 73.8
Aug-1998 91.7 76.6 88.8 73.9
Sep-1998 91.7 76.8 88.8 74
Oct-1998 91.8 76.7 88.8 73.7
Nov-1998 91.9 76.6 89.1 73.7
Dec-1998 91.8 76.8 88.9 74
Jan-1999 92.5 77 89.7 74.3
Feb-1999 92.2 76.8 89.2 74.1
Mar-1999 91.8 76.5 89.2 73.8
Apr-1999 91.9 76.6 89.1 73.8
May-1999 91.8 76.7 88.9 74.1
Jun-1999 91.6 76.9 88.8 74.2
Jul-1999 91.6 76.6 88.8 73.8
Aug-1999 91.5 76.7 88.7 74.1
Sep-1999 91.4 76.9 88.6 74.3
Oct-1999 91.4 77 88.7 74.5
Nov-1999 91.6 77.1 89 74.5
Dec-1999 91.6 76.7 89 74.3
Jan-2000 92.1 77 89.5 74.4
Feb-2000 92.2 76.9 89.4 74.5
Mar-2000 91.9 77.1 89.3 74.5
Apr-2000 91.7 77.3 89.2 74.9
May-2000 91.5 77 89 74.4
Jun-2000 91.7 76.8 89.1 74.2
Jul-2000 91.5 76.6 88.9 73.9
Aug-2000 91.5 76.3 88.9 73.6
Sep-2000 91.3 76.4 88.6 73.9
Oct-2000 91.2 76.3 88.6 73.9
Nov-2000 91.4 76.5 88.8 74.1
Dec-2000 91.6 76.5 88.9 74.1
Jan-2001 91.7 76.9 88.9 74.2
Feb-2001 91.6 76.8 88.8 74.2
Mar-2001 91.5 76.9 88.5 74.3
Apr-2001 91.4 76.3 88.3 73.7
May-2001 91.4 76.4 88.3 73.7
Jun-2001 91.3 76.2 88.1 73.4
Jul-2001 91.2 76.2 87.9 73.4
Aug-2001 91.1 76.2 87.6 73.2
Sep-2001 91.1 76.2 87.6 73.1
Oct-2001 91.3 76.1 87.4 72.7
Nov-2001 91 76.2 87 72.6
Dec-2001 91.2 76.3 87.1 72.6
Jan-2002 91.1 76.1 86.8 72.5
Feb-2002 91.3 76.4 87.1 72.7
Mar-2002 91.3 76.1 87 72.5
Apr-2002 91.2 76.2 86.8 72.5
May-2002 91.3 76.1 86.9 72.2
Jun-2002 91 75.7 86.5 72.1
Jul-2002 90.9 75.5 86.5 71.9
Aug-2002 91.1 75.7 86.8 72.1
Sep-2002 91.1 75.8 86.8 72.2
Oct-2002 91 75.7 86.6 72.1
Nov-2002 90.6 75.4 85.9 71.9
Dec-2002 90.6 75.8 86 72.2
Jan-2003 90.2 75.8 85.6 72.4
Feb-2003 90.5 75.8 85.9 72.1
Mar-2003 90.4 76.1 85.8 72.4
Apr-2003 90.7 76 85.9 72.4
May-2003 90.6 75.9 85.7 72.2
Jun-2003 90.7 76.1 85.8 72.3
Jul-2003 90.6 75.6 85.8 71.9
Aug-2003 90.7 75.6 85.7 72
Sep-2003 90.7 75.3 85.9 71.6
Oct-2003 90.7 75.3 85.9 71.6
Nov-2003 90.7 75.2 86 71.7
Dec-2003 90.7 75.1 86.4 71.4
Jan-2004 90.7 75.2 86.4 71.6
Feb-2004 90.4 75.2 86.2 71.7
Mar-2004 90.2 75.5 86 71.8
Apr-2004 90.3 75.4 86.2 71.8
May-2004 90.5 75.3 86.3 71.9
Jun-2004 90.5 75.5 86.5 71.9
Jul-2004 90.7 75.4 86.7 71.9
Aug-2004 90.5 75.1 86.5 71.8
Sep-2004 90.4 75.2 86.4 71.9
Oct-2004 90.2 75.1 86.3 71.9
Nov-2004 90.4 75.2 86.5 72
Dec-2004 90.3 75.1 86.2 71.8
Jan-2005 90.3 75.3 86.5 72
Feb-2005 90.5 75.3 86.7 71.9
Mar-2005 90.5 75 86.8 71.8
Apr-2005 90.5 75.2 87 72
May-2005 90.7 75.3 87.1 72.1
Jun-2005 90.4 75 87 71.7
Jul-2005 90.5 75.3 87 71.9
Aug-2005 90.9 75.2 87.4 72.1
Sep-2005 90.6 75.4 87 72.1
Oct-2005 90.4 75.2 87 71.9
Nov-2005 90.3 75.3 86.8 71.9
Dec-2005 90.2 75.4 86.7 72.1
Jan-2006 90.4 75.3 87.2 72.2
Feb-2006 90.6 75.5 87.1 72.4
Mar-2006 90.9 75.4 87.4 72.3
Apr-2006 90.6 75.3 87.2 72.1
May-2006 90.6 75.3 87.2 72.3
Jun-2006 90.5 75.4 87.2 72.5
Jul-2006 90.4 75.7 87.1 72.7
Aug-2006 90.5 75.6 87.1 72.6
Sep-2006 90.4 75.5 87.4 72.5
Oct-2006 90.4 75.6 87.4 72.9
Nov-2006 90.7 75.5 87.5 72.7
Dec-2006 90.9 75.5 87.7 72.7
Jan-2007 91.5 75.6 88 72.8
Feb-2007 91.4 75.3 87.9 72.6
Mar-2007 91.2 75.3 88 72.7
Apr-2007 91.1 75 87.9 72.2
May-2007 90.9 75.3 87.7 72.5
Jun-2007 90.7 75.3 87.5 72.5
Jul-2007 90.6 75.4 87.3 72.4
Aug-2007 90.5 75.5 87.2 72.6
Sep-2007 90.4 75.4 87.1 72.5
Oct-2007 90.3 75.3 86.9 72.4
Nov-2007 90.6 75.5 87.2 72.5
Dec-2007 90.9 75.5 87.2 72.4
Jan-2008 91.1 75.7 87.4 72.7
Feb-2008 91 75.5 87.4 72.6
Mar-2008 90.9 75.8 87.1 72.6
Apr-2008 90.6 75.8 86.7 72.7
May-2008 90.5 75.9 86.5 72.6
Jun-2008 90.5 76 86.3 72.6
Jul-2008 90.7 75.7 86.2 72.4
Aug-2008 90.5 76 85.8 72.1
Sep-2008 90.5 75.8 85.4 72.3
Oct-2008 90.4 75.8 85.2 71.9
Nov-2008 90.3 75.9 84.7 71.7
Dec-2008 89.9 75.9 83.7 71.6
Jan-2009 90 75.8 83.1 71.1
Feb-2009 89.8 76 82.5 71
Mar-2009 89.7 75.7 82 70.6
Apr-2009 89.9 75.9 81.8 70.7
May-2009 90.1 75.8 81.5 70.4
Jun-2009 90 75.9 81.5 70.4
Jul-2009 89.8 75.8 81.3 70.4
Aug-2009 90.1 75.6 81.2 70
Sep-2009 89.8 75.3 80.8 69.5
Oct-2009 89.8 75.3 80.8 69.4
Nov-2009 89.6 75.4 80.7 69.8
Dec-2009 88.9 75.2 80.4 69.2
Jan-2010 89.2 75.6 80.7 69.8
Feb-2010 89.2 75.5 80.6 69.7
Mar-2010 89.5 75.5 80.8 69.5
Apr-2010 89.7 75.6 81.3 69.6
May-2010 89.5 75.2 81.1 69.3
Jun-2010 89.5 75.1 81.1 69.5
Jul-2010 89.2 74.8 81.1 69.1
Aug-2010 89.3 74.9 81.2 69
Sep-2010 89.3 74.9 81.2 69.1
Oct-2010 88.9 74.9 81.1 69
Nov-2010 88.9 75.3 80.7 69.1
Dec-2010 88.6 75.2 80.8 69.4
Jan-2011 88.6 74.9 81.2 69.3
Feb-2011 88.7 74.7 81.4 69
Mar-2011 88.8 74.9 81.4 69.3
Apr-2011 88.7 74.9 81.2 69.1
May-2011 89 74.6 81.6 68.9
Jun-2011 88.9 74.6 81.3 68.8
Jul-2011 88.6 74.5 81.1 69
Aug-2011 88.7 74.7 81.4 68.9
Sep-2011 88.6 74.6 81.3 68.7
Oct-2011 88.4 74.4 81.1 68.9
Nov-2011 88.7 74.4 81.9 68.8
Dec-2011 88.7 74.6 82.1 68.9
Jan-2012 88.8 74.5 82.5 68.9
Feb-2012 88.7 74.5 82.4 68.9
Mar-2012 88.9 74.5 82.5 69.2
Apr-2012 88.7 74.4 82.5 69.1
May-2012 88.6 74.5 82.5 69.2
Jun-2012 88.9 74.4 82.6 69
Jul-2012 88.6 74.5 82.4 69.1
Aug-2012 88.6 74.5 82.4 69.2
Sep-2012 88.6 74.6 82.7 69.5
Oct-2012 88.8 74.7 82.9 69.6
Nov-2012 88.4 74.3 82.5 69.4
Dec-2012 88.6 74.6 82.8 69.4
Jan-2013 88.4 74 82.6 68.9
Feb-2013 88.5 73.9 82.8 69
Mar-2013 88.3 73.9 82.8 69
Apr-2013 88.6 73.7 82.8 69.1
May-2013 88.6 74 83 69.3
Jun-2013 88.6 74 82.9 69.2
Jul-2013 88.5 74.1 82.9 69.4
Aug-2013 88.3 74 82.6 69.6
Sep-2013 88.4 73.9 82.6 69.6
Oct-2013 88 73.5 82.4 69
Nov-2013 88.6 73.8 83 69.3
Dec-2013 88.1 73.8 83 69.5
Jan-2014 88.2 73.9 83.2 69.8
Feb-2014 88.1 74.3 83 70.1
Mar-2014 88.3 74.2 83.5 69.8
Apr-2014 87.9 74 83.2 69.9
May-2014 88 73.8 83.3 69.8
Jun-2014 88.3 74 83.8 70.2
Jul-2014 88.3 73.7 83.8 69.8
Aug-2014 88.5 74 83.9 70.1
Sep-2014 88.1 73.7 84.1 69.8
Oct-2014 88.1 73.9 84 70.1
Nov-2014 88.1 73.9 83.9 70.3
Dec-2014 88.2 73.8 84.2 70.3
Jan-2015 88.5 73.8 84.3 70.2
Feb-2015 88.4 73.6 84.3 70.3
Mar-2015 88.5 73.4 84.5 70
Apr-2015 88.4 73.8 84.4 70.2
May-2015 88.3 74.1 84.3 70.4
Jun-2015 88.3 73.8 84.5 70.5
Jul-2015 88.1 73.5 84.4 70.1
Aug-2015 88.2 73.5 84.6 70.2
Sep-2015 88.2 73.3 84.6 70.2
Oct-2015 88.2 73.6 84.4 70.3
Nov-2015 88.1 73.9 84.4 70.7
Dec-2015 88.2 73.9 84.5 70.6
Jan-2016 88.4 74 84.9 70.7
Feb-2016 88.4 74 84.9 70.8
Mar-2016 88.7 74.2 85.2 70.9
Apr-2016 88.6 74.2 84.8 70.9
May-2016 88.4 74.2 84.9 71
Jun-2016 88.7 74.2 85.1 71
Jul-2016 88.5 74.2 84.9 71.4
Aug-2016 88.5 74.4 84.9 71.1
Sep-2016 88.6 74.7 84.9 71.4
Oct-2016 88.6 74.7 85 71.5
Nov-2016 88.5 74.4 85 71.4
Dec-2016 88.5 74.4 85 71.4
Jan-2017 88.8 74.4 85.3 71.3
Feb-2017 88.6 74.7 85.1 71.6
Mar-2017 88.5 74.9 85.2 72
Apr-2017 88.6 75.1 85.4 72
May-2017 88.5 75.1 85.3 71.9
Jun-2017 88.6 75 85.3 72.2
Jul-2017 88.7 75.2 85.3 72.4
Aug-2017 88.5 75 85 72.1
Sep-2017 88.7 75.3 85.6 72.5
Oct-2017 88.7 74.8 85.6 72.2
Nov-2017 88.5 75.3 85.6 72.5
Dec-2017 88.9 74.9 86 72.2
Jan-2018 88.9 74.7 85.9 72.1
Feb-2018 89.1 75.1 86.4 72.3
Mar-2018 89.1 75 86.2 72.4
Apr-2018 89.3 74.9 86.3 72.2
May-2018 89.1 74.9 86.3 72.5
Jun-2018 89 75.4 86.1 72.8
Jul-2018 88.9 75.6 86.3 73.1
Aug-2018 88.8 75.4 86 72.9
Sep-2018 88.7 75.3 85.9 73.1
Oct-2018 89.1 75.8 86.2 73.4
Nov-2018 89 75.6 86.3 73.1
Dec-2018 88.9 75.8 86 73.3
Jan-2019 89.3 75.8 86.4 73.3
Feb-2019 89.2 75.7 86.5 73.3
Mar-2019 89.5 75.6 86.7 73.1
Apr-2019 89.2 75.5 86.4 73.2
May-2019 88.9 75.6 86.3 73.3
Jun-2019 88.8 75.9 86.1 73.6
Jul-2019 89 75.4 86.2 73.2
Aug-2019 89.1 76.3 86.3 74
Sep-2019 89.2 76.4 86.4 74.2
Oct-2019 89.1 76.8 86.5 74.4
Nov-2019 89.3 76.6 86.7 74.1
Dec-2019 89.1 76.9 86.5 74.5
Jan-2020 89.3 76.9 86.6 74.6
Feb-2020 89.1 76.8 86.4 74.5
Mar-2020 89 76.2 85.8 73.3
Apr-2020 86.4 73.5 76 63.4
May-2020 87.1 74.2 77.9 64.9
Jun-2020 87.8 75.3 79.6 67.7
Jul-2020 87.6 75.2 79.9 68.1
Aug-2020 88 75 81.6 69.3
Sep-2020 87.6 74.4 81.5 68.9
Oct-2020 87.9 74.8 82.1 70.1
Nov-2020 87.4 74.5 81.9 70.2
Dec-2020 87.3 74.8 82.3 70.4
Jan-2021 87.7 74.8 82.5 70.4
Feb-2021 87.6 74.9 82.6 70.6
Mar-2021 87.6 75.2 82.8 71
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data.

