Economic Indicators Jobs and unemployment

Every month, the Bureau of Labor Statistics releases a report on the employment situation for the previous month. Their release includes data on job growth, unemployment, and wage growth, which gives us a snapshot of the health of the economy and whether it’s working for ordinary Americans.

Key numbers • April

3.6% National unemployment rate
428,000 Net jobs in April
79.9% Share of prime working-age population with a job
1.2 million Number of jobs lost since February 2020

April

Jobs report: Job growth remains strong in April as wage growth cools

Below, EPI economists offer their initial insights on the jobs report released this morning, which showed 428,000 jobs added in April.

From EPI senior economist, Elise Gould (@eliselgould):

Read the full Twitter thread here.

 

From EPI president, Heidi Shierholz (@hshierholz):

Read the full Twitter thread here

Charting jobs and unemployment

 

Figure

Federal fiscal relief at the scale of the problem led to a faster recovery from the pandemic recession: Private-sector employment change since business cycle peak, December 2007 and February 2020

Months since peak 2007 2020
1 100.00 100
2 99.999 98.89
3 99.91 83.79
4 99.84 86.20
5 99.63 89.68
6 99.45 90.67
7 99.27 91.61
8 99.06 92.35
9 98.82 92.97
10 98.45 93.28
11 98.02 93.20
12 97.39 93.52
13 96.78 94.06
14 96.09 94.56
15 95.45 94.72
16 94.77 95.02
17 94.07 95.41
18 93.83 95.90
19 93.46 96.28
20 93.22 96.60
21 93.05 97.13
22 92.91 97.62
23 92.68 98.05
24 92.68 98.43
25 92.49 98.97
26 92.49 99.30
27 92.42 99.61
28 92.54
29 92.69
30 92.79
31 92.89
32 92.97
33 93.09
34 93.19
35 93.37
36 93.49
37 93.57
38 93.59
39 93.81
40 94.04
41 94.31
42 94.45
43 94.62
44 94.77
45 94.91
46 95.14
47 95.30
48 95.44
49 95.63
50 95.94
51 96.16
52 96.37
53 96.45
54 96.56
55 96.60
56 96.75
57 96.90
58 97.05
59 97.21
60 97.36
61 97.56
62 97.74
63 97.97
64 98.10
65 98.26
66 98.46
67 98.64
68 98.75
69 98.95
70 99.11
71 99.31
72 99.52
73 99.60
74 99.76
75 99.89
76 100.10
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series.

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Figure

Percent change in payrolls since February 2020, for all private and state and local government employment

date Total private-sector employment State and local government employment
Feb-2020 0.00% 0.00%
Mar-2020 -1.11% -0.35%
Apr-2020 -16.21% -4.94%
May-2020 -13.80% -7.36%
Jun-2020 -10.32% -7.41%
Jul-2020 -9.33% -7.06%
Aug-2020 -8.39% -6.05%
Sep-2020 -7.65% -6.08%
Oct-2020 -7.03% -6.14%
Nov-2020 -6.72% -6.06%
Dec-2020 -6.80% -6.09%
Jan-2021 -6.48% -5.57%
Feb-2021 -5.94% -5.50%
Mar-2021 -5.44% -5.23%
Apr-2021 -5.28% -5.01%
May-2021 -4.98% -4.65%
Jun-2021 -4.59% -4.39%
Jul-2021 -4.10% -4.14%
Aug-2021 -3.72% -4.04%
Sep-2021 -3.40% -3.96%
Oct-2021 -2.87% -4.02%
Nov-2021 -2.38% -3.94%
Dec-2021 -1.95% -3.76%
Jan-2022 -1.57% -3.72%
Feb-2022 -1.03% -3.66%
Mar-2022 -0.70% -3.63%
Apr-2022 -0.39%  -3.49%
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Current Employment Statistics, Establishment Survey (CES) public data series.

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Figure

Employment change by industry (thousands) between March and April 2022

Industry Employment change, one month
Leisure and hospitality 78
Education and health services 59
Manufacturing 55
Transportation and warehousing 52
Professional and business services 41
Financial activities 35
Retail services 29 [
Wholesale trade 22
Government 22
Information 12
Other services 11
Mining and logging 9
Construction 2
Utilities 0
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Current Employment Statistics, Establishment Survey (CES) public data series.

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Jobs day

Monthly change in payroll employment, January 2020–April 2022

Date Change in Employment
Jan-2020 339
Feb-2020 376
Mar-2020 -1498
Apr-2020 -20493
May-2020 2642
Jun-2020 4505
Jul-2020 1388
Aug-2020 1665
Sep-2020 919
Oct-2020 647
Nov-2020 333
Dec-2020 -115
Jan-2021 520
Feb-2021 710
Mar-2021 704
Apr-2021 263
May-2021 447
Jun-2021 557
Jul-2021 689
Aug-2021 517
Sep-2021 424
Oct-2021 677
Nov-2021 647
Dec-2021 588
Jan-2022 504
Feb-2022 714
Mar-2022 428
Apr-2022 428
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series.

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Jobs day

Measuring the job shortfall since February 2020: Actual and counterfactual employment, January 2019–April 2022

Actual nonfarm payroll employment Employment if it had continued growing at the pre-recession level Employment if it had grown with population growth since February 2020
Sep-2019 151.2
Oct-2019 151.3
Nov-2019 151.6
Dec-2019 151.8
Jan-2020 152.1
Feb-2020 152.5 152.5 152.5
Mar-2020 151.0 152.7 152.6
Apr-2020 130.5 152.9 152.6
May-2020 133.2 153.1 152.7
Jun-2020 137.7 153.3 152.8
Jul-2020 139.0 153.5 152.8
Aug-2020 140.7 153.7 152.9
Sep-2020 141.6 153.9 153.0
Oct-2020 142.3 154.1 153.1
Nov-2020 142.6 154.3 153.1
Dec-2020 142.5 154.5 153.2
Jan-2021 143.0 154.7 153.3
Feb-2021 143.7 154.9 153.3
Mar-2021 144.4 155.1 153.4
Apr-2021 144.7 155.3 153.5
May-2021 145.1 155.5 153.5
Jun-2021 145.7 155.7 153.6
Jul-2021 146.4 155.9 153.7
Aug-2021 146.9 156.1 153.7
Sep-2021 147.3 156.3 153.8
Oct-2021 148.0 156.5 153.9
Nov-2021 148.7 156.7 153.9
Dec-2021 149.2 156.9 154.0
Jan-2022 149.7 157.1 154.1
Feb-2022 150.5 157.3 154.6
Mar-2022 150.5 157.3 154.7
Apr-2022 151.3 157.7 154.8  
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Notes: Payroll employment growth averaged 202,000 in the 12 months leading up to the pandemic recession. Population-adjusted employment growth applies population growth in the latest month since February 2020 to payroll employment and interpolates in the intervening years.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series.

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Figure

Employment change by industry since February 2020: All employees (thousands), seasonally adjusted, April 2022

Industry Employment change since February 2020
Leisure and hospitality -1,438
Government -690
Education and health services -409
Other services -278
Mining and logging -73
Wholesale trade -57
Manufacturing -56
Utilities -8
Construction 4
Information 48
Financial activities 71
Retail services 284
Transportation and warehousing 674
Professional and business services 738
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Current Employment Statistics, Establishment Survey (CES) public data series.

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Jobs day

Nominal wage growth in average hourly earnings for all workers in three measures, year-over-year, annualized quarterly, and annualized monthly changes

Year-over-year change Annualized quarterly change Annualized monthly change
Jan-2019 3.3% 3.5% 1.8%
Feb-2019 3.6% 3.8% 4.4%
Mar-2019 3.5% 3.7% 4.4%
Apr-2019 3.3% 3.4% -0.9%
May-2019 3.3% 2.8% 3.1%
Jun-2019 3.4% 2.3% 3.9%
Jul-2019 3.4% 2.6% 3.9%
Aug-2019 3.4% 3.3% 4.4%
Sep-2019 3.1% 3.6% 0.9%
Oct-2019 3.2% 3.3% 3.5%
Nov-2019 3.4% 3.0% 5.2%
Dec-2019 2.9% 3.1% 0.8%
Jan-2020 3.0% 3.1% 2.6%
Feb-2020 3.1% 3.0% 5.6%
Mar-2020 3.6% 4.0% 10.1%
Apr-2020 8.0% 10.8% 64.5%
May-2020 6.7% 15.6% -11.4%
Jun-2020 5.1% 16.3% -13.3%
Jul-2020 4.9% 5.2% 2.1%
Aug-2020 4.8% -1.2% 2.9%
Sep-2020 4.8% -3.0% 1.2%
Oct-2020 4.6% 0.2% 0.8%
Nov-2020 4.6% 2.0% 5.0%
Dec-2020 5.5% 3.2% 11.5%
Jan-2021 5.3% 4.5% 0.4%
Feb-2021 5.2% 5.5% 4.5%
Mar-2021 4.4% 4.2% 0.8%
Apr-2021 0.6% 3.6% 5.7%
May-2021 2.2% 3.3% 6.5%
Jun-2021 4.0% 4.7% 6.5%
Jul-2021 4.3% 5.7% 6.1%
Aug-2021 4.3% 6.0% 3.6%
Sep-2021 4.8% 5.7% 6.4%
Oct-2021 5.4% 5.5% 7.6%
Nov-2021 5.3% 5.8% 4.7%
Dec-2021 4.9% 6.1% 5.9%
Jan-2022 5.4% 6.1% 7.1%
Feb-2022 5.2% 5.6% 1.5%
Mar-2022 5.6% 5.2% 5.8%
Apr-2022 5.5% 4.4% 3.8%
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series

 

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Economic indicators

Notes: The number of officially unemployed includes the 5.7 million baseline unemployment level prior to COVID. The number of unemployed but misclassified includes the 2.7 million estimated undercount of the unemployed prior to the start of COVID based on Ahn and Hamilton (2021). The 5.7 million and the 2.7 million are included in the calculation of those hit by COVID because job search was made much more difficult by the labor market impacts of the recession. Totals may not sum due to rounding.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series. Adapted from Figure A in The economy President-elect Biden is inheriting (Shierholz 2021).