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A more comprehensive look at unemployment rates: Unemployment rates for select workers by race/ethnicity and gender, February 2020, April 2020, and March 2021

February 2020 April 2020 March 2021
White men  3.5% 12.8% 5.2%
White women 2.8% 15.7% 5.0%
Black men 6.7% 16.4% 9.8%
Black women 5.0% 17.0% 8.7%
Latinx men 3.9% 16.9% 7.5%
Latinx women 5.0% 20.5% 7.3%
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The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Data are for workers ages 20 and older. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race. Unemployment levels are labeled for February, November, and the peak in between.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Household Data Table A-2, and Table A-3.

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A more comprehensive look at employment losses: Employment-to-population ratios for select workers by race/ethnicity and gender, February 2020, April 2020, and March 2021

February 2020 April 2020 March 2021
White men 69.7% 60.5% 65.9
White women 56.6% 47.1% 53.7
Black men 64.0% 53.2% 60.0
Black women 60.8% 49.6% 54.4
Latinx men 78.5% 64.3% 73.4
Latinx women 59.1% 45.0% 54.0
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The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Data are for workers ages 20 and older. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race. Employment to population levels are labeled for February, November, and the trough in between.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Household Data Table A-2, and Table A-3.

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Monthly change in payroll employment, 2007–2021

date Change in Employment
Jan-2007 228
Feb-2007 81
Mar-2007 235
Apr-2007 49
May-2007 151
Jun-2007 76
Jul-2007 -31
Aug-2007 -23
Sep-2007 80
Oct-2007 79
Nov-2007 110
Dec-2007 108
Jan-2008 11
Feb-2008 -79
Mar-2008 -49
Apr-2008 -240
May-2008 -177
Jun-2008 -171
Jul-2008 -196
Aug-2008 -278
Sep-2008 -460
Oct-2008 -481
Nov-2008 -727
Dec-2008 -706
Jan-2009 -784
Feb-2009 -743
Mar-2009 -800
Apr-2009 -695
May-2009 -342
Jun-2009 -467
Jul-2009 -340
Aug-2009 -183
Sep-2009 -241
Oct-2009 -199
Nov-2009 12
Dec-2009 -269
Jan-2010 2
Feb-2010 -92
Mar-2010 181
Apr-2010 231
May-2010 540
Jun-2010 -139
Jul-2010 -84
Aug-2010 -5
Sep-2010 -65
Oct-2010 268
Nov-2010 125
Dec-2010 72
Jan-2011 19
Feb-2011 212
Mar-2011 235
Apr-2011 314
May-2011 101
Jun-2011 236
Jul-2011 60
Aug-2011 126
Sep-2011 233
Oct-2011 204
Nov-2011 132
Dec-2011 202
Jan-2012 354
Feb-2012 262
Mar-2012 240
Apr-2012 82
May-2012 100
Jun-2012 73
Jul-2012 152
Aug-2012 172
Sep-2012 187
Oct-2012 159
Nov-2012 156
Dec-2012 239
Jan-2013 191
Feb-2013 278
Mar-2013 139
Apr-2013 191
May-2013 222
Jun-2013 181
Jul-2013 112
Aug-2013 242
Sep-2013 187
Oct-2013 225
Nov-2013 264
Dec-2013 69
Jan-2014 175
Feb-2014 166
Mar-2014 254
Apr-2014 325
May-2014 218
Jun-2014 326
Jul-2014 232
Aug-2014 188
Sep-2014 309
Oct-2014 252
Nov-2014 291
Dec-2014 268
Jan-2015 191
Feb-2015 271
Mar-2015 71
Apr-2015 284
May-2015 331
Jun-2015 174
Jul-2015 302
Aug-2015 125
Sep-2015 155
Oct-2015 306
Nov-2015 237
Dec-2015 273
Jan-2016 108
Feb-2016 212
Mar-2016 237
Apr-2016 197
May-2016 41
Jun-2016 258
Jul-2016 371
Aug-2016 143
Sep-2016 289
Oct-2016 118
Nov-2016 130
Dec-2016 214
Jan-2017 197
Feb-2017 183
Mar-2017 139
Apr-2017 220
May-2017 141
Jun-2017 211
Jul-2017 228
Aug-2017 190
Sep-2017 42
Oct-2017 249
Nov-2017 196
Dec-2017 179
Jan-2018 81
Feb-2018 378
Mar-2018 195
Apr-2018 153
May-2018 270
Jun-2018 214
Jul-2018 149
Aug-2018 229
Sep-2018 105
Oct-2018 212
Nov-2018 92
Dec-2018 240
Jan-2019 237
Feb-2019 -50
Mar-2019 168
Apr-2019 219
May-2019 63
Jun-2019 175
Jul-2019 193
Aug-2019 195
Sep-2019 221
Oct-2019 195
Nov-2019 234
Dec-2019 161
Jan-2020 315
Feb-2020 289
Mar-2020 -1683
Apr-2020 -20679
May-2020 2833
Jun-2020 4846
Jul-2020 1726
Aug-2020 1583
Sep-2020 716
Oct-2020 680
Nov-2020 264
Dec-2020 -306
Jan-2021 233
Feb-2021 468
Mar-2021 916
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Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series

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Nominal wage growth spikes from compositional shifts in the COVID-19 economy, 2007–2021

Date All nonfarm employees Production/nonsupervisory workers
Mar-2007 3.39% 4.11%
Apr-2007 3.07% 3.85%
May-2007 3.53% 4.08%
Jun-2007 3.61% 4.19%
Jul-2007 3.25% 4.11%
Aug-2007 3.40% 4.04%
Sep-2007 3.09% 4.09%
Oct-2007 3.03% 3.84%
Nov-2007 3.13% 3.89%
Dec-2007 2.97% 3.81%
Jan-2008 2.91% 3.74%
Feb-2008 2.85% 3.79%
Mar-2008 3.09% 3.83%
Apr-2008 2.79% 3.76%
May-2008 3.02% 3.75%
Jun-2008 2.72% 3.50%
Jul-2008 3.01% 3.67%
Aug-2008 3.33% 3.89%
Sep-2008 3.23% 3.64%
Oct-2008 3.32% 3.81%
Nov-2008 3.60% 3.86%
Dec-2008 3.59% 3.90%
Jan-2009 3.68% 3.78%
Feb-2009 3.43% 3.60%
Mar-2009 3.28% 3.47%
Apr-2009 3.37% 3.35%
May-2009 2.93% 3.06%
Jun-2009 2.83% 2.94%
Jul-2009 2.73% 2.71%
Aug-2009 2.44% 2.70%
Sep-2009 2.49% 2.75%
Oct-2009 2.53% 2.68%
Nov-2009 2.19% 2.68%
Dec-2009 1.91% 2.45%
Jan-2010 2.00% 2.61%
Feb-2010 2.09% 2.55%
Mar-2010 1.77% 2.22%
Apr-2010 1.81% 2.38%
May-2010 1.95% 2.59%
Jun-2010 1.81% 2.48%
Jul-2010 1.85% 2.42%
Aug-2010 1.75% 2.36%
Sep-2010 1.84% 2.19%
Oct-2010 1.93% 2.45%
Nov-2010 1.65% 2.18%
Dec-2010 1.79% 2.07%
Jan-2011 1.96% 2.33%
Feb-2011 1.87% 2.12%
Mar-2011 1.87% 2.12%
Apr-2011 1.91% 2.11%
May-2011 2.04% 2.10%
Jun-2011 2.13% 2.05%
Jul-2011 2.26% 2.26%
Aug-2011 1.99% 1.88%
Sep-2011 1.94% 1.94%
Oct-2011 2.07% 1.88%
Nov-2011 1.98% 1.82%
Dec-2011 1.98% 1.77%
Jan-2012 1.71% 1.40%
Feb-2012 1.75% 1.45%
Mar-2012 2.14% 1.71%
Apr-2012 2.05% 1.65%
May-2012 1.74% 1.39%
Jun-2012 1.96% 1.60%
Jul-2012 1.77% 1.39%
Aug-2012 1.82% 1.39%
Sep-2012 1.99% 1.54%
Oct-2012 1.51% 1.18%
Nov-2012 1.94% 1.43%
Dec-2012 2.24% 1.74%
Jan-2013 2.24% 1.79%
Feb-2013 2.15% 2.04%
Mar-2013 1.93% 1.88%
Apr-2013 2.05% 1.83%
May-2013 2.14% 1.88%
Jun-2013 2.17% 2.03%
Jul-2013 2.00% 2.03%
Aug-2013 2.30% 2.18%
Sep-2013 2.08% 2.28%
Oct-2013 2.25% 2.32%
Nov-2013 2.24% 2.37%
Dec-2013 1.85% 2.21%
Jan-2014 1.89% 2.26%
Feb-2014 2.31% 2.55%
Mar-2014 2.10% 2.45%
Apr-2014 1.97% 2.35%
May-2014 2.13% 2.44%
Jun-2014 1.96% 2.24%
Jul-2014 2.09% 2.33%
Aug-2014 2.16% 2.48%
Sep-2014 2.08% 2.17%
Oct-2014 2.03% 2.22%
Nov-2014 2.03% 2.22%
Dec-2014 1.99% 1.77%
Jan-2015 2.15% 2.01%
Feb-2015 1.89% 1.46%
Mar-2015 2.18% 1.85%
Apr-2015 2.26% 1.95%
May-2015 2.30% 2.19%
Jun-2015 2.21% 2.14%
Jul-2015 2.12% 2.04%
Aug-2015 2.24% 1.98%
Sep-2015 2.24% 2.13%
Oct-2015 2.48% 2.37%
Nov-2015 2.39% 2.12%
Dec-2015 2.52% 2.61%
Jan-2016 2.55% 2.45%
Feb-2016 2.42% 2.60%
Mar-2016 2.46% 2.49%
Apr-2016 2.57% 2.58%
May-2016 2.48% 2.29%
Jun-2016 2.60% 2.48%
Jul-2016 2.80% 2.62%
Aug-2016 2.47% 2.51%
Sep-2016 2.63% 2.51%
Oct-2016 2.74% 2.41%
Nov-2016 2.65% 2.45%
Dec-2016 2.65% 2.45%
Jan-2017 2.52% 2.35%
Feb-2017 2.76% 2.44%
Mar-2017 2.59% 2.24%
Apr-2017 2.51% 2.24%
May-2017 2.46% 2.33%
Jun-2017 2.50% 2.32%
Jul-2017 2.57% 2.32%
Aug-2017 2.57% 2.31%
Sep-2017 2.87% 2.59%
Oct-2017 2.32% 2.21%
Nov-2017 2.47% 2.35%
Dec-2017 2.70% 2.48%
Jan-2018 2.73% 2.52%
Feb-2018 2.57% 2.47%
Mar-2018 2.80% 2.79%
Apr-2018 2.83% 2.83%
May-2018 2.94% 2.91%
Jun-2018 2.93% 2.91%
Jul-2018 2.85% 2.85%
Aug-2018 3.18% 3.08%
Sep-2018 3.02% 2.97%
Oct-2018 3.32% 3.25%
Nov-2018 3.35% 3.46%
Dec-2018 3.38% 3.54%
Jan-2019 3.26% 3.35%
Feb-2019 3.51% 3.53%
Mar-2019 3.43% 3.51%
Apr-2019 3.34% 3.46%
May-2019 3.30% 3.58%
Jun-2019 3.40% 3.53%
Jul-2019 3.47% 3.65%
Aug-2019 3.45% 3.73%
Sep-2019 3.11% 3.67%
Oct-2019 3.22% 3.76%
Nov-2019 3.28% 3.52%
Dec-2019 3.01% 3.25%
Jan-2020 3.08% 3.33%
Feb-2020 3.00% 3.32%
Mar-2020 3.35% 3.52%
Apr-2020 7.98% 7.67%
May-2020 6.57% 6.62%
Jun-2020 4.86% 5.41%
Jul-2020 4.78% 4.63%
ChartData Download data

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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series