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Economic indicators

Number of workers at each level of unemployment duration, by month, February 2020–April 2022

date Less than 5 weeks 5–14 weeks   15–26 weeks 27–51 weeks 52 weeks and over
Feb 20 2,123 1,830 793 398 723
Mar 20 3,446 1,825 760 374 796
Apr 20 14,251 7,066 705 496 516
May 20 3,846 14,806 996 663 541
Jun 20 2,884 11,522 1,928 715 625
Jul 20 3,141 5,145 6,509 749 731
Aug 20 2,342 3,105 6,580 782 772
Sep 20 2,535 2,735 4,962 1563 833
Oct 20 2,467 2,342 2,654 2739 819
Nov 20 2,485 2,440 1,873 3054 881
Dec 20 2,906 2,344 1,563 3095 884
Jan 21 2,307 2,454 1,336 3063 983
Feb 21 2,234 2,285 1,383 2939 1,217
Mar 21 2,204 1,950 1,371 1921 2,280
Apr 21 2,400 1,981 1,160 1706 2,481
May 21 1,974 2,218 1,230 1339 2,426
Jun 21 1,972 2,182 1,338 1439 2,534
Jul 21 2,246 1,794 1,203 1170 2,241
Aug 21 2,110 1,927 1,248 923 2,182
Sep 21 2,227 1,727 1,047 774 1,890
Oct 21 2,051 1,876 1,001 603 1,736
Nov 21 1,985 1,703 870 586 1,607
Dec 21 1,977 1,571 780 592 1,416
Jan 22 2,417 1,607 816 373 1,318
Feb 22 2,131 1,800 735 416 1,286
Mar 22 2,289 1,684 571 319 1,109
Apr 22 2,227 1,617 551 463 1,020
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Notes: Data are seasonally adjusted. Seasonally adjusted data for Less than 5 weeks, 5-14 weeks, 15-26 weeks, and 27+ weeks are provided by BLS. Seasonally adjusted data are not available for 52+ so we applied the ratio of not-seasonally adjusted 52+ to not-seasonally adjusted 27+ to the seasonally adjusted 27+ to impute a seasonally adjusted 52+. Seasonally adjusted data for 27-51 is estimated as the difference between our estimated 52+ seasonally adjust data and the 27+ seasonally adjusted data.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey public data series.

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Jobs Day

Unemployment rate of workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, January 2020–April 2022

 

Date White Black Hispanic AAPI
Jan-2020 3.1% 6.3% 4.3% 3%
Feb-2020 3%  6% 4.4% 2.5%
Mar-2020 3.9% 6.8% 5.9% 4.1%
Apr-2020 14.1% 16.6% 18.8% 14.4%
May-2020 12.3% 16.8% 17.6% 14.8%
Jun-2020 10.0% 15.2% 14.5% 13.8%
Jul-2020 9.2% 14.4% 12.8% 11.9%
Aug-2020 7.4% 12.8% 10.6% 10.6%
Sep-2020 7.0% 12.1% 10.4% 8.9%
Oct-2020 6.0% 10.9% 8.9% 7.6%
Nov-2020 6.0% 10.4% 8.6% 6.8%
Dec-2020 6.1% 10.0% 9.4% 6.1%
Jan-2021 5.7% 9.2% 8.6% 6.6%
Feb-2021 5.5% 9.8% 8.4% 5.1%
Mar-2021 5.3% 9.5% 7.7% 5.9%
Apr-2021 5.3% 9.7% 7.7% 5.7%
May-2021 5.1% 9.1% 7.1% 5.5%
Jun-2021 5.3% 9.2% 7.2% 5.7%
Jul-2021 4.8% 8.2% 6.4% 5.2%
Aug-2021 4.5% 8.7% 6.2% 4.5%
Sep-2021 4.2% 7.8% 6.1% 4.2%
Oct-2021 3.9% 7.8% 5.7% 4.2%
Nov-2021 3.7% 6.5% 5.2% 3.9%
Dec-2021 3.2%  7.1%  4.9%  3.8% 
Jan-2022 3.4% 6.9% 4.9% 3.6%
Feb-2022 3.3% 6.6%  4.4%  3.1% 
Mar-2022 3.2%  6.2% 4.2%  2.8% 
Apr-2022 3.2 5.9 4.1 3.1
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Note: AAPI refers to Asian American and Pacific Islander. Race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (i.e., white non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, AAPI non-Hispanic, and Hispanic any race). 

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey, public data series. 