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Employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, 1989–2021

date Employment to population ratio
Jan-1989 80.0%
Feb-1989 79.9%
Mar-1989 79.9%
Apr-1989 79.8%
May-1989 79.8%
Jun-1989 79.8%
Jul-1989 79.8%
Aug-1989 79.9%
Sep-1989 80.0%
Oct-1989 79.9%
Nov-1989 80.2%
Dec-1989 80.1%
Jan-1990 80.2%
Feb-1990 80.2%
Mar-1990 80.1%
Apr-1990 79.9%
May-1990 79.9%
Jun-1990 79.8%
Jul-1990 79.6%
Aug-1990 79.5%
Sep-1990 79.4%
Oct-1990 79.4%
Nov-1990 79.2%
Dec-1990 79.0%
Jan-1991 78.9%
Feb-1991 78.9%
Mar-1991 78.7%
Apr-1991 79.0%
May-1991 78.6%
Jun-1991 78.7%
Jul-1991 78.6%
Aug-1991 78.5%
Sep-1991 78.6%
Oct-1991 78.5%
Nov-1991 78.4%
Dec-1991 78.3%
Jan-1992 78.4%
Feb-1992 78.2%
Mar-1992 78.2%
Apr-1992 78.4%
May-1992 78.4%
Jun-1992 78.5%
Jul-1992 78.4%
Aug-1992 78.4%
Sep-1992 78.3%
Oct-1992 78.2%
Nov-1992 78.2%
Dec-1992 78.2%
Jan-1993 78.2%
Feb-1993 78.1%
Mar-1993 78.2%
Apr-1993 78.2%
May-1993 78.5%
Jun-1993 78.6%
Jul-1993 78.6%
Aug-1993 78.8%
Sep-1993 78.6%
Oct-1993 78.7%
Nov-1993 79.0%
Dec-1993 79.0%
Jan-1994 78.9%
Feb-1994 78.9%
Mar-1994 78.9%
Apr-1994 79.0%
May-1994 79.2%
Jun-1994 78.8%
Jul-1994 79.1%
Aug-1994 79.2%
Sep-1994 79.6%
Oct-1994 79.6%
Nov-1994 79.8%
Dec-1994 79.8%
Jan-1995 79.7%
Feb-1995 80.0%
Mar-1995 79.9%
Apr-1995 79.8%
May-1995 79.7%
Jun-1995 79.5%
Jul-1995 79.7%
Aug-1995 79.6%
Sep-1995 79.8%
Oct-1995 79.8%
Nov-1995 79.7%
Dec-1995 79.7%
Jan-1996 79.8%
Feb-1996 79.9%
Mar-1996 79.9%
Apr-1996 79.9%
May-1996 80.0%
Jun-1996 80.1%
Jul-1996 80.4%
Aug-1996 80.5%
Sep-1996 80.4%
Oct-1996 80.6%
Nov-1996 80.5%
Dec-1996 80.5%
Jan-1997 80.5%
Feb-1997 80.4%
Mar-1997 80.6%
Apr-1997 80.7%
May-1997 80.6%
Jun-1997 80.9%
Jul-1997 81.1%
Aug-1997 81.3%
Sep-1997 81.1%
Oct-1997 81.1%
Nov-1997 81.0%
Dec-1997 81.0%
Jan-1998 81.0%
Feb-1998 81.0%
Mar-1998 81.0%
Apr-1998 81.1%
May-1998 81.0%
Jun-1998 81.0%
Jul-1998 81.1%
Aug-1998 81.2%
Sep-1998 81.3%
Oct-1998 81.1%
Nov-1998 81.2%
Dec-1998 81.3%
Jan-1999 81.8%
Feb-1999 81.5%
Mar-1999 81.3%
Apr-1999 81.3%
May-1999 81.4%
Jun-1999 81.4%
Jul-1999 81.2%
Aug-1999 81.3%
Sep-1999 81.3%
Oct-1999 81.5%
Nov-1999 81.6%
Dec-1999 81.5%
Jan-2000 81.8%
Feb-2000 81.8%
Mar-2000 81.7%
Apr-2000 81.9%
May-2000 81.5%
Jun-2000 81.5%
Jul-2000 81.3%
Aug-2000 81.1%
Sep-2000 81.1%
Oct-2000 81.1%
Nov-2000 81.3%
Dec-2000 81.4%
Jan-2001 81.4%
Feb-2001 81.3%
Mar-2001 81.3%
Apr-2001 80.9%
May-2001 80.8%
Jun-2001 80.6%
Jul-2001 80.5%
Aug-2001 80.2%
Sep-2001 80.2%
Oct-2001 79.9%
Nov-2001 79.7%
Dec-2001 79.8%
Jan-2002 79.6%
Feb-2002 79.8%
Mar-2002 79.6%
Apr-2002 79.5%
May-2002 79.4%
Jun-2002 79.2%
Jul-2002 79.1%
Aug-2002 79.3%
Sep-2002 79.4%
Oct-2002 79.2%
Nov-2002 78.8%
Dec-2002 79.0%
Jan-2003 78.9%
Feb-2003 78.9%
Mar-2003 79.0%
Apr-2003 79.1%
May-2003 78.9%
Jun-2003 78.9%
Jul-2003 78.8%
Aug-2003 78.7%
Sep-2003 78.6%
Oct-2003 78.6%
Nov-2003 78.7%
Dec-2003 78.8%
Jan-2004 78.9%
Feb-2004 78.8%
Mar-2004 78.7%
Apr-2004 78.9%
May-2004 79.0%
Jun-2004 79.1%
Jul-2004 79.2%
Aug-2004 79.0%
Sep-2004 79.0%
Oct-2004 79.0%
Nov-2004 79.1%
Dec-2004 78.9%
Jan-2005 79.2%
Feb-2005 79.2%
Mar-2005 79.2%
Apr-2005 79.4%
May-2005 79.5%
Jun-2005 79.2%
Jul-2005 79.4%
Aug-2005 79.6%
Sep-2005 79.4%
Oct-2005 79.3%
Nov-2005 79.2%
Dec-2005 79.3%
Jan-2006 79.6%
Feb-2006 79.7%
Mar-2006 79.8%
Apr-2006 79.6%
May-2006 79.7%
Jun-2006 79.8%
Jul-2006 79.8%
Aug-2006 79.8%
Sep-2006 79.9%
Oct-2006 80.1%
Nov-2006 80.0%
Dec-2006 80.1%
Jan-2007 80.3%
Feb-2007 80.1%
Mar-2007 80.2%
Apr-2007 80.0%
May-2007 80.0%
Jun-2007 79.9%
Jul-2007 79.8%
Aug-2007 79.8%
Sep-2007 79.7%
Oct-2007 79.6%
Nov-2007 79.7%
Dec-2007 79.7%
Jan-2008 80.0%
Feb-2008 79.9%
Mar-2008 79.8%
Apr-2008 79.6%
May-2008 79.5%
Jun-2008 79.4%
Jul-2008 79.2%
Aug-2008 78.8%
Sep-2008 78.8%
Oct-2008 78.4%
Nov-2008 78.1%
Dec-2008 77.6%
Jan-2009 77.0%
Feb-2009 76.7%
Mar-2009 76.2%
Apr-2009 76.2%
May-2009 75.9%
Jun-2009 75.9%
Jul-2009 75.8%
Aug-2009 75.6%
Sep-2009 75.1%
Oct-2009 75.0%
Nov-2009 75.2%
Dec-2009 74.8%
Jan-2010 75.1%
Feb-2010 75.1%
Mar-2010 75.1%
Apr-2010 75.4%
May-2010 75.1%
Jun-2010 75.2%
Jul-2010 75.1%
Aug-2010 75.0%
Sep-2010 75.1%
Oct-2010 75.0%
Nov-2010 74.8%
Dec-2010 75.0%
Jan-2011 75.2%
Feb-2011 75.1%
Mar-2011 75.3%
Apr-2011 75.1%
May-2011 75.2%
Jun-2011 75.0%
Jul-2011 75.0%
Aug-2011 75.1%
Sep-2011 74.9%
Oct-2011 74.9%
Nov-2011 75.3%
Dec-2011 75.4%
Jan-2012 75.5%
Feb-2012 75.5%
Mar-2012 75.7%
Apr-2012 75.7%
May-2012 75.7%
Jun-2012 75.6%
Jul-2012 75.6%
Aug-2012 75.7%
Sep-2012 76.0%
Oct-2012 76.1%
Nov-2012 75.8%
Dec-2012 76.0%
Jan-2013 75.6%
Feb-2013 75.8%
Mar-2013 75.8%
Apr-2013 75.8%
May-2013 76.0%
Jun-2013 75.9%
Jul-2013 76.0%
Aug-2013 76.0%
Sep-2013 76.0%
Oct-2013 75.6%
Nov-2013 76.1%
Dec-2013 76.1%
Jan-2014 76.4%
Feb-2014 76.4%
Mar-2014 76.5%
Apr-2014 76.5%
May-2014 76.4%
Jun-2014 76.9%
Jul-2014 76.7%
Aug-2014 76.9%
Sep-2014 76.8%
Oct-2014 76.9%
Nov-2014 76.9%
Dec-2014 77.1%
Jan-2015 77.1%
Feb-2015 77.2%
Mar-2015 77.1%
Apr-2015 77.2%
May-2015 77.2%
Jun-2015 77.4%
Jul-2015 77.1%
Aug-2015 77.3%
Sep-2015 77.2%
Oct-2015 77.2%
Nov-2015 77.4%
Dec-2015 77.4%
Jan-2016 77.7%
Feb-2016 77.8%
Mar-2016 77.9%
Apr-2016 77.8%
May-2016 77.9%
Jun-2016 77.9%
Jul-2016 78.0%
Aug-2016 77.9%
Sep-2016 78.0%
Oct-2016 78.1%
Nov-2016 78.1%
Dec-2016 78.1%
Jan-2017 78.2%
Feb-2017 78.3%
Mar-2017 78.5%
Apr-2017 78.6%
May-2017 78.5%
Jun-2017 78.6%
Jul-2017 78.8%
Aug-2017 78.5%
Sep-2017 79.0%
Oct-2017 78.8%
Nov-2017 79.0%
Dec-2017 79.0%
Jan-2018 78.9%
Feb-2018 79.2%
Mar-2018 79.2%
Apr-2018 79.1%
May-2018 79.3%
Jun-2018 79.4%
Jul-2018 79.6%
Aug-2018 79.4%
Sep-2018 79.4%
Oct-2018 79.7%
Nov-2018 79.6%
Dec-2018 79.6%
Jan-2019 79.8%
Feb-2019 79.8%
Mar-2019 79.8%
Apr-2019 79.7%
May-2019 79.7%
Jun-2019 79.8%
Jul-2019 79.6%
Aug-2019 80.1%
Sep-2019 80.2%
Oct-2019 80.3%
Nov-2019 80.3%
Dec-2019 80.4%
Jan-2020 80.5%
Feb-2020 80.4%
Mar-2020 79.5%
Apr-2020 69.6%
May-2020 71.3%
Jun-2020 73.6%
Jul-2020 73.9%
Aug-2020 75.3%
Sep-2020 75.1%
Oct-2020 76.0%
Nov-2020 76.0%
Dec-2020 76.3%
Jan-2021 76.4%
Feb-2021 76.5%
Mar-2021 76.8%
ChartData Download data

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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data

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Unemployment rate, 1948–2021

date Unemployment Rate
Jan-1948 3.40%
Feb-1948 3.80%
Mar-1948 4.00%
Apr-1948 3.90%
May-1948 3.50%
Jun-1948 3.60%
Jul-1948 3.60%
Aug-1948 3.90%
Sep-1948 3.80%
Oct-1948 3.70%
Nov-1948 3.80%
Dec-1948 4.00%
Jan-1949 4.30%
Feb-1949 4.70%
Mar-1949 5.00%
Apr-1949 5.30%
May-1949 6.10%
Jun-1949 6.20%
Jul-1949 6.70%
Aug-1949 6.80%
Sep-1949 6.60%
Oct-1949 7.90%
Nov-1949 6.40%
Dec-1949 6.60%
Jan-1950 6.50%
Feb-1950 6.40%
Mar-1950 6.30%
Apr-1950 5.80%
May-1950 5.50%
Jun-1950 5.40%
Jul-1950 5.00%
Aug-1950 4.50%
Sep-1950 4.40%
Oct-1950 4.20%
Nov-1950 4.20%
Dec-1950 4.30%
Jan-1951 3.70%
Feb-1951 3.40%
Mar-1951 3.40%
Apr-1951 3.10%
May-1951 3.00%
Jun-1951 3.20%
Jul-1951 3.10%
Aug-1951 3.10%
Sep-1951 3.30%
Oct-1951 3.50%
Nov-1951 3.50%
Dec-1951 3.10%
Jan-1952 3.20%
Feb-1952 3.10%
Mar-1952 2.90%
Apr-1952 2.90%
May-1952 3.00%
Jun-1952 3.00%
Jul-1952 3.20%
Aug-1952 3.40%
Sep-1952 3.10%
Oct-1952 3.00%
Nov-1952 2.80%
Dec-1952 2.70%
Jan-1953 2.90%
Feb-1953 2.60%
Mar-1953 2.60%
Apr-1953 2.70%
May-1953 2.50%
Jun-1953 2.50%
Jul-1953 2.60%
Aug-1953 2.70%
Sep-1953 2.90%
Oct-1953 3.10%
Nov-1953 3.50%
Dec-1953 4.50%
Jan-1954 4.90%
Feb-1954 5.20%
Mar-1954 5.70%
Apr-1954 5.90%
May-1954 5.90%
Jun-1954 5.60%
Jul-1954 5.80%
Aug-1954 6.00%
Sep-1954 6.10%
Oct-1954 5.70%
Nov-1954 5.30%
Dec-1954 5.00%
Jan-1955 4.90%
Feb-1955 4.70%
Mar-1955 4.60%
Apr-1955 4.70%
May-1955 4.30%
Jun-1955 4.20%
Jul-1955 4.00%
Aug-1955 4.20%
Sep-1955 4.10%
Oct-1955 4.30%
Nov-1955 4.20%
Dec-1955 4.20%
Jan-1956 4.00%
Feb-1956 3.90%
Mar-1956 4.20%
Apr-1956 4.00%
May-1956 4.30%
Jun-1956 4.30%
Jul-1956 4.40%
Aug-1956 4.10%
Sep-1956 3.90%
Oct-1956 3.90%
Nov-1956 4.30%
Dec-1956 4.20%
Jan-1957 4.20%
Feb-1957 3.90%
Mar-1957 3.70%
Apr-1957 3.90%
May-1957 4.10%
Jun-1957 4.30%
Jul-1957 4.20%
Aug-1957 4.10%
Sep-1957 4.40%
Oct-1957 4.50%
Nov-1957 5.10%
Dec-1957 5.20%
Jan-1958 5.80%
Feb-1958 6.40%
Mar-1958 6.70%
Apr-1958 7.40%
May-1958 7.40%
Jun-1958 7.30%
Jul-1958 7.50%
Aug-1958 7.40%
Sep-1958 7.10%
Oct-1958 6.70%
Nov-1958 6.20%
Dec-1958 6.20%
Jan-1959 6.00%
Feb-1959 5.90%
Mar-1959 5.60%
Apr-1959 5.20%
May-1959 5.10%
Jun-1959 5.00%
Jul-1959 5.10%
Aug-1959 5.20%
Sep-1959 5.50%
Oct-1959 5.70%
Nov-1959 5.80%
Dec-1959 5.30%
Jan-1960 5.20%
Feb-1960 4.80%
Mar-1960 5.40%
Apr-1960 5.20%
May-1960 5.10%
Jun-1960 5.40%
Jul-1960 5.50%
Aug-1960 5.60%
Sep-1960 5.50%
Oct-1960 6.10%
Nov-1960 6.10%
Dec-1960 6.60%
Jan-1961 6.60%
Feb-1961 6.90%
Mar-1961 6.90%
Apr-1961 7.00%
May-1961 7.10%
Jun-1961 6.90%
Jul-1961 7.00%
Aug-1961 6.60%
Sep-1961 6.70%
Oct-1961 6.50%
Nov-1961 6.10%
Dec-1961 6.00%
Jan-1962 5.80%
Feb-1962 5.50%
Mar-1962 5.60%
Apr-1962 5.60%
May-1962 5.50%
Jun-1962 5.50%
Jul-1962 5.40%
Aug-1962 5.70%
Sep-1962 5.60%
Oct-1962 5.40%
Nov-1962 5.70%
Dec-1962 5.50%
Jan-1963 5.70%
Feb-1963 5.90%
Mar-1963 5.70%
Apr-1963 5.70%
May-1963 5.90%
Jun-1963 5.60%
Jul-1963 5.60%
Aug-1963 5.40%
Sep-1963 5.50%
Oct-1963 5.50%
Nov-1963 5.70%
Dec-1963 5.50%
Jan-1964 5.60%
Feb-1964 5.40%
Mar-1964 5.40%
Apr-1964 5.30%
May-1964 5.10%
Jun-1964 5.20%
Jul-1964 4.90%
Aug-1964 5.00%
Sep-1964 5.10%
Oct-1964 5.10%
Nov-1964 4.80%
Dec-1964 5.00%
Jan-1965 4.90%
Feb-1965 5.10%
Mar-1965 4.70%
Apr-1965 4.80%
May-1965 4.60%
Jun-1965 4.60%
Jul-1965 4.40%
Aug-1965 4.40%
Sep-1965 4.30%
Oct-1965 4.20%
Nov-1965 4.10%
Dec-1965 4.00%
Jan-1966 4.00%
Feb-1966 3.80%
Mar-1966 3.80%
Apr-1966 3.80%
May-1966 3.90%
Jun-1966 3.80%
Jul-1966 3.80%
Aug-1966 3.80%
Sep-1966 3.70%
Oct-1966 3.70%
Nov-1966 3.60%
Dec-1966 3.80%
Jan-1967 3.90%
Feb-1967 3.80%
Mar-1967 3.80%
Apr-1967 3.80%
May-1967 3.80%
Jun-1967 3.90%
Jul-1967 3.80%
Aug-1967 3.80%
Sep-1967 3.80%
Oct-1967 4.00%
Nov-1967 3.90%
Dec-1967 3.80%
Jan-1968 3.70%
Feb-1968 3.80%
Mar-1968 3.70%
Apr-1968 3.50%
May-1968 3.50%
Jun-1968 3.70%
Jul-1968 3.70%
Aug-1968 3.50%
Sep-1968 3.40%
Oct-1968 3.40%
Nov-1968 3.40%
Dec-1968 3.40%
Jan-1969 3.40%
Feb-1969 3.40%
Mar-1969 3.40%
Apr-1969 3.40%
May-1969 3.40%
Jun-1969 3.50%
Jul-1969 3.50%
Aug-1969 3.50%
Sep-1969 3.70%
Oct-1969 3.70%
Nov-1969 3.50%
Dec-1969 3.50%
Jan-1970 3.90%
Feb-1970 4.20%
Mar-1970 4.40%
Apr-1970 4.60%
May-1970 4.80%
Jun-1970 4.90%
Jul-1970 5.00%
Aug-1970 5.10%
Sep-1970 5.40%
Oct-1970 5.50%
Nov-1970 5.90%
Dec-1970 6.10%
Jan-1971 5.90%
Feb-1971 5.90%
Mar-1971 6.00%
Apr-1971 5.90%
May-1971 5.90%
Jun-1971 5.90%
Jul-1971 6.00%
Aug-1971 6.10%
Sep-1971 6.00%