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Jobs Day

Unemployment rate of workers age 16 and older by race and ethnicity, 1995–2022

Date White Black Hispanic AAPI
Jan-1995 4.8 10.3 10.2
Feb-1995 4.7 10.1 9
Mar-1995 4.7 9.7 8.9
Apr-1995 5 10.7 8.9
May-1995 5 10 9.8
Jun-1995 4.9 10.7 9.1
Jul-1995 4.9 10.9 8.8
Aug-1995 4.9 11.1 9.6
Sep-1995 4.9 11.1 9.1
Oct-1995 4.9 10 9.4
Nov-1995 5 9.7 9.5
Dec-1995 4.9 10.2 9.3
Jan-1996 4.9 10.6 9.4
Feb-1996 4.8 10 9.6
Mar-1996 4.8 10.6 9.6
Apr-1996 4.8 10.7 9.6
May-1996 4.9 10.2 9.6
Jun-1996 4.6 10.4 8.8
Jul-1996 4.7 10.6 8.8
Aug-1996 4.4 10.6 8.8
Sep-1996 4.5 10.6 8.2
Oct-1996 4.5 10.7 8
Nov-1996 4.6 10.6 8.5
Dec-1996 4.6 10.5 7.4
Jan-1997 4.5 10.8 8.4
Feb-1997 4.5 10.7 8.2
Mar-1997 4.4 10.5 8.3
Apr-1997 4.3 10.2 8.2
May-1997 4.1 10.3 7.7
Jun-1997 4.2 10.8 7.5
Jul-1997 4.2 9.5 7.9
Aug-1997 4.2 9.4 7.2
Sep-1997 4.2 9.5 7.4
Oct-1997 4.1 9.5 7.8
Nov-1997 3.9 9.5 7
Dec-1997 3.9 10 7.3
Jan-1998 4 9.4 7.1
Feb-1998 3.9 9.3 6.9
Mar-1998 4 9.2 6.9
Apr-1998 3.7 9.1 6.7
May-1998 3.8 8.9 6.9
Jun-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Jul-1998 3.8 9.5 7.3
Aug-1998 3.9 8.8 7.4
Sep-1998 3.9 9.1 7.3
Oct-1998 3.9 8.6 7.2
Nov-1998 3.8 8.6 7.1
Dec-1998 3.8 7.7 7.7
Jan-1999 3.8 7.8 6.7
Feb-1999 3.8 8.2 6.7
Mar-1999 3.6 8 5.8
Apr-1999 3.8 7.8 7
May-1999 3.7 7.4 6.7
Jun-1999 3.8 7.7 6.6
Jul-1999 3.7 8.7 6.5
Aug-1999 3.7 7.7 6.5
Sep-1999 3.6 8.5 6.7
Oct-1999 3.5 8.4 6.4
Nov-1999 3.5 8 6
Dec-1999 3.5 7.8 5.8
Jan-2000 3.4 8.2 5.6
Feb-2000 3.6 8.1 5.7
Mar-2000 3.5 7.4 6.1
Apr-2000 3.4 7% 5.5
May-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Jun-2000 3.4 7.8 5.6
Jul-2000 3.5 7.7 5.8
Aug-2000 3.6 7.9 5.9
Sep-2000 3.5 7.3 5.8
Oct-2000 3.4% 7.3 5.1
Nov-2000 3.5 7.3 6
Dec-2000 3.5 7.4 5.7
Jan-2001 3.6 8.2 5.8
Feb-2001 3.7 7.7 6.1
Mar-2001 3.7 8.3 6.2
Apr-2001 3.9 8 6.4
May-2001 3.8 7.9 6.3
Jun-2001 4 8.3 6.6
Jul-2001 4 8 6.2
Aug-2001 4.3 9.1 6.5
Sep-2001 4.3 8.9 6.7
Oct-2001 4.7 9.5 7.1
Nov-2001 4.9 9.8 7.3
Dec-2001 5.1 10.1 7.7
Jan-2002 5.1 10 7.8
Feb-2002 5 9.9 7
Mar-2002 5 10.5 7.5
Apr-2002 5.2 10.7 8
May-2002 5.1 10.2 7.1
Jun-2002 5.1 10.5 7.4
Jul-2002 5.2 9.8 7.4
Aug-2002 5.1 9.8 7.5
Sep-2002 5.1 9.7 7.4
Oct-2002 5.1 9.8 7.9
Nov-2002 5.1 10.7 7.8
Dec-2002 5.1 11.3 7.9
Jan-2003 5.2 10.5 7.9 5.5
Feb-2003 5.1 10.7 7.7 5.8
Mar-2003 5.1 10.3 7.8 6.5
Apr-2003 5.3 10.9 7.6 6
May-2003 5.4 10.9 8 5.5
Jun-2003 5.5 11.5 8.3 7.4
Jul-2003 5.4 10.9 8 5.9
Aug-2003 5.4 10.9 7.7 6
Sep-2003 5.3 11.1 7.3 6.4
Oct-2003 5.1 11.4 7.5 6.2
Nov-2003 5.2 10.2 7.4 5.2
Dec-2003 5 10.1 6.7 5.4
Jan-2004 5 10.4 7.3 5
Feb-2004 4.9 9.7 7.4 4.5
Mar-2004 5.1 10.3 7.6 4.3
Apr-2004 5 9.8 7.1 4.7
May-2004 4.9 10.1 6.9 4.6
Jun-2004 5 10.2 6.6 4.6
Jul-2004 4.7 11 6.8 3.9
Aug-2004 4.7 10.5 6.8 3.7
Sep-2004 4.6 10.3 6.8 4.5
Oct-2004 4.6 10.8 6.8 4.9
Nov-2004 4.6 10.7 6.7 4.1
Dec-2004 4.5 10.7 6.6 4.2
Jan-2005 4.5 10.6 6 4.1
Feb-2005 4.6 10.9 6.3 4.3
Mar-2005 4.5 10.5 5.8 3.9
Apr-2005 4.4 10.3 6.4 4.2
May-2005 4.4 10.1 6 4.2
Jun-2005 4.3 10.2 5.7 3.6
Jul-2005 4.2 9.2 5.5 4.8
Aug-2005 4.2 9.7 5.8 3.7
Sep-2005 4.4 9.4 6.4 4.3
Oct-2005 4.4 9.1 6 3.2
Nov-2005 4.3 10.6 6.1 3.6
Dec-2005 4.2 9.2 6.1 3.8
Jan-2006 4.1 8.9 5.5 3
Feb-2006 4.1 9.5 5.4 3
Mar-2006 4 9.5 5.2 3.5
Apr-2006 4.1 9.4 5.5 3.9
May-2006 4.1 8.7 5 3.3
Jun-2006 4.1 8.9 5.2 3.1
Jul-2006 4.1 9.5 5.2 2.4
Aug-2006 4.1 8.8 5.3 3
Sep-2006 3.9 9 5.5 3
Oct-2006 3.9 8.4 4.8% 2.8
Nov-2006 4 8.5 5.1 3.1
Dec-2006 3.9 8.3 5 2.5
Jan-2007 4.2 7.9 5.5 3.1
Feb-2007 4.1 8 5.1 2.6
Mar-2007 3.8 8.4 5 3
Apr-2007 4 8.3 5.6 3.5
May-2007 3.9 8.3 5.8 3.2
Jun-2007 4.1 8.5 5.5 2.7
Jul-2007 4.2 8.1 5.9 2.7
Aug-2007 4.2 7.6 5.5 3.5
Sep-2007 4.2 8 5.9 3.4
Oct-2007 4.1 8.5 5.7 3.8
Nov-2007 4.2 8.5 5.9 3.6
Dec-2007 4.4 9 6.3 3.7
Jan-2008 4.4 9.1 6.3 3.1
Feb-2008 4.4 8.4 6.2 2.9
Mar-2008 4.5 9.2 6.9 3.6
Apr-2008 4.4 8.6 7.1 3.5
May-2008 4.8 9.6 6.9 4.1
Jun-2008 5 9.4 7.6 4.2
Jul-2008 5.2 10 7.5 3.7
Aug-2008 5.4 10.6 8 4.5
Sep-2008 5.4 11.3 8 4
Oct-2008 5.9 11.4 8.8 3.9
Nov-2008 6.2 11.5 8.7 4.8
Dec-2008 6.7 12.1 9.4 5.1
Jan-2009 7.1 12.7 10.1 6.1
Feb-2009 7.6 13.7 11.3 6.7
Mar-2009 8 13.7 11.7 6.5
Apr-2009 8.1 15 11.4 6.8
May-2009 8.5 15 12.3 7
Jun-2009 8.7 14.8 12.1 7.9
Jul-2009 8.7 14.8 12.5 8.1
Aug-2009 8.9 16.8% 13 7.6
Sep-2009 8.9 15.3 12.6 7.6
Oct-2009 9.2 15.8 12.8 7.6
Nov-2009 9.2% 15.7 12.4 7.2
Dec-2009 9 16.1 12.8 8.4
Jan-2010 8.8 16.5 12.9 8.3
Feb-2010 8.9 16.1 12.7 8.2
Mar-2010 8.9 16.8 13% 7.6
Apr-2010 9 16.6 12.5 7
May-2010 8.7 15.5 12 7.8
Jun-2010 8.6 15.2 12.3 7.4
Jul-2010 8.5 15.6 12.2 7.9
Aug-2010 8.6 15.9 12 7.3
Sep-2010 8.6 16 12.3 6.6
Oct-2010 8.6 15.6 12.3 7.2
Nov-2010 8.9 16.2 12.9 7.5
Dec-2010 8.5 15.5 12.9 7.2
Jan-2011 8.1 15.8 12.3 6.8
Feb-2011 8.1 15.5 11.8 6.7
Mar-2011 8 15.8 11.6 7.3
Apr-2011 8.1 16.5 11.9 6.5
May-2011 7.9 16.3 11.6 7.2
Jun-2011 8.1 16.2 11.5 6.5
Jul-2011 8 15.9 11.2 7.4
Aug-2011 7.9 16.4 11.2 7.2
Sep-2011 7.9 15.9 11.2 8
Oct-2011 7.9 14.6 11.3 7.4
Nov-2011 7.7 15.6 11.2 6.4
Dec-2011 7.5 15.4 11.1 6.8
Jan-2012 7.4 13.6 10.7 6.7
Feb-2012 7.4 14 10.9 6.2
Mar-2012 7.3 14 10.6 6.4
Apr-2012 7.4 13.3 10.3 5.4
May-2012 7.4 13.5 10.9 5.5
Jun-2012 7.3 14.5 10.9 6.1
Jul-2012 7.3 14.2 10.2 5.9
Aug-2012 7.2 13.8 10.1 5.9
Sep-2012 7 13.6 9.7 4.9
Oct-2012 6.9 14.1 10 4.9
Nov-2012 6.8 13.3 9.9 6.3
Dec-2012 6.9 14 9.6 6.6
Jan-2013 7.1 13.7 9.7 6.4
Feb-2013 6.8 13.8 9.7 6
Mar-2013 6.7 13 9.3 5.1
Apr-2013 6.7 13.3 9 5.3
May-2013 6.7 13.4 9 4.5
Jun-2013 6.6 14.2 9.1 4.7
Jul-2013 6.5 12.6 9.4 5.3
Aug-2013 6.4 12.8 9.2 5.1
Sep-2013 6.3 13 8.8 5.4
Oct-2013 6.3 12.8 9.1 5.4
Nov-2013 6.1 12.3 8.7 5.2
Dec-2013 5.9 11.9 8.3 4.3
Jan-2014 5.7 12.1 8.3 4.7
Feb-2014 5.8 11.8 8.2 5.9
Mar-2014 5.8 12.1 7.9 5.5
Apr-2014 5.3 11.6 7.2 5.9
May-2014 5.4 11.4 7.7 5.7
Jun-2014 5.3 11 7.8 4.7
Jul-2014 5.3 11.6 7.7 4.2
Aug-2014 5.3 11.4 7.4 4.5
Sep-2014 5.1 11 6.8 4.4
Oct-2014 4.9 10.6 6.8 5.1
Nov-2014 5 10.9 6.6 4.8
Dec-2014 4.7 10.6 6.4 4.4
Jan-2015 4.9 10.3 6.7 4
Feb-2015 4.7 10.1 6.8 4
Mar-2015 4.8 9.9 6.8 3.2
Apr-2015 4.7 9.7 6.8 4.4
May-2015 4.8 10.3 6.8 4.1
Jun-2015 4.6 9.7 6.7 3.9
Jul-2015 4.5 9.1 6.9 3.9
Aug-2015 4.4 9.4 6.6 3.4
Sep-2015 4.4 9.3 6.2 3.5
Oct-2015 4.4 9 6.3 3.5
Nov-2015 4.4 9.4 6.4 3.9
Dec-2015 4.4 8.5 6.2 4.1
Jan-2016 4.2 8.5 5.9 3.6
Feb-2016 4.2 8.6 5.5 3.8
Mar-2016 4.3 8.9 5.6 3.9
Apr-2016 4.4 8.8 6.2 3.8
May-2016 4.2 8.2 5.7 4.1
Jun-2016 4.3 8.7 6 3.6
Jul-2016 4.2 8.2 5.4 3.8
Aug-2016 4.4 8 5.6 4.1
Sep-2016 4.4 8.5 6.2 3.8
Oct-2016 4.4 8.5 5.7 3.4
Nov-2016 4.2 8.2 5.6 3.1
Dec-2016 4.2 8 5.8 2.7
Jan-2017 4.2 7.4 5.8 3.7
Feb-2017 4 8 5.6 3.4
Mar-2017 3.9 7.9 5 3.3
Apr-2017 3.9 7.8 5.2 3.3
May-2017 3.8 7.6 5.2 3.6
Jun-2017 3.8 7.1 5 3.7
Jul-2017 3.7 7.2 5.1 3.8
Aug-2017 3.9 7.5 5.1 3.9
Sep-2017 3.7 7.2 5.1 3.6
Oct-2017 3.6 7.6 5 3
Nov-2017 3.7 7.5 4.9 3
Dec-2017 3.7 6.9 5 2.5
Jan-2018 3.5 7.5 4.9 3
Feb-2018 3.6 6.8 4.9 2.9
Mar-2018 3.5 6.6 4.9 3.1
Apr-2018 3.6 6.5 4.8 2.9
May-2018 3.5 5.8 4.8 2.2
Jun-2018 3.5 6.5 4.6 3.3
Jul-2018 3.3 6.4 4.5 3.1
Aug-2018 3.4 6.2 4.7 2.9
Sep-2018 3.3 6.2 4.6 3.5
Oct-2018 3.3 6.4 4.4 3.1
Nov-2018 3.4 6.2 4.6 2.8
Dec-2018 3.4 6.8 4.5 3.3
Jan-2019 3.5 6.9 4.8 3
Feb-2019 3.2 7 4.3 3.1
Mar-2019 3.3 6.5 4.5 3.1
Apr-2019 3.2 6.6 4.1 2.3
May-2019 3.3 6.1 4.1 2.5
Jun-2019 3.3 6 4.3 2.2
Jul-2019 3.3 5.6 4.4 2.8
Aug-2019 3.4 5.2 4.2 2.8
Sep-2019 3.2 5.4 4 2.5
Oct-2019 3.3 5.6 4.2 2.9
Nov-2019 3.3 5.7 4.3 2.6
Dec-2019 3.1 6.2 4.3 2.6
Jan-2020 3 6.1 4.3 3.1
Feb-2020 3 6 4.4 2.4
Mar-2020 3.9 6.8 6 4.1
Apr-2020 14.1 16.7 18.9 14.5
May-2020 12.3 16.7 17.6 14.9
Jun-2020 10.1 15.3 14.5 13.9
Jul-2020 9.2 14.4 12.7 11.9
Aug-2020 7.4 12.8 10.5 10.6
Sep-2020 7 12 10.3 8.8
Oct-2020 6 10.8 8.8 7.6
Nov-2020 5.9 10.3 8.4 6.7
Dec-2020 6 9.9 9.3 5.9
Jan-2021 5.7 9.2 8.6 6.6
Feb-2021 5.6 9.9 8.5 5.1
Mar-2021 5.4 9.6 7.9 6
Apr-2021 5.3 9.7 7.9 5.7
May-2021 5.1 9.1 7.3 5.5
Jun-2021 5.2 9.2 7.4 5.8
Jul-2021 4.8 8.2 6.6 5.3
Aug-2021 4.5 8.8 6.4 4.6
Sep-2021 4.2 7.9 6.3 4.2
Oct-2021 4 7.9 5.9 4.2
Nov-2021 3.7 6.5 5.2 3.9
Dec-2021 3.2 7.1 4.9 3.8 
Jan-2022 3.4  6.9 4.9 3.6 
Feb-2022 3.3  6.6 4.4  3.1 
Mar-2022  3.2 6.2 4.2 3.1
Apr-2022 3.2 5.9 4.1 3.1
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Notes: AAPI refers to Asian American and Pacific Islander. Race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (i.e., white non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, AAPI non-Hispanic, and Hispanic any race). Low-point and high-point of each series prior to the recovery from the Great Recession marked.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey, public data series. 

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Jobs day

Labor force participation rate and employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, by gender, 1989–2022

Date Labor force participation rate, men Labor force participation rate, women Employment-to-population ratio, men Employment-to-population ratio, women
Jan-1989 93.8 73.6 89.9 70.5
Feb-1989 93.7 73.5 89.8 70.4
Mar-1989 93.7 73.4 89.9 70.2
Apr-1989 93.7 73.5 89.7 70.3
May-1989 93.5 73.4 89.8 70.1
Jun-1989 93.5 73.3 90 70.1
Jul-1989 93.6 73.4 89.9 70
Aug-1989 93.5 73.5 90 70.2
Sep-1989 93.6 74 89.7 70.7
Oct-1989 93.7 73.8 89.8 70.5
Nov-1989 93.9 74.1 89.9 70.8
Dec-1989 93.8 74.1 90 70.7
Jan-1990 93.9 74.1 89.9 70.9
Feb-1990 94 74 90.1 70.8
Mar-1990 93.6 74 89.8 70.8
Apr-1990 93.5 73.9 89.4 70.7
May-1990 93.3 74.1 89.3 70.8
Jun-1990 93.3 73.9 89.3 70.6
Jul-1990 93.2 74 89 70.6
Aug-1990 93.3 74 88.9 70.5
Sep-1990 93.1 74 88.7 70.5
Oct-1990 93.2 73.9 88.6 70.4
Nov-1990 93.4 73.9 88.5 70.2
Dec-1990 93.1 73.9 88.1 70.1
Jan-1991 93.2 73.7 88.2 69.9
Feb-1991 93.4 73.9 88 70.1
Mar-1991 93.3 74 87.7 70
Apr-1991 93.4 74.3 87.9 70.3
May-1991 93 74.1 87.4 70.1
Jun-1991 93.1 74.2 87.5 70.2
Jul-1991 93 73.9 87.5 70.1
Aug-1991 92.9 74.1 87.4 70
Sep-1991 93.1 74.1 87.5 70.1
Oct-1991 92.9 74.2 87.2 70
Nov-1991 92.9 74.1 87.1 70
Dec-1991 92.7  74.1 86.9 69.9
Jan-1992 93 74.4 86.9 70.1
Feb-1992 92.8 74.4 86.6  70
Mar-1992 92.9 74.5 86.8 70
Apr-1992 93 74.7 86.9 70.2
May-1992 93.2 74.8 86.8 70.3
Jun-1992 93.3 74.9 86.9 70.3
Jul-1992 93.1 74.8 86.9 70.2
Aug-1992 93.2 74.8 86.9 70.2
Sep-1992 93.1 74.5 86.8 70.1
Oct-1992 93 74.4 86.7 70
Nov-1992 92.7 74.6 86.6 70.1
Dec-1992 92.6 74.6 86.7 69.9
Jan-1993 92.6 74.3 86.8 69.9
Feb-1993 92.4 74.2 86.7 69.9
Mar-1993 92.4 74.4 86.5 70.3
Apr-1993 92.5 74.1 86.8 69.9
May-1993 92.6 74.5 87 70.2
Jun-1993 92.8 74.6 87.1 70.4
Jul-1993 92.7 74.6 87.1 70.4
Aug-1993 92.7 74.8 87.2 70.6
Sep-1993 92.5 74.7 87.1 70.5
Oct-1993 92.5 74.8 87.1 70.5
Nov-1993 92.6 74.9 87.5 70.7
Dec-1993 92.4 75.2 87.4 71
Jan-1994 92.1 75 87.1 71
Feb-1994 91.9 75.3 86.8 71.3
Mar-1994 91.7 75.2 87 71.1
Apr-1994 91.7 75.1 87.1 71.2
May-1994 91.6 75.2 87.3 71.3
Jun-1994 91.4 74.7 87 70.9
Jul-1994 91.5 75.1 87 71.4
Aug-1994 91.4 75.4 87 71.7
Sep-1994 91.6 76 87.4 72.1
Oct-1994 91.8 75.5 87.5 71.9
Nov-1994 91.9 75.6 87.9 72
Dec-1994 92 75.2 88 71.8
Jan-1995 92 75.3 87.9 71.8
Feb-1995 92 75.5 88.1 72.2
Mar-1995 91.8 75.5 87.9 72.1
Apr-1995 91.8 75.9 87.7 72.2
May-1995 91.8 75.5 87.6 72.1
Jun-1995 91.6 75.2 87.6 71.7
Jul-1995 91.4 75.7 87.5 72.2
Aug-1995 91.4 75.6 87.4 72.1
Sep-1995 91.5 75.7 87.6 72.3
Oct-1995 91.3 75.8 87.6 72.3
Nov-1995 91.3 76 87.2 72.6
Dec-1995 91.3 75.7 87.2 72.4
Jan-1996 91.5 75.8 87.5 72.4
Feb-1996 91.7 75.7 87.7 72.4
Mar-1996 91.5 75.8 87.5 72.6
Apr-1996 91.6 75.9 87.5 72.6
May-1996 91.6 76 87.6 72.5
Jun-1996 91.6 76 87.8 72.7
Jul-1996 91.8 76.3 88.1 72.9
Aug-1996 92 76.3 88.4 73
Sep-1996 91.9 76.2 88.1 73
Oct-1996 92 76.4 88.3 73.1
Nov-1996 92 76.5 88.2 73
Dec-1996 91.9 76.6 88.3 73
Jan-1997 91.9 76.5 88.2 73.2
Feb-1997 91.9 76.3 88.2 72.9
Mar-1997 91.8 76.6 88.2 73.3
Apr-1997 91.7 76.5 88.1 73.5
May-1997 91.5 76.4 88.1 73.3
Jun-1997 91.8 76.7 88.4 73.6
Jul-1997 91.9 77 88.6 73.9
Aug-1997 92 77.2 88.7 74.1
Sep-1997 91.9 77 88.6 73.9
Oct-1997 91.8 76.8 88.6 73.8
Nov-1997 91.8 76.5 88.7 73.6
Dec-1997 91.8 76.6 88.6 73.6
Jan-1998 91.9 76.4 88.8 73.4
Feb-1998 91.8 76.5 88.9 73.4
Mar-1998 92 76.7 88.8 73.5
Apr-1998 91.8 76.3 88.9 73.5
May-1998 91.7 76.3 88.8 73.4
Jun-1998 91.7 76.4 88.7 73.6
Jul-1998 91.9 76.5 88.7 73.8
Aug-1998 91.7 76.6 88.8 73.9
Sep-1998 91.7 76.8 88.8 74
Oct-1998 91.8 76.7 88.8 73.7
Nov-1998 91.9 76.6 89.1 73.7
Dec-1998 91.8 76.8 88.9 74
Jan-1999 92.5 77 89.7 74.3
Feb-1999 92.2 76.8 89.2 74.1
Mar-1999 91.8 76.5 89.2 73.8
Apr-1999 91.9 76.6 89.1 73.8
May-1999 91.8 76.7 88.9 74.1
Jun-1999 91.6 76.9 88.8 74.2
Jul-1999 91.6 76.6 88.8 73.8
Aug-1999 91.5 76.7 88.7 74.1
Sep-1999 91.4 76.9 88.6 74.3
Oct-1999 91.4 77 88.7 74.5
Nov-1999 91.6 77.1 89 74.5
Dec-1999 91.6 76.7 89 74.3
Jan-2000 92.1 77 89.5 74.4
Feb-2000 92.2 76.9 89.4 74.5
Mar-2000 91.9 77.1 89.3 74.5
Apr-2000 91.7 77.3 89.2 74.9
May-2000 91.5 77 89 74.4
Jun-2000 91.7 76.8 89.1 74.2
Jul-2000 91.5 76.6 88.9 73.9
Aug-2000 91.5 76.3 88.9 73.6
Sep-2000 91.3 76.4 88.6 73.9
Oct-2000 91.2 76.3 88.6 73.9
Nov-2000 91.4 76.5 88.8 74.1
Dec-2000 91.6 76.5 88.9 74.1
Jan-2001 91.7 76.9 88.9 74.2
Feb-2001 91.6 76.8 88.8 74.2
Mar-2001 91.5 76.9 88.5 74.3
Apr-2001 91.4 76.3 88.3 73.7
May-2001 91.4 76.4 88.3 73.7
Jun-2001 91.3 76.2 88.1 73.4
Jul-2001 91.2 76.2 87.9 73.4
Aug-2001 91.1 76.2 87.6 73.2
Sep-2001 91.1 76.2 87.6 73.1
Oct-2001 91.3 76.1 87.4 72.7
Nov-2001 91 76.2 87 72.6
Dec-2001 91.2 76.3 87.1 72.6
Jan-2002 91.1 76.1 86.8 72.5
Feb-2002 91.3 76.4 87.1 72.7
Mar-2002 91.3 76.1 87 72.5
Apr-2002 91.2 76.2 86.8 72.5
May-2002 91.3 76.1 86.9 72.2
Jun-2002 91 75.7 86.5  72.1
Jul-2002 90.9  75.5  86.5 71.9 
Aug-2002 91.1 75.7 86.8 72.1
Sep-2002 91.1 75.8 86.8 72.2
Oct-2002 91 75.7 86.6 72.1
Nov-2002 90.6 75.4  85.9 71.9
Dec-2002 90.6 75.8 86 72.2
Jan-2003 90.2 75.8 85.6 72.4
Feb-2003 90.5 75.8 85.9 72.1
Mar-2003 90.4 76.1 85.8 72.4
Apr-2003 90.7 76 85.9 72.4
May-2003 90.6 75.9 85.7 72.2
Jun-2003 90.7 76.1 85.8 72.3
Jul-2003 90.6 75.6 85.8 71.9
Aug-2003 90.7 75.6 85.7 72
Sep-2003 90.7 75.3  85.9 71.6 
Oct-2003 90.7 75.3 85.9 71.6
Nov-2003 90.7 75.2 86 71.7
Dec-2003 90.7 75.1 86.4 71.4
Jan-2004 90.7 75.2 86.4 71.6
Feb-2004 90.4 75.2 86.2 71.7
Mar-2004 90.2 75.5 86 71.8
Apr-2004 90.3 75.4 86.2 71.8
May-2004 90.5 75.3 86.3 71.9
Jun-2004 90.5 75.5 86.5 71.9
Jul-2004 90.7 75.4 86.7 71.9
Aug-2004 90.5 75.1 86.5 71.8
Sep-2004 90.4 75.2 86.4 71.9
Oct-2004 90.2 75.1 86.3 71.9
Nov-2004 90.4 75.2 86.5 72
Dec-2004 90.3 75.1 86.2 71.8
Jan-2005 90.3 75.3 86.5 72
Feb-2005 90.5 75.3 86.7 71.9
Mar-2005 90.5 75 86.8 71.8
Apr-2005 90.5 75.2 87 72