Oct-1971 5.80%
Nov-1971 6.00%
Dec-1971 6.00%
Jan-1972 5.80%
Feb-1972 5.70%
Mar-1972 5.80%
Apr-1972 5.70%
May-1972 5.70%
Jun-1972 5.70%
Jul-1972 5.60%
Aug-1972 5.60%
Sep-1972 5.50%
Oct-1972 5.60%
Nov-1972 5.30%
Dec-1972 5.20%
Jan-1973 4.90%
Feb-1973 5.00%
Mar-1973 4.90%
Apr-1973 5.00%
May-1973 4.90%
Jun-1973 4.90%
Jul-1973 4.80%
Aug-1973 4.80%
Sep-1973 4.80%
Oct-1973 4.60%
Nov-1973 4.80%
Dec-1973 4.90%
Jan-1974 5.10%
Feb-1974 5.20%
Mar-1974 5.10%
Apr-1974 5.10%
May-1974 5.10%
Jun-1974 5.40%
Jul-1974 5.50%
Aug-1974 5.50%
Sep-1974 5.90%
Oct-1974 6.00%
Nov-1974 6.60%
Dec-1974 7.20%
Jan-1975 8.10%
Feb-1975 8.10%
Mar-1975 8.60%
Apr-1975 8.80%
May-1975 9.00%
Jun-1975 8.80%
Jul-1975 8.60%
Aug-1975 8.40%
Sep-1975 8.40%
Oct-1975 8.40%
Nov-1975 8.30%
Dec-1975 8.20%
Jan-1976 7.90%
Feb-1976 7.70%
Mar-1976 7.60%
Apr-1976 7.70%
May-1976 7.40%
Jun-1976 7.60%
Jul-1976 7.80%
Aug-1976 7.80%
Sep-1976 7.60%
Oct-1976 7.70%
Nov-1976 7.80%
Dec-1976 7.80%
Jan-1977 7.50%
Feb-1977 7.60%
Mar-1977 7.40%
Apr-1977 7.20%
May-1977 7.00%
Jun-1977 7.20%
Jul-1977 6.90%
Aug-1977 7.00%
Sep-1977 6.80%
Oct-1977 6.80%
Nov-1977 6.80%
Dec-1977 6.40%
Jan-1978 6.40%
Feb-1978 6.30%
Mar-1978 6.30%
Apr-1978 6.10%
May-1978 6.00%
Jun-1978 5.90%
Jul-1978 6.20%
Aug-1978 5.90%
Sep-1978 6.00%
Oct-1978 5.80%
Nov-1978 5.90%
Dec-1978 6.00%
Jan-1979 5.90%
Feb-1979 5.90%
Mar-1979 5.80%
Apr-1979 5.80%
May-1979 5.60%
Jun-1979 5.70%
Jul-1979 5.70%
Aug-1979 6.00%
Sep-1979 5.90%
Oct-1979 6.00%
Nov-1979 5.90%
Dec-1979 6.00%
Jan-1980 6.30%
Feb-1980 6.30%
Mar-1980 6.30%
Apr-1980 6.90%
May-1980 7.50%
Jun-1980 7.60%
Jul-1980 7.80%
Aug-1980 7.70%
Sep-1980 7.50%
Oct-1980 7.50%
Nov-1980 7.50%
Dec-1980 7.20%
Jan-1981 7.50%
Feb-1981 7.40%
Mar-1981 7.40%
Apr-1981 7.20%
May-1981 7.50%
Jun-1981 7.50%
Jul-1981 7.20%
Aug-1981 7.40%
Sep-1981 7.60%
Oct-1981 7.90%
Nov-1981 8.30%
Dec-1981 8.50%
Jan-1982 8.60%
Feb-1982 8.90%
Mar-1982 9.00%
Apr-1982 9.30%
May-1982 9.40%
Jun-1982 9.60%
Jul-1982 9.80%
Aug-1982 9.80%
Sep-1982 10.10%
Oct-1982 10.40%
Nov-1982 10.80%
Dec-1982 10.80%
Jan-1983 10.40%
Feb-1983 10.40%
Mar-1983 10.30%
Apr-1983 10.20%
May-1983 10.10%
Jun-1983 10.10%
Jul-1983 9.40%
Aug-1983 9.50%
Sep-1983 9.20%
Oct-1983 8.80%
Nov-1983 8.50%
Dec-1983 8.30%
Jan-1984 8.00%
Feb-1984 7.80%
Mar-1984 7.80%
Apr-1984 7.70%
May-1984 7.40%
Jun-1984 7.20%
Jul-1984 7.50%
Aug-1984 7.50%
Sep-1984 7.30%
Oct-1984 7.40%
Nov-1984 7.20%
Dec-1984 7.30%
Jan-1985 7.30%
Feb-1985 7.20%
Mar-1985 7.20%
Apr-1985 7.30%
May-1985 7.20%
Jun-1985 7.40%
Jul-1985 7.40%
Aug-1985 7.10%
Sep-1985 7.10%
Oct-1985 7.10%
Nov-1985 7.00%
Dec-1985 7.00%
Jan-1986 6.70%
Feb-1986 7.20%
Mar-1986 7.20%
Apr-1986 7.10%
May-1986 7.20%
Jun-1986 7.20%
Jul-1986 7.00%
Aug-1986 6.90%
Sep-1986 7.00%
Oct-1986 7.00%
Nov-1986 6.90%
Dec-1986 6.60%
Jan-1987 6.60%
Feb-1987 6.60%
Mar-1987 6.60%
Apr-1987 6.30%
May-1987 6.30%
Jun-1987 6.20%
Jul-1987 6.10%
Aug-1987 6.00%
Sep-1987 5.90%
Oct-1987 6.00%
Nov-1987 5.80%
Dec-1987 5.70%
Jan-1988 5.70%
Feb-1988 5.70%
Mar-1988 5.70%
Apr-1988 5.40%
May-1988 5.60%
Jun-1988 5.40%
Jul-1988 5.40%
Aug-1988 5.60%
Sep-1988 5.40%
Oct-1988 5.40%
Nov-1988 5.30%
Dec-1988 5.30%
Jan-1989 5.40%
Feb-1989 5.20%
Mar-1989 5.00%
Apr-1989 5.20%
May-1989 5.20%
Jun-1989 5.30%
Jul-1989 5.20%
Aug-1989 5.20%
Sep-1989 5.30%
Oct-1989 5.30%
Nov-1989 5.40%
Dec-1989 5.40%
Jan-1990 5.40%
Feb-1990 5.30%
Mar-1990 5.20%
Apr-1990 5.40%
May-1990 5.40%
Jun-1990 5.20%
Jul-1990 5.50%
Aug-1990 5.70%
Sep-1990 5.90%
Oct-1990 5.90%
Nov-1990 6.20%
Dec-1990 6.30%
Jan-1991 6.40%
Feb-1991 6.60%
Mar-1991 6.80%
Apr-1991 6.70%
May-1991 6.90%
Jun-1991 6.90%
Jul-1991 6.80%
Aug-1991 6.90%
Sep-1991 6.90%
Oct-1991 7.00%
Nov-1991 7.00%
Dec-1991 7.30%
Jan-1992 7.30%
Feb-1992 7.40%
Mar-1992 7.40%
Apr-1992 7.40%
May-1992 7.60%
Jun-1992 7.80%
Jul-1992 7.70%
Aug-1992 7.60%
Sep-1992 7.60%
Oct-1992 7.30%
Nov-1992 7.40%
Dec-1992 7.40%
Jan-1993 7.30%
Feb-1993 7.10%
Mar-1993 7.00%
Apr-1993 7.10%
May-1993 7.10%
Jun-1993 7.00%
Jul-1993 6.90%
Aug-1993 6.80%
Sep-1993 6.70%
Oct-1993 6.80%
Nov-1993 6.60%
Dec-1993 6.50%
Jan-1994 6.60%
Feb-1994 6.60%
Mar-1994 6.50%
Apr-1994 6.40%
May-1994 6.10%
Jun-1994 6.10%
Jul-1994 6.10%
Aug-1994 6.00%
Sep-1994 5.90%
Oct-1994 5.80%
Nov-1994 5.60%
Dec-1994 5.50%
Jan-1995 5.60%
Feb-1995 5.40%
Mar-1995 5.40%
Apr-1995 5.80%
May-1995 5.60%
Jun-1995 5.60%
Jul-1995 5.70%
Aug-1995 5.70%
Sep-1995 5.60%
Oct-1995 5.50%
Nov-1995 5.60%
Dec-1995 5.60%
Jan-1996 5.60%
Feb-1996 5.50%
Mar-1996 5.50%
Apr-1996 5.60%
May-1996 5.60%
Jun-1996 5.30%
Jul-1996 5.50%
Aug-1996 5.10%