May-2005 90.7 75.3 87.1 72.1
Jun-2005 90.4 75 87 71.7
Jul-2005 90.5 75.3 87 71.9
Aug-2005 90.9 75.2 87.4 72.1
Sep-2005 90.6 75.4 87 72.1
Oct-2005 90.4 75.2 87 71.9
Nov-2005 90.3 75.3 86.8 71.9
Dec-2005 90.2 75.4 86.7 72.1
Jan-2006 90.4 75.3 87.2 72.2
Feb-2006 90.6 75.5 87.1 72.4
Mar-2006 90.9 75.4 87.4 72.3
Apr-2006 90.6 75.3 87.2 72.1
May-2006 90.6 75.3 87.2 72.3
Jun-2006 90.5 75.4 87.2 72.5
Jul-2006 90.4 75.7 87.1 72.7
Aug-2006 90.5 75.6 87.1 72.6
Sep-2006 90.4 75.5 87.4 72.5
Oct-2006 90.4 75.6 87.4 72.9
Nov-2006 90.7 75.5 87.5 72.7
Dec-2006 90.9 75.5 87.7 72.7
Jan-2007 91.5 75.6 88 72.8
Feb-2007 91.4 75.3 87.9 72.6
Mar-2007 91.2 75.3 88 72.7
Apr-2007 91.1 75 87.9 72.2
May-2007 90.9 75.3 87.7 72.5
Jun-2007 90.7 75.3 87.5 72.5
Jul-2007 90.6 75.4 87.3 72.4
Aug-2007 90.5 75.5 87.2 72.6
Sep-2007 90.4 75.4 87.1 72.5
Oct-2007 90.3 75.3 86.9 72.4
Nov-2007 90.6 75.5 87.2 72.5
Dec-2007 90.9 75.5 87.2 72.4
Jan-2008 91.1 75.7 87.4 72.7
Feb-2008 91 75.5 87.4 72.6
Mar-2008 90.9 75.8 87.1 72.6
Apr-2008 90.6 75.8 86.7 72.7
May-2008 90.5 75.9 86.5 72.6
Jun-2008 90.5 76 86.3 72.6
Jul-2008 90.7 75.7 86.2 72.4
Aug-2008 90.5 76 85.8 72.1
Sep-2008 90.5 75.8 85.4 72.3
Oct-2008 90.4 75.8 85.2 71.9
Nov-2008 90.3 75.9 84.7 71.7
Dec-2008 89.9 75.9 83.7 71.6
Jan-2009 90 75.8 83.1 71.1
Feb-2009 89.8 76 82.5 71
Mar-2009 89.7 75.7 82 70.6
Apr-2009 89.9 75.9 81.8 70.7
May-2009 90.1 75.8 81.5 70.4
Jun-2009 90 75.9 81.5 70.4
Jul-2009 89.8 75.8 81.3 70.4
Aug-2009 90.1 75.6 81.2 70
Sep-2009 89.8 75.3 80.8 69.5
Oct-2009 89.8 75.3 80.8 69.4
Nov-2009 89.6 75.4 80.7 69.8
Dec-2009 88.9 75.2 80.4 69.2
Jan-2010 89.2 75.6 80.7 69.8
Feb-2010 89.2 75.5 80.6 69.7
Mar-2010 89.5 75.5 80.8 69.5
Apr-2010 89.7 75.6 81.3 69.6
May-2010 89.5 75.2 81.1 69.3
Jun-2010 89.5 75.1 81.1 69.5
Jul-2010 89.2 74.8  81.1 69.1
Aug-2010 89.3 74.9 81.2 69 
Sep-2010 89.3 74.9 81.2 69.1
Oct-2010 88.9 74.9 81.1 69
Nov-2010 88.9 75.3 80.7 69.1
Dec-2010 88.6 75.2 80.8 69.4
Jan-2011 88.6 74.9 81.2 69.3
Feb-2011 88.7 74.7 81.4 69
Mar-2011 88.8 74.9 81.4 69.3
Apr-2011 88.7 74.9 81.2 69.1
May-2011 89 74.6 81.6 68.9
Jun-2011 88.9 74.6 81.3 68.8 
Jul-2011 88.6 74.5 81.1 69
Aug-2011 88.7 74.7 81.4 68.9
Sep-2011 88.6 74.6 81.3 68.7
Oct-2011 88.4 74.4 81.1 68.9
Nov-2011 88.7 74.4 81.9 68.8
Dec-2011 88.7 74.6 82.1 68.9
Jan-2012 88.8 74.5 82.5 68.9
Feb-2012 88.7 74.5 82.4 68.9
Mar-2012 88.9 74.5 82.5 69.2
Apr-2012 88.7 74.4 82.5 69.1
May-2012 88.6 74.5 82.5 69.2
Jun-2012 88.9 74.4 82.6 69
Jul-2012 88.6 74.5 82.4 69.1
Aug-2012 88.6 74.5 82.4 69.2
Sep-2012 88.6 74.6 82.7 69.5
Oct-2012 88.8 74.7 82.9 69.6
Nov-2012 88.4 74.3 82.5 69.4
Dec-2012 88.6 74.6 82.8 69.4
Jan-2013 88.4 74 82.6 68.9
Feb-2013 88.5 73.9 82.8 69
Mar-2013 88.3 73.9 82.8 69
Apr-2013 88.6 73.7 82.8 69.1
May-2013 88.6 74 83 69.3
Jun-2013 88.6 74 82.9 69.2
Jul-2013 88.5 74.1 82.9 69.4
Aug-2013 88.3 74 82.6 69.6
Sep-2013 88.4 73.9 82.6 69.6
Oct-2013 88 73.5 82.4 69
Nov-2013 88.6 73.8 83 69.3
Dec-2013 88.1 73.8 83 69.5
Jan-2014 88.2 73.9 83.2 69.8
Feb-2014 88.1 74.3 83 70.1
Mar-2014 88.3 74.2 83.5 69.8
Apr-2014 87.9 74 83.2 69.9
May-2014 88 73.8 83.3 69.8
Jun-2014 88.3 74 83.8 70.2
Jul-2014 88.3 73.7 83.8 69.8
Aug-2014 88.5 74 83.9 70.1
Sep-2014 88.1 73.7 84.1 69.8
Oct-2014 88.1 73.9 84 70.1
Nov-2014 88.1 73.9 83.9 70.3
Dec-2014 88.2 73.8 84.2 70.3
Jan-2015 88.5 73.8 84.3 70.2
Feb-2015 88.4 73.6 84.3 70.3
Mar-2015 88.5 73.4 84.5 70
Apr-2015 88.4 73.8 84.4 70.2
May-2015 88.3 74.1 84.3 70.4
Jun-2015 88.3 73.8 84.5 70.5
Jul-2015 88.1 73.5 84.4 70.1
Aug-2015 88.2 73.5 84.6 70.2
Sep-2015 88.2 73.3 84.6 70.2
Oct-2015 88.2 73.6 84.4 70.3
Nov-2015 88.1 73.9 84.4 70.7
Dec-2015 88.2 73.9 84.5 70.6
Jan-2016 88.4 74 84.9 70.7
Feb-2016 88.4 74 84.9 70.8
Mar-2016 88.7 74.2 85.2 70.9
Apr-2016 88.6 74.2 84.8 70.9
May-2016 88.4 74.2 84.9 71
Jun-2016 88.7 74.2 85.1 71
Jul-2016 88.5 74.2 84.9 71.4
Aug-2016 88.5 74.4 84.9 71.1
Sep-2016 88.6 74.7 84.9 71.4
Oct-2016 88.6 74.7 85 71.5
Nov-2016 88.5 74.4 85 71.4
Dec-2016 88.5 74.4 85 71.4
Jan-2017 88.8 74.4 85.3 71.3
Feb-2017 88.6 74.7 85.1 71.6
Mar-2017 88.5 74.9 85.2 72
Apr-2017 88.6 75.1 85.4 72
May-2017 88.5 75.1 85.3 71.9
Jun-2017 88.6 75 85.3 72.2
Jul-2017 88.7 75.2 85.3 72.4
Aug-2017 88.5 75 85 72.1
Sep-2017 88.7 75.3 85.6 72.5
Oct-2017 88.7 74.8 85.6 72.2
Nov-2017 88.5 75.3 85.6 72.5
Dec-2017 88.9 74.9 86 72.2
Jan-2018 88.9 74.7 85.9 72.1
Feb-2018 89.1 75.1 86.4 72.3
Mar-2018 89.1 75 86.2 72.4
Apr-2018 89.3 74.9 86.3 72.2
May-2018 89.1 74.9 86.3 72.5
Jun-2018 89 75.4 86.1 72.8
Jul-2018 88.9 75.6 86.3 73.1
Aug-2018 88.8 75.4 86 72.9
Sep-2018 88.7 75.3 85.9 73.1
Oct-2018 89.1 75.8 86.2 73.4
Nov-2018 89 75.6 86.3 73.1
Dec-2018 88.9 75.8 86 73.3
Jan-2019 89.3 75.8 86.4 73.3
Feb-2019 89.2 75.7 86.5 73.3
Mar-2019 89.5 75.6 86.7 73.1
Apr-2019 89.2 75.5 86.4 73.2
May-2019 88.9  75.6 86.3 73.3
Jun-2019 88.8 75.9 86.1 73.6
Jul-2019 89 75.4 86.2 73.2
Aug-2019 89.1 76.3 86.3 74
Sep-2019 89.2 76.4 86.4 74.2
Oct-2019 89.1 76.8 86.5 74.4
Nov-2019 89.3 76.6 86.7 74.1
Dec-2019 89.1 76.9 86.5 74.5
Jan-2020 89.3  76.9 86.6 74.6
Feb-2020 89.1 76.8 86.4 74.5
Mar-2020 89 76.2 85.8 73.3
Apr-2020 86.4 73.5 76 63.4
May-2020 87.1 74.2 77.9 64.9
Jun-2020 87.8 75.3 79.6 67.7
Jul-2020 87.6 75.2 79.9 68.1
Aug-2020 88 75 81.6 69.3
Sep-2020 87.6 74.4 81.5 68.9
Oct-2020 87.9 74.8 82.1 70.1
Nov-2020 87.4 74.5 81.9 70.2
Dec-2020 87.3 74.8 82.3 70.4
Jan-2021 87.7 74.8 82.5 70.4
Feb-2021 87.6 74.9 82.6 70.6
Mar-2021 87.6 75.2 82.8 71
Apr-2021 87.8 75.1 82.9 71.1
May-2021 87.8 75 82.9 71.3
Jun-2021 88.1 75.4 83.2 71.4
Jul-2021 88.3 75.5 83.8 71.9
Aug-2021 88.4 75.4 84 72
Sep-2021 88.1 75.3 84.1 72
Oct-2021 88.1 75.4 84.5 72.2
Nov-2021 88.2 75.7 84.8 72.9
Dec-2021 88.0 75.9 85.0 73.2
Jan-2022 88.2 76.0 85.1 73.3
Feb-2022 88.8 75.8 85.9 73.2
Mar-2022 88.7 76.5 86.1 74.1
Apr-2022 88.7 76.2 86.0 73.9
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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data.

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A more comprehensive look at unemployment rates: Unemployment rates for select workers by race/ethnicity and gender, February 2020, April 2020, March 2022, and April 2022

Characteristic February 2020 April 2020 March 2022 April 2022
White men 2.80% 12.30% 3.10% 3.1%
White women 2.70% 15.00% 2.80% 2.8%
Black men 6.10% 16.00% 5.60% 6.1%
Black women 4.80% 16.40% 5.50% 5%
Latinx men 3.10% 16.50% 3.80% 3.7%
Latinx women 4.90% 20.10% 4.20% 3.8%
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Notes: Data are for workers ages 20 and older. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race. Unemployment levels are labeled for February, November, and the peak in between.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Household Data Table A-2, and Table A-3.

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A more comprehensive look at employment: Employment-to-population ratios for select workers by race/ethnicity and gender, February 2020, April 2020, March 2022, and April 2022

Characteristic February 2020 April 2020 March 2022 April 2022
White men 69.70% 60.50% 68.40% 67.80%
White women 56.60% 47.10% 55.60% 55.40%
Black men 63.80% 53.20% 64.10% 64.70%
Black women 60.80% 49.60% 58.40% 58.60%
Latinx men 78.40% 64.30% 76.80% 76.80%
Latinx women 59.10% 45.20% 57.30% 56.80%
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The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Data are for workers ages 20 and older. Racial and ethnic categories are not mutually exclusive; white and Black data do not exclude Latinx workers of each race. Employment to population levels are labeled for February, April, and the trough in between.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Household Data Table A-2, and Table A-3.

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Jobs day

Monthly change in payroll employment, 2007–2022

date Change in Employment
Jan-2007 228
Feb-2007 81
Mar-2007 235
Apr-2007 49
May-2007 151
Jun-2007 76
Jul-2007 -31
Aug-2007 -23
Sep-2007 80
Oct-2007 79
Nov-2007 110
Dec-2007 108
Jan-2008 11
Feb-2008 -79
Mar-2008 -49
Apr-2008 -240
May-2008 -177
Jun-2008 -171
Jul-2008 -196
Aug-2008 -278
Sep-2008 -460
Oct-2008 -481
Nov-2008 -727
Dec-2008 -706
Jan-2009 -784
Feb-2009 -743
Mar-2009 -800
Apr-2009 -695
May-2009 -342
Jun-2009 -467
Jul-2009 -340
Aug-2009 -183
Sep-2009 -241
Oct-2009 -199
Nov-2009 12
Dec-2009 -269
Jan-2010 2
Feb-2010 -92
Mar-2010 181
Apr-2010 231
May-2010 540
Jun-2010 -139
Jul-2010 -84
Aug-2010 -5
Sep-2010 -65
Oct-2010 268
Nov-2010 125
Dec-2010 72
Jan-2011 19
Feb-2011 212
Mar-2011 235
Apr-2011 314
May-2011 101
Jun-2011 236
Jul-2011 60
Aug-2011 126
Sep-2011 233
Oct-2011 204
Nov-2011 132
Dec-2011 202
Jan-2012 354
Feb-2012 262
Mar-2012 240
Apr-2012 82
May-2012 100
Jun-2012 73
Jul-2012 152
Aug-2012 172
Sep-2012 187
Oct-2012 159
Nov-2012 156
Dec-2012 239
Jan-2013 191
Feb-2013 278
Mar-2013 139
Apr-2013 191
May-2013 222
Jun-2013 181
Jul-2013 112
Aug-2013 242
Sep-2013 187
Oct-2013 225
Nov-2013 264
Dec-2013 69
Jan-2014 175
Feb-2014 166
Mar-2014 254
Apr-2014 325
May-2014 218
Jun-2014 326
Jul-2014 232
Aug-2014 188
Sep-2014 309
Oct-2014 252
Nov-2014 291
Dec-2014 268
Jan-2015 191
Feb-2015 271
Mar-2015 71
Apr-2015 284
May-2015 331
Jun-2015 174
Jul-2015 302
Aug-2015 125
Sep-2015 155
Oct-2015 306
Nov-2015 237
Dec-2015 273
Jan-2016 108
Feb-2016 212
Mar-2016 237
Apr-2016 197
May-2016 41
Jun-2016 258
Jul-2016 371
Aug-2016 143
Sep-2016 289
Oct-2016 118
Nov-2016 130
Dec-2016 214
Jan-2017 213
Feb-2017 190
Mar-2017 142
Apr-2017 205
May-2017 223
Jun-2017 197
Jul-2017 183
Aug-2017 145
Sep-2017 99
Oct-2017 141
Nov-2017 200
Dec-2017 176
Jan-2018 133
Feb-2018 402
Mar-2018 225
Apr-2018 179
May-2018 333
Jun-2018 183
Jul-2018 66
Aug-2018 219
Sep-2018 57
Oct-2018 145
Nov-2018 102
Dec-2018 248
Jan-2019 279
Feb-2019 24
Mar-2019 224
Apr-2019 288
May-2019 77
Jun-2019 130
Jul-2019 78
Aug-2019 160
Sep-2019 163
Oct-2019 93
Nov-2019 252
Dec-2019 200
Jan-2020 339
Feb-2020 376
Mar-2020 -1498
Apr-2020 -20493
May-2020 2642
Jun-2020 4505
Jul-2020 1388
Aug-2020 1665
Sep-2020 919
Oct-2020 647
Nov-2020 333
Dec-2020 -115
Jan-2021 520
Feb-2021 710
Mar-2021 704
Apr-2021 263
May-2021 447
Jun-2021 557
Jul-2021 689
Aug-2021 517
Sep-2021 424
Oct-2021 677
Nov-2021 647
Dec-2021 588
Jan-2022 504
Feb-2022 714
March-2022 428
Apr-2022 428
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Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Employment Statistics public data series. 

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Nominal Wage Tracker

Nominal wage growth has been far below target in the recovery: Year-over-year change in private-sector nominal average hourly earnings, 2007–2022

Date All nonfarm employees Production/nonsupervisory workers
Mar-2007 3.39% 4.11%
Apr-2007 3.13% 3.85%
May-2007 3.53% 4.08%
Jun-2007 3.61% 4.19%
Jul-2007 3.20% 4.11%
Aug-2007 3.35% 4.04%
Sep-2007 3.09% 4.09%
Oct-2007 3.03% 3.84%
Nov-2007 3.13% 3.89%
Dec-2007 2.97% 3.81%
Jan-2008 2.86% 3.74%
Feb-2008 2.80% 3.79%
Mar-2008 3.09% 3.83%
Apr-2008 2.84% 3.76%
May-2008 3.02% 3.75%
Jun-2008 2.72% 3.50%
Jul-2008 3.05% 3.67%
Aug-2008 3.33% 3.89%
Sep-2008 3.23% 3.64%
Oct-2008 3.32% 3.81%
Nov-2008 3.60% 3.86%
Dec-2008 3.59% 3.90%
Jan-2009 3.68% 3.78%
Feb-2009 3.43% 3.60%
Mar-2009 3.28% 3.47%
Apr-2009 3.32% 3.35%
May-2009 2.93% 3.06%
Jun-2009 2.83% 2.94%
Jul-2009 2.73% 2.71%
Aug-2009 2.44% 2.70%
Sep-2009 2.49% 2.75%
Oct-2009 2.48% 2.68%
Nov-2009 2.19% 2.68%
Dec-2009 1.91% 2.45%
Jan-2010 2.00% 2.61%
Feb-2010 2.09% 2.55%
Mar-2010 1.77% 2.22%
Apr-2010 1.81% 2.38%
May-2010 1.95% 2.59%
Jun-2010 1.81% 2.48%
Jul-2010 1.85% 2.42%
Aug-2010 1.75% 2.36%
Sep-2010 1.84% 2.19%
Oct-2010 1.97% 2.45%
Nov-2010 1.65% 2.18%
Dec-2010 1.79% 2.07%
Jan-2011 1.96% 2.33%
Feb-2011 1.87% 2.12%
Mar-2011 1.87% 2.12%
Apr-2011 1.91% 2.11%
May-2011 2.04% 2.10%
Jun-2011 2.13% 2.05%
Jul-2011 2.26% 2.26%
Aug-2011 1.99% 1.88%
Sep-2011 1.94% 1.94%
Oct-2011 2.02% 1.88%
Nov-2011 2.02% 1.82%
Dec-2011 1.98% 1.77%
Jan-2012 1.71% 1.40%
Feb-2012 1.75% 1.45%
Mar-2012 2.14% 1.71%
Apr-2012 2.05% 1.65%
May-2012 1.74% 1.39%
Jun-2012 1.96% 1.60%
Jul-2012 1.77% 1.39%
Aug-2012 1.82% 1.39%
Sep-2012 1.99% 1.54%
Oct-2012 1.55% 1.18%
Nov-2012 1.90% 1.43%
Dec-2012 2.24% 1.74%
Jan-2013 2.24% 1.79%
Feb-2013 2.15% 2.04%
Mar-2013 1.93% 1.88%
Apr-2013 2.05% 1.83%
May-2013 2.14% 1.88%
Jun-2013 2.17% 2.03%
Jul-2013 2.00% 2.03%
Aug-2013 2.30% 2.18%
Sep-2013 2.08% 2.28%
Oct-2013 2.25% 2.32%
Nov-2013 2.24% 2.37%
Dec-2013 1.85% 2.21%
Jan-2014 1.89% 2.26%
Feb-2014 2.31% 2.55%
Mar-2014 2.10% 2.45%
Apr-2014 1.97% 2.40%
May-2014 2.13% 2.44%
Jun-2014 2.00% 2.24%
Jul-2014 2.09% 2.33%
Aug-2014 2.21% 2.48%
Sep-2014 2.08% 2.17%
Oct-2014 2.03% 2.22%
Nov-2014 2.03% 2.22%
Dec-2014 1.99% 1.77%
Jan-2015 2.15% 2.01%
Feb-2015 1.89% 1.46%
Mar-2015 2.18% 1.85%
Apr-2015 2.26% 1.90%
May-2015 2.30% 2.19%
Jun-2015 2.17% 2.14%
Jul-2015 2.17% 2.04%
Aug-2015 2.20% 1.98%
Sep-2015 2.24% 2.13%
Oct-2015 2.52% 2.37%
Nov-2015 2.39% 2.12%
Dec-2015 2.52% 2.61%
Jan-2016 2.55% 2.45%
Feb-2016 2.46% 2.60%
Mar-2016 2.46% 2.49%
Apr-2016 2.57% 2.63%
May-2016 2.44% 2.29%
Jun-2016 2.60% 2.48%
Jul-2016 2.72% 2.62%
Aug-2016 2.47% 2.47%
Sep-2016 2.63% 2.51%
Oct-2016 2.70% 2.45%
Nov-2016 2.65% 2.45%
Dec-2016 2.65% 2.50%
Jan-2017 2.64% 2.35%
Feb-2017 2.72% 2.48%
Mar-2017 2.59% 2.24%
Apr-2017 2.51% 2.19%
May-2017 2.50% 2.28%
Jun-2017 2.46% 2.28%
Jul-2017 2.57% 2.27%
Aug-2017 2.53% 2.31%
Sep-2017 2.79% 2.50%
Oct-2017 2.36% 2.12%
Nov-2017 2.43% 2.35%
Dec-2017 2.74% 2.43%
Jan-2018 2.69% 2.66%
Feb-2018 2.57% 2.51%
Mar-2018 2.83% 2.83%
Apr-2018 2.75% 2.74%
May-2018 2.90% 2.87%
Jun-2018 2.93% 2.91%
Jul-2018 2.85% 2.85%
Aug-2018 3.19% 3.08%
Sep-2018 3.10% 3.02%
Oct-2018 3.28% 3.29%
Nov-2018 3.35% 3.42%
Dec-2018 3.41% 3.59%
Jan-2019 3.25% 3.35%
Feb-2019 3.55% 3.57%
Mar-2019 3.54% 3.60%
Apr-2019 3.31% 3.51%
May-2019 3.26% 3.54%
Jun-2019 3.37% 3.53%
Jul-2019 3.43% 3.70%
Aug-2019 3.38% 3.69%
Sep-2019 3.08% 3.63%
Oct-2019 3.18% 3.71%
Nov-2019 3.35% 3.57%
Dec-2019 2.94% 3.20%
Jan-2020 3.01% 3.33%
Feb-2020 3.10% 3.49%
Mar-2020 3.56% 3.78%
Apr-2020 8.03% 7.72%
May-2020 6.68% 6.80%
Jun-2020 5.08% 5.67%
Jul-2020 4.92% 4.93%
Aug-2020 4.80% 5.04%
Sep-2020 4.83% 4.73%
Oct-2020 4.61% 4.59%
Nov-2020 4.59% 4.66%
Dec-2020 5.46% 5.62%
Jan-2021 5.28% 5.31%
Feb-2021 5.18% 5.12%
Mar-2021 4.41% 4.80%
Apr-2021 0.63% 1.47%
May-2021 2.19% 2.76%
Jun-2021 3.95% 4.11%
Jul-2021 4.28% 5.10%
Aug-2021 4.34% 5.20%
Sep-2021 4.78% 5.89%
Oct-2021 5.35% 6.36%
Nov-2021 5.33% 6.54%
Dec-2021 4.88% 6.20%
Jan-2022 5.45%  6.71% 
Feb-2022 5.19% 6.69%
Mar-2022 5.62% 6.59%
Apr-2022 5.46% 6.39%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series. 