Sep-1996 5.20%
Oct-1996 5.20%
Nov-1996 5.40%
Dec-1996 5.40%
Jan-1997 5.30%
Feb-1997 5.20%
Mar-1997 5.20%
Apr-1997 5.10%
May-1997 4.90%
Jun-1997 5.00%
Jul-1997 4.90%
Aug-1997 4.80%
Sep-1997 4.90%
Oct-1997 4.70%
Nov-1997 4.60%
Dec-1997 4.70%
Jan-1998 4.60%
Feb-1998 4.60%
Mar-1998 4.70%
Apr-1998 4.30%
May-1998 4.40%
Jun-1998 4.50%
Jul-1998 4.50%
Aug-1998 4.50%
Sep-1998 4.60%
Oct-1998 4.50%
Nov-1998 4.40%
Dec-1998 4.40%
Jan-1999 4.30%
Feb-1999 4.40%
Mar-1999 4.20%
Apr-1999 4.30%
May-1999 4.20%
Jun-1999 4.30%
Jul-1999 4.30%
Aug-1999 4.20%
Sep-1999 4.20%
Oct-1999 4.10%
Nov-1999 4.10%
Dec-1999 4.00%
Jan-2000 4.00%
Feb-2000 4.10%
Mar-2000 4.00%
Apr-2000 3.80%
May-2000 4.00%
Jun-2000 4.00%
Jul-2000 4.00%
Aug-2000 4.10%
Sep-2000 3.90%
Oct-2000 3.90%
Nov-2000 3.90%
Dec-2000 3.90%
Jan-2001 4.20%
Feb-2001 4.20%
Mar-2001 4.30%
Apr-2001 4.40%
May-2001 4.30%
Jun-2001 4.50%
Jul-2001 4.60%
Aug-2001 4.90%
Sep-2001 5.00%
Oct-2001 5.30%
Nov-2001 5.50%
Dec-2001 5.70%
Jan-2002 5.70%
Feb-2002 5.70%
Mar-2002 5.70%
Apr-2002 5.90%
May-2002 5.80%
Jun-2002 5.80%
Jul-2002 5.80%
Aug-2002 5.70%
Sep-2002 5.70%
Oct-2002 5.70%
Nov-2002 5.90%
Dec-2002 6.00%
Jan-2003 5.80%
Feb-2003 5.90%
Mar-2003 5.90%
Apr-2003 6.00%
May-2003 6.10%
Jun-2003 6.30%
Jul-2003 6.20%
Aug-2003 6.10%
Sep-2003 6.10%
Oct-2003 6.00%
Nov-2003 5.80%
Dec-2003 5.70%
Jan-2004 5.70%
Feb-2004 5.60%
Mar-2004 5.80%
Apr-2004 5.60%
May-2004 5.60%
Jun-2004 5.60%
Jul-2004 5.50%
Aug-2004 5.40%
Sep-2004 5.40%
Oct-2004 5.50%
Nov-2004 5.40%
Dec-2004 5.40%
Jan-2005 5.30%
Feb-2005 5.40%
Mar-2005 5.20%
Apr-2005 5.20%
May-2005 5.10%
Jun-2005 5.00%
Jul-2005 5.00%
Aug-2005 4.90%
Sep-2005 5.00%
Oct-2005 5.00%
Nov-2005 5.00%
Dec-2005 4.90%
Jan-2006 4.70%
Feb-2006 4.80%
Mar-2006 4.70%
Apr-2006 4.70%
May-2006 4.60%
Jun-2006 4.60%
Jul-2006 4.70%
Aug-2006 4.70%
Sep-2006 4.50%
Oct-2006 4.40%
Nov-2006 4.50%
Dec-2006 4.40%
Jan-2007 4.60%
Feb-2007 4.50%
Mar-2007 4.40%
Apr-2007 4.50%
May-2007 4.40%
Jun-2007 4.60%
Jul-2007 4.70%
Aug-2007 4.60%
Sep-2007 4.70%
Oct-2007 4.70%
Nov-2007 4.70%
Dec-2007 5.00%
Jan-2008 5.00%
Feb-2008 4.90%
Mar-2008 5.10%
Apr-2008 5.00%
May-2008 5.40%
Jun-2008 5.60%
Jul-2008 5.80%
Aug-2008 6.10%
Sep-2008 6.10%
Oct-2008 6.50%
Nov-2008 6.80%
Dec-2008 7.30%
Jan-2009 7.80%
Feb-2009 8.30%
Mar-2009 8.70%
Apr-2009 9.00%
May-2009 9.40%
Jun-2009 9.50%
Jul-2009 9.50%
Aug-2009 9.60%
Sep-2009 9.80%
Oct-2009 10.00%
Nov-2009 9.90%
Dec-2009 9.90%
Jan-2010 9.80%
Feb-2010 9.80%
Mar-2010 9.90%
Apr-2010 9.90%
May-2010 9.60%
Jun-2010 9.40%
Jul-2010 9.40%
Aug-2010 9.50%
Sep-2010 9.50%
Oct-2010 9.40%
Nov-2010 9.80%
Dec-2010 9.30%
Jan-2011 9.10%
Feb-2011 9.00%
Mar-2011 9.00%
Apr-2011 9.10%
May-2011 9.00%
Jun-2011 9.10%
Jul-2011 9.00%
Aug-2011 9.00%
Sep-2011 9.00%
Oct-2011 8.80%
Nov-2011 8.60%
Dec-2011 8.50%
Jan-2012 8.30%
Feb-2012 8.30%
Mar-2012 8.20%
Apr-2012 8.20%
May-2012 8.20%
Jun-2012 8.20%
Jul-2012 8.20%
Aug-2012 8.10%
Sep-2012 7.80%
Oct-2012 7.80%
Nov-2012 7.70%
Dec-2012 7.90%
Jan-2013 8.00%
Feb-2013 7.70%
Mar-2013 7.50%
Apr-2013 7.60%
May-2013 7.50%
Jun-2013 7.50%
Jul-2013 7.30%
Aug-2013 7.20%
Sep-2013 7.20%
Oct-2013 7.20%
Nov-2013 6.90%
Dec-2013 6.70%
Jan-2014 6.60%
Feb-2014 6.70%
Mar-2014 6.70%
Apr-2014 6.20%
May-2014 6.30%
Jun-2014 6.10%
Jul-2014 6.20%
Aug-2014 6.10%
Sep-2014 5.90%
Oct-2014 5.70%
Nov-2014 5.80%
Dec-2014 5.60%
Jan-2015 5.70%
Feb-2015 5.50%
Mar-2015 5.40%
Apr-2015 5.40%
May-2015 5.60%
Jun-2015 5.30%
Jul-2015 5.20%
Aug-2015 5.10%
Sep-2015 5.00%
Oct-2015 5.00%
Nov-2015 5.10%
Dec-2015 5.00%
Jan-2016 4.80%
Feb-2016 4.90%
Mar-2016 5.00%
Apr-2016 5.10%
May-2016 4.80%
Jun-2016 4.90%
Jul-2016 4.80%
Aug-2016 4.90%
Sep-2016 5.00%
Oct-2016 4.90%
Nov-2016 4.70%
Dec-2016 4.70%
Jan-2017 4.70%
Feb-2017 4.60%
Mar-2017 4.40%
Apr-2017 4.50%
May-2017 4.40%
Jun-2017 4.30%
Jul-2017 4.30%
Aug-2017 4.40%
Sep-2017 4.20%
Oct-2017 4.10%
Nov-2017 4.20%
Dec-2017 4.10%
Jan-2018 4.00%
Feb-2018 4.10%
Mar-2018 4.00%
Apr-2018 4.00%
May-2018 3.80%
Jun-2018 4.00%
Jul-2018 3.80%
Aug-2018 3.80%
Sep-2018 3.70%
Oct-2018 3.80%
Nov-2018 3.80%
Dec-2018 3.90%
Jan-2019 4.00%
Feb-2019 3.80%
Mar-2019 3.80%
Apr-2019 3.70%
May-2019 3.70%
Jun-2019 3.60%
Jul-2019 3.60%
Aug-2019 3.70%
Sep-2019 3.50%
Oct-2019 3.60%
Nov-2019 3.60%
Dec-2019 3.60%
Jan-2020 3.50%
Feb-2020 3.50%
Mar-2020 4.40%
Apr-2020 14.80%
May-2020 13.30%
Jun-2020 11.10%
Jul-2020 10.20%
Aug-2020 8.40%
Sep-2020 7.80%
Oct-2020 6.90%
Nov-2020 6.70%
Dec-2020 6.70%
Jan-2021 6.30%
Feb-2021 6.20%
Mar-2021 6.00%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey