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Jobs Day

Employment-to-population ratio of workers ages 25–54, 1989–2022

Date Employment to population ratio
Jan-1989 80.0%
Feb-1989 79.9%
Mar-1989 79.9%
Apr-1989 79.8%
May-1989 79.8%
Jun-1989 79.8%
Jul-1989 79.8%
Aug-1989 79.9%
Sep-1989 80.0%
Oct-1989 79.9%
Nov-1989 80.2%
Dec-1989 80.1%
Jan-1990 80.2%
Feb-1990 80.2%
Mar-1990 80.1%
Apr-1990 79.9%
May-1990 79.9%
Jun-1990 79.8%
Jul-1990 79.6%
Aug-1990 79.5%
Sep-1990 79.4%
Oct-1990 79.4%
Nov-1990 79.2%
Dec-1990 79.0%
Jan-1991 78.9%
Feb-1991 78.9%
Mar-1991 78.7%
Apr-1991 79.0%
May-1991 78.6%
Jun-1991 78.7%
Jul-1991 78.6%
Aug-1991 78.5%
Sep-1991 78.6%
Oct-1991 78.5%
Nov-1991 78.4%
Dec-1991 78.3%
Jan-1992 78.4%
Feb-1992 78.2%
Mar-1992 78.2%
Apr-1992 78.4%
May-1992 78.4%
Jun-1992 78.5%
Jul-1992 78.4%
Aug-1992 78.4%
Sep-1992 78.3%
Oct-1992 78.2%
Nov-1992 78.2%
Dec-1992 78.2%
Jan-1993 78.2%
Feb-1993 78.1%
Mar-1993 78.2%
Apr-1993 78.2%
May-1993 78.5%
Jun-1993 78.6%
Jul-1993 78.6%
Aug-1993 78.8%
Sep-1993 78.6%
Oct-1993 78.7%
Nov-1993 79.0%
Dec-1993 79.0%
Jan-1994 78.9%
Feb-1994 78.9%
Mar-1994 78.9%
Apr-1994 79.0%
May-1994 79.2%
Jun-1994 78.8%
Jul-1994 79.1%
Aug-1994 79.2%
Sep-1994 79.6%
Oct-1994 79.6%
Nov-1994 79.8%
Dec-1994 79.8%
Jan-1995 79.7%
Feb-1995 80.0%
Mar-1995 79.9%
Apr-1995 79.8%
May-1995 79.7%
Jun-1995 79.5%
Jul-1995 79.7%
Aug-1995 79.6%
Sep-1995 79.8%
Oct-1995 79.8%
Nov-1995 79.7%
Dec-1995 79.7%
Jan-1996 79.8%
Feb-1996 79.9%
Mar-1996 79.9%
Apr-1996 79.9%
May-1996 80.0%
Jun-1996 80.1%
Jul-1996 80.4%
Aug-1996 80.5%
Sep-1996 80.4%
Oct-1996 80.6%
Nov-1996 80.5%
Dec-1996 80.5%
Jan-1997 80.5%
Feb-1997 80.4%
Mar-1997 80.6%
Apr-1997 80.7%
May-1997 80.6%
Jun-1997 80.9%
Jul-1997 81.1%
Aug-1997 81.3%
Sep-1997 81.1%
Oct-1997 81.1%
Nov-1997 81.0%
Dec-1997 81.0%
Jan-1998 81.0%
Feb-1998 81.0%
Mar-1998 81.0%
Apr-1998 81.1%
May-1998 81.0%
Jun-1998 81.0%
Jul-1998 81.1%
Aug-1998 81.2%
Sep-1998 81.3%
Oct-1998 81.1%
Nov-1998 81.2%
Dec-1998 81.3%
Jan-1999 81.8%
Feb-1999 81.5%
Mar-1999 81.3%
Apr-1999 81.3%
May-1999 81.4%
Jun-1999 81.4%
Jul-1999 81.2%
Aug-1999 81.3%
Sep-1999 81.3%
Oct-1999 81.5%
Nov-1999 81.6%
Dec-1999 81.5%
Jan-2000 81.8%
Feb-2000 81.8%
Mar-2000 81.7%
Apr-2000 81.9%
May-2000 81.5%
Jun-2000 81.5%
Jul-2000 81.3%
Aug-2000 81.1%
Sep-2000 81.1%
Oct-2000 81.1%
Nov-2000 81.3%
Dec-2000 81.4%
Jan-2001 81.4%
Feb-2001 81.3%
Mar-2001 81.3%
Apr-2001 80.9%
May-2001 80.8%
Jun-2001 80.6%
Jul-2001 80.5%
Aug-2001 80.2%
Sep-2001 80.2%
Oct-2001 79.9%
Nov-2001 79.7%
Dec-2001 79.8%
Jan-2002 79.6%
Feb-2002 79.8%
Mar-2002 79.6%
Apr-2002 79.5%
May-2002 79.4%
Jun-2002 79.2%
Jul-2002 79.1%
Aug-2002 79.3%
Sep-2002 79.4%
Oct-2002 79.2%
Nov-2002 78.8%
Dec-2002 79.0%
Jan-2003 78.9%
Feb-2003 78.9%
Mar-2003 79.0%
Apr-2003 79.1%
May-2003 78.9%
Jun-2003 78.9%
Jul-2003 78.8%
Aug-2003 78.7%
Sep-2003 78.6%
Oct-2003 78.6%
Nov-2003 78.7%
Dec-2003 78.8%
Jan-2004 78.9%
Feb-2004 78.8%
Mar-2004 78.7%
Apr-2004 78.9%
May-2004 79.0%
Jun-2004 79.1%
Jul-2004 79.2%
Aug-2004 79.0%
Sep-2004 79.0%
Oct-2004 79.0%
Nov-2004 79.1%
Dec-2004 78.9%
Jan-2005 79.2%
Feb-2005 79.2%
Mar-2005 79.2%
Apr-2005 79.4%
May-2005 79.5%
Jun-2005 79.2%
Jul-2005 79.4%
Aug-2005 79.6%
Sep-2005 79.4%
Oct-2005 79.3%
Nov-2005 79.2%
Dec-2005 79.3%
Jan-2006 79.6%
Feb-2006 79.7%
Mar-2006 79.8%
Apr-2006 79.6%
May-2006 79.7%
Jun-2006 79.8%
Jul-2006 79.8%
Aug-2006 79.8%
Sep-2006 79.9%
Oct-2006 80.1%
Nov-2006 80.0%
Dec-2006 80.1%
Jan-2007 80.3%
Feb-2007 80.1%
Mar-2007 80.2%
Apr-2007 80.0%
May-2007 80.0%
Jun-2007 79.9%
Jul-2007 79.8%
Aug-2007 79.8%
Sep-2007 79.7%
Oct-2007 79.6%
Nov-2007 79.7%
Dec-2007 79.7%
Jan-2008 80.0%
Feb-2008 79.9%
Mar-2008 79.8%
Apr-2008 79.6%
May-2008 79.5%
Jun-2008 79.4%
Jul-2008 79.2%
Aug-2008 78.8%
Sep-2008 78.8%
Oct-2008 78.4%
Nov-2008 78.1%
Dec-2008 77.6%
Jan-2009 77.0%
Feb-2009 76.7%
Mar-2009 76.2%
Apr-2009 76.2%
May-2009 75.9%
Jun-2009 75.9%
Jul-2009 75.8%
Aug-2009 75.6%
Sep-2009 75.1%
Oct-2009 75.0%
Nov-2009 75.2%
Dec-2009 74.8%
Jan-2010 75.1%
Feb-2010 75.1%
Mar-2010 75.1%
Apr-2010 75.4%
May-2010 75.1%
Jun-2010 75.2%
Jul-2010 75.1%
Aug-2010 75.0%
Sep-2010 75.1%
Oct-2010 75.0%
Nov-2010 74.8%
Dec-2010 75.0%
Jan-2011 75.2%
Feb-2011 75.1%
Mar-2011 75.3%
Apr-2011 75.1%
May-2011 75.2%
Jun-2011 75.0%
Jul-2011 75.0%
Aug-2011 75.1%
Sep-2011 74.9%
Oct-2011 74.9%
Nov-2011 75.3%
Dec-2011 75.4%
Jan-2012 75.5%
Feb-2012 75.5%
Mar-2012 75.7%
Apr-2012 75.7%
May-2012 75.7%
Jun-2012 75.6%
Jul-2012 75.6%
Aug-2012 75.7%
Sep-2012 76.0%
Oct-2012 76.1%
Nov-2012 75.8%
Dec-2012 76.0%
Jan-2013 75.6%
Feb-2013 75.8%
Mar-2013 75.8%
Apr-2013 75.8%
May-2013 76.0%
Jun-2013 75.9%
Jul-2013 76.0%
Aug-2013 76.0%
Sep-2013 76.0%
Oct-2013 75.6%
Nov-2013 76.1%
Dec-2013 76.1%
Jan-2014 76.4%
Feb-2014 76.4%
Mar-2014 76.5%
Apr-2014 76.5%
May-2014 76.4%
Jun-2014 76.9%
Jul-2014 76.7%
Aug-2014 76.9%
Sep-2014 76.8%
Oct-2014 76.9%
Nov-2014 76.9%
Dec-2014 77.1%
Jan-2015 77.1%
Feb-2015 77.2%
Mar-2015 77.1%
Apr-2015 77.2%
May-2015 77.2%
Jun-2015 77.4%
Jul-2015 77.1%
Aug-2015 77.3%
Sep-2015 77.2%
Oct-2015 77.2%
Nov-2015 77.4%
Dec-2015 77.4%
Jan-2016 77.7%
Feb-2016 77.8%
Mar-2016 77.9%
Apr-2016 77.8%
May-2016 77.9%
Jun-2016 77.9%
Jul-2016 78.0%
Aug-2016 77.9%
Sep-2016 78.0%
Oct-2016 78.1%
Nov-2016 78.1%
Dec-2016 78.1%
Jan-2017 78.2%
Feb-2017 78.3%
Mar-2017 78.5%
Apr-2017 78.6%
May-2017 78.5%
Jun-2017 78.6%
Jul-2017 78.8%
Aug-2017 78.4%
Sep-2017 79.0%
Oct-2017 78.7%
Nov-2017 78.9%
Dec-2017 79.0%
Jan-2018 78.9%
Feb-2018 79.3%
Mar-2018 79.2%
Apr-2018 79.2%
May-2018 79.4%
Jun-2018 79.4%
Jul-2018 79.6%
Aug-2018 79.3%
Sep-2018 79.4%
Oct-2018 79.6%
Nov-2018 79.6%
Dec-2018 79.5%
Jan-2019 79.8%
Feb-2019 79.9%
Mar-2019 79.8%
Apr-2019 79.8%
May-2019 79.8%
Jun-2019 79.8%
Jul-2019 79.6%
Aug-2019 80.0%
Sep-2019 80.3%
Oct-2019 80.3%
Nov-2019 80.2%
Dec-2019 80.3%
Jan-2020 80.5%
Feb-2020 80.5%
Mar-2020 79.5%
Apr-2020 69.6%
May-2020 71.4%
Jun-2020 73.5%
Jul-2020 73.9%
Aug-2020 75.3%
Sep-2020 75.2%
Oct-2020 76.0%
Nov-2020 75.9%
Dec-2020 76.2%
Jan-2021 76.4%
Feb-2021 76.6%
Mar-2021 76.9%
Apr-2021 77.0%
May-2021 77.2%
Jun-2021 77.2%
Jul-2021 77.9%
Aug-2021 78.0%
Sep-2021 78.1%
Oct-2021 78.3%
Nov-2021 78.8%
Dec-2021 79.0%
Jan-2022 79.1%
Feb-2022 79.5%
Mar-2022 80.0%
Apr-2022 79.9%
ChartData Download data