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Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month

date Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month
Apr-1990 61.91%
May-1990 62.55%
Jun-1990 61.98%
Jul-1990 62.01%
Aug-1990 61.56%
Sep-1990 62.30%
Oct-1990 61.03%
Nov-1990 61.24%
Dec-1990 60.36%
Jan-1991 59.87%
Feb-1991 58.97%
Mar-1991 58.51%
Apr-1991 57.68%
May-1991 57.58%
Jun-1991 57.20%
Jul-1991 58.03%
Aug-1991 57.75%
Sep-1991 57.72%
Oct-1991 57.27%
Nov-1991 56.94%
Dec-1991 57.05%
Jan-1992 56.81%
Feb-1992 57.08%
Mar-1992 57.11%
Apr-1992 57.16%
May-1992 57.30%
Jun-1992 56.58%
Jul-1992 56.42%
Aug-1992 56.13%
Sep-1992 55.95%
Oct-1992 55.74%
Nov-1992 55.83%
Dec-1992 56.14%
Jan-1993 56.61%
Feb-1993 57.70%
Mar-1993 58.25%
Apr-1993 58.41%
May-1993 58.24%
Jun-1993 58.06%
Jul-1993 57.54%
Aug-1993 57.51%
Sep-1993 58.03%
Oct-1993 58.92%
Nov-1993 58.48%
Dec-1993 58.30%
Jan-1994 58.76%
Feb-1994 59.24%
Mar-1994 59.09%
Apr-1994 58.66%
May-1994 58.31%
Jun-1994 58.47%
Jul-1994 58.58%
Aug-1994 59.04%
Sep-1994 59.14%
Oct-1994 59.80%
Nov-1994 60.09%
Dec-1994 60.32%
Jan-1995 60.35%
Feb-1995 59.53%
Mar-1995 59.69%
Apr-1995 59.74%
May-1995 59.22%
Jun-1995 59.54%
Jul-1995 59.50%
Aug-1995 59.97%
Sep-1995 60.22%
Oct-1995 59.86%
Nov-1995 60.61%
Dec-1995 59.90%
Jan-1996 59.78%
Feb-1996 60.28%
Mar-1996 60.69%
Apr-1996 60.99%
May-1996 60.71%
Jun-1996 60.85%
Jul-1996 61.46%
Aug-1996 60.78%
Sep-1996 60.92%
Oct-1996 60.24%
Nov-1996 60.56%
Dec-1996 59.62%
Jan-1997 59.08%
Feb-1997 58.93%
Mar-1997 60.28%
Apr-1997 61.40%
May-1997 61.77%
Jun-1997 61.13%
Jul-1997 60.35%
Aug-1997 61.26%
Sep-1997 61.89%
Oct-1997 62.50%
Nov-1997 62.69%
Dec-1997 62.83%
Jan-1998 63.34%
Feb-1998 62.70%
Mar-1998 62.88%
Apr-1998 62.38%
May-1998 63.49%
Jun-1998 63.25%
Jul-1998 64.18%
Aug-1998 63.98%
Sep-1998 65.24%
Oct-1998 65.14%
Nov-1998 65.06%
Dec-1998 64.93%
Jan-1999 65.59%
Feb-1999 65.54%
Mar-1999 64.20%
Apr-1999 65.28%
May-1999 66.12%
Jun-1999 67.42%
Jul-1999 66.38%
Aug-1999 65.65%
Sep-1999 65.35%
Oct-1999 65.50%
Nov-1999 65.26%
Dec-1999 65.11%
Jan-2000 64.37%
Feb-2000 65.40%
Mar-2000 65.66%
Apr-2000 65.87%
May-2000 65.60%
Jun-2000 65.92%
Jul-2000 65.39%
Aug-2000 65.47%
Sep-2000 65.60%
Oct-2000 66.51%
Nov-2000 67.39%
Dec-2000 68.09%
Jan-2001 69.03%
Feb-2001 68.55%
Mar-2001 67.91%
Apr-2001 66.88%
May-2001 65.76%
Jun-2001 65.32%
Jul-2001 65.75%
Aug-2001 66.18%
Sep-2001 66.57%
Oct-2001 65.46%
Nov-2001 64.39%
Dec-2001 62.92%
Jan-2002 62.56%
Feb-2002 62.33%
Mar-2002 61.68%
Apr-2002 61.94%
May-2002 62.81%
Jun-2002 64.43%
Jul-2002 64.51%
Aug-2002 64.04%
Sep-2002 63.05%
Oct-2002 63.07%
Nov-2002 63.70%
Dec-2002 64.09%
Jan-2003 64.21%
Feb-2003 64.19%
Mar-2003 64.49%
Apr-2003 64.28%
May-2003 63.65%
Jun-2003 63.54%
Jul-2003 63.05%
Aug-2003 63.24%
Sep-2003 63.43%
Oct-2003 64.32%
Nov-2003 64.73%
Dec-2003 63.66%
Jan-2004 63.62%
Feb-2004 63.43%
Mar-2004 64.88%
Apr-2004 64.32%
May-2004 64.29%
Jun-2004 63.73%
Jul-2004 64.21%
Aug-2004 64.54%
Sep-2004 64.10%
Oct-2004 64.23%
Nov-2004 63.98%
Dec-2004 64.44%
Jan-2005 64.64%
Feb-2005 64.77%
Mar-2005 64.87%
Apr-2005 65.12%
May-2005 65.76%
Jun-2005 66.09%
Jul-2005 66.57%
Aug-2005 65.87%
Sep-2005 66.54%
Oct-2005 66.17%
Nov-2005 65.95%
Dec-2005 65.92%
Jan-2006 65.79%
Feb-2006 67.29%
Mar-2006 67.26%
Apr-2006 67.64%
May-2006 67.31%
Jun-2006 67.18%
Jul-2006 66.71%
Aug-2006 66.40%
Sep-2006 65.90%
Oct-2006 66.91%
Nov-2006 67.63%
Dec-2006 68.30%
Jan-2007 68.03%
Feb-2007 67.01%
Mar-2007 66.48%
Apr-2007 65.82%
May-2007 66.20%
Jun-2007 67.60%
Jul-2007 67.68%
Aug-2007 67.56%
Sep-2007 66.87%
Oct-2007 66.99%
Nov-2007 67.49%
Dec-2007 66.60%
Jan-2008 66.40%
Feb-2008 65.45%
Mar-2008 65.60%
Apr-2008 64.74%
May-2008 65.14%
Jun-2008 64.94%
Jul-2008 65.27%
Aug-2008 64.24%
Sep-2008 62.91%
Oct-2008 62.13%
Nov-2008 61.91%
Dec-2008 62.30%
Jan-2009 62.22%
Feb-2009 61.64%
Mar-2009 60.79%
Apr-2009 59.80%
May-2009 59.64%
Jun-2009 58.27%
Jul-2009 57.46%
Aug-2009 56.99%
Sep-2009 56.76%
Oct-2009 57.64%
Nov-2009 56.75%
Dec-2009 57.69%
Jan-2010 57.86%
Feb-2010 58.77%
Mar-2010 58.67%
Apr-2010 57.39%
May-2010 56.43%
Jun-2010 56.57%
Jul-2010 57.23%
Aug-2010 58.44%
Sep-2010 58.81%
Oct-2010 58.89%
Nov-2010 58.93%
Dec-2010 58.43%
Jan-2011 59.14%
Feb-2011 59.47%
Mar-2011 60.14%
Apr-2011 60.35%
May-2011 60.22%
Jun-2011 59.68%
Jul-2011 59.78%
Aug-2011 59.58%
Sep-2011 60.64%
Oct-2011 59.75%
Nov-2011 59.83%
Dec-2011 59.07%
Jan-2012 59.15%
Feb-2012 59.13%
Mar-2012 59.43%
Apr-2012 60.28%
May-2012 60.91%
Jun-2012 61.59%
Jul-2012 61.78%
Aug-2012 62.33%
Sep-2012 62.28%
Oct-2012 61.99%
Nov-2012 61.84%
Dec-2012 62.51%
Jan-2013 62.22%
Feb-2013 61.55%
Mar-2013 61.63%
Apr-2013 63.06%
May-2013 63.46%
Jun-2013 63.16%
Jul-2013 62.29%
Aug-2013 62.90%
Sep-2013 63.49%
Oct-2013 64.29%
Nov-2013 64.11%
Dec-2013 63.55%
Jan-2014 63.95%
Feb-2014 63.56%
Mar-2014 63.91%
Apr-2014 62.79%
May-2014 64.24%
Jun-2014 64.45%
Jul-2014 66.02%
Aug-2014 65.52%
Sep-2014 65.33%
Oct-2014 64.91%
Nov-2014 65.27%
Dec-2014 65.75%
Jan-2015 67.20%
Feb-2015 67.84%
Mar-2015 68.47%
Apr-2015 68.06%
May-2015 68.53%
Jun-2015 68.09%
Jul-2015 68.85%
Aug-2015 68.61%
Sep-2015 68.80%
Oct-2015 68.65%
Nov-2015 68.53%
Dec-2015 68.95%
Jan-2016 68.73%
Feb-2016 70.19%
Mar-2016 71.16%
Apr-2016 71.18%
May-2016 69.49%
Jun-2016 68.60%
Jul-2016 68.59%
Aug-2016 69.46%
Sep-2016 69.11%
Oct-2016 67.92%
Nov-2016 67.43%
Dec-2016 68.59%
Jan-2017 69.54%
Feb-2017 69.42%
Mar-2017 69.57%
Apr-2017 69.96%
May-2017 70.04%
Jun-2017 70.16%
Jul-2017 69.81%
Aug-2017 70.69%
Sep-2017 70.36%
Oct-2017 70.31%
Nov-2017 70.40%
Dec-2017 70.45%
Jan-2018 71.36%
Feb-2018 71.31%
Mar-2018 71.38%
Apr-2018 71.43%
May-2018 71.29%
Jun-2018 72.09%
Jul-2018 72.54%
Aug-2018 72.82%
Sep-2018 72.89%
Oct-2018 72.61%
Nov-2018 72.90%
Dec-2018 72.83%
Jan-2019 72.54%
Feb-2019 72.49%
Mar-2019 72.02%
Apr-2019 72.48%
May-2019 73.20%
Jun-2019 73.65%
Jul-2019 73.95%
Aug-2019 73.64%
Sep-2019 73.63%
Oct-2019 74.39%
Nov-2019 74.66%
Dec-2019 74.29%
Jan-2020 73.03%
Feb-2020 72.29%
Mar-2020 72.90%
Apr-2020 73.07%
May-2020 62.54%
Jun-2020 50.23%
Jul-2020 41.12%
Aug-2020 44.21%
Sep-2020 50.23%
Oct-2020 54.49%
Nov-2020 58.40%
Dec-2020 61.59%
Jan-2021 62.78%
Feb-2021 63.09%
Mar-2021 63.65%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Because of volatility in these data, the line reflects three month moving averages

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Labor Force Flows: Unemployed to Employed (16 Years and Over) [LNS17100000], and Not in Labor Force to Employed (16 years and over) [LNS17200000], retrieved from FRED (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis).

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