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Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey public data. 

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Jobs Day

Unemployment rate, 1948–2022

date Unemployment Rate
Jan-1948 3.40%
Feb-1948 3.80%
Mar-1948 4.00%
Apr-1948 3.90%
May-1948 3.50%
Jun-1948 3.60%
Jul-1948 3.60%
Aug-1948 3.90%
Sep-1948 3.80%
Oct-1948 3.70%
Nov-1948 3.80%
Dec-1948 4.00%
Jan-1949 4.30%
Feb-1949 4.70%
Mar-1949 5.00%
Apr-1949 5.30%
May-1949 6.10%
Jun-1949 6.20%
Jul-1949 6.70%
Aug-1949 6.80%
Sep-1949 6.60%
Oct-1949 7.90%
Nov-1949 6.40%
Dec-1949 6.60%
Jan-1950 6.50%
Feb-1950 6.40%
Mar-1950 6.30%
Apr-1950 5.80%
May-1950 5.50%
Jun-1950 5.40%
Jul-1950 5.00%
Aug-1950 4.50%
Sep-1950 4.40%
Oct-1950 4.20%
Nov-1950 4.20%
Dec-1950 4.30%
Jan-1951 3.70%
Feb-1951 3.40%
Mar-1951 3.40%
Apr-1951 3.10%
May-1951 3.00%
Jun-1951 3.20%
Jul-1951 3.10%
Aug-1951 3.10%
Sep-1951 3.30%
Oct-1951 3.50%
Nov-1951 3.50%
Dec-1951 3.10%
Jan-1952 3.20%
Feb-1952 3.10%
Mar-1952 2.90%
Apr-1952 2.90%
May-1952 3.00%
Jun-1952 3.00%
Jul-1952 3.20%
Aug-1952 3.40%
Sep-1952 3.10%
Oct-1952 3.00%
Nov-1952 2.80%
Dec-1952 2.70%
Jan-1953 2.90%
Feb-1953 2.60%
Mar-1953 2.60%
Apr-1953 2.70%
May-1953 2.50%
Jun-1953 2.50%
Jul-1953 2.60%
Aug-1953 2.70%
Sep-1953 2.90%
Oct-1953 3.10%
Nov-1953 3.50%
Dec-1953 4.50%
Jan-1954 4.90%
Feb-1954 5.20%
Mar-1954 5.70%
Apr-1954 5.90%
May-1954 5.90%
Jun-1954 5.60%
Jul-1954 5.80%
Aug-1954 6.00%
Sep-1954 6.10%
Oct-1954 5.70%
Nov-1954 5.30%
Dec-1954 5.00%
Jan-1955 4.90%
Feb-1955 4.70%
Mar-1955 4.60%
Apr-1955 4.70%
May-1955 4.30%
Jun-1955 4.20%
Jul-1955 4.00%
Aug-1955 4.20%
Sep-1955 4.10%
Oct-1955 4.30%
Nov-1955 4.20%
Dec-1955 4.20%
Jan-1956 4.00%
Feb-1956 3.90%
Mar-1956 4.20%
Apr-1956 4.00%
May-1956 4.30%
Jun-1956 4.30%
Jul-1956 4.40%
Aug-1956 4.10%
Sep-1956 3.90%
Oct-1956 3.90%
Nov-1956 4.30%
Dec-1956 4.20%
Jan-1957 4.20%
Feb-1957 3.90%
Mar-1957 3.70%
Apr-1957 3.90%
May-1957 4.10%
Jun-1957 4.30%
Jul-1957 4.20%
Aug-1957 4.10%
Sep-1957 4.40%
Oct-1957 4.50%
Nov-1957 5.10%
Dec-1957 5.20%
Jan-1958 5.80%
Feb-1958 6.40%
Mar-1958 6.70%
Apr-1958 7.40%
May-1958 7.40%
Jun-1958 7.30%
Jul-1958 7.50%
Aug-1958 7.40%
Sep-1958 7.10%
Oct-1958 6.70%
Nov-1958 6.20%
Dec-1958 6.20%
Jan-1959 6.00%
Feb-1959 5.90%
Mar-1959 5.60%
Apr-1959 5.20%
May-1959 5.10%
Jun-1959 5.00%
Jul-1959 5.10%
Aug-1959 5.20%
Sep-1959 5.50%
Oct-1959 5.70%
Nov-1959 5.80%
Dec-1959 5.30%
Jan-1960 5.20%
Feb-1960 4.80%
Mar-1960 5.40%
Apr-1960 5.20%
May-1960 5.10%
Jun-1960 5.40%
Jul-1960 5.50%
Aug-1960 5.60%
Sep-1960 5.50%
Oct-1960 6.10%
Nov-1960 6.10%
Dec-1960 6.60%
Jan-1961 6.60%
Feb-1961 6.90%
Mar-1961 6.90%
Apr-1961 7.00%
May-1961 7.10%
Jun-1961 6.90%
Jul-1961 7.00%
Aug-1961 6.60%
Sep-1961 6.70%
Oct-1961 6.50%
Nov-1961 6.10%
Dec-1961 6.00%
Jan-1962 5.80%
Feb-1962 5.50%
Mar-1962 5.60%
Apr-1962 5.60%
May-1962 5.50%
Jun-1962 5.50%
Jul-1962 5.40%
Aug-1962 5.70%
Sep-1962 5.60%
Oct-1962 5.40%
Nov-1962 5.70%
Dec-1962 5.50%
Jan-1963 5.70%
Feb-1963 5.90%
Mar-1963 5.70%
Apr-1963 5.70%
May-1963 5.90%
Jun-1963 5.60%
Jul-1963 5.60%
Aug-1963 5.40%
Sep-1963 5.50%
Oct-1963 5.50%
Nov-1963 5.70%
Dec-1963 5.50%
Jan-1964 5.60%
Feb-1964 5.40%
Mar-1964 5.40%
Apr-1964 5.30%
May-1964 5.10%
Jun-1964 5.20%
Jul-1964 4.90%
Aug-1964 5.00%
Sep-1964 5.10%
Oct-1964 5.10%
Nov-1964 4.80%
Dec-1964 5.00%
Jan-1965 4.90%
Feb-1965 5.10%
Mar-1965 4.70%
Apr-1965 4.80%
May-1965 4.60%
Jun-1965 4.60%
Jul-1965 4.40%
Aug-1965 4.40%
Sep-1965 4.30%
Oct-1965 4.20%
Nov-1965 4.10%
Dec-1965 4.00%
Jan-1966 4.00%
Feb-1966 3.80%
Mar-1966 3.80%
Apr-1966 3.80%
May-1966 3.90%
Jun-1966 3.80%
Jul-1966 3.80%
Aug-1966 3.80%
Sep-1966 3.70%
Oct-1966 3.70%
Nov-1966 3.60%
Dec-1966 3.80%
Jan-1967 3.90%
Feb-1967 3.80%
Mar-1967 3.80%
Apr-1967 3.80%
May-1967 3.80%
Jun-1967 3.90%
Jul-1967 3.80%
Aug-1967 3.80%
Sep-1967 3.80%
Oct-1967 4.00%
Nov-1967 3.90%
Dec-1967 3.80%
Jan-1968 3.70%
Feb-1968 3.80%
Mar-1968 3.70%
Apr-1968 3.50%
May-1968 3.50%
Jun-1968 3.70%
Jul-1968 3.70%
Aug-1968 3.50%
Sep-1968 3.40%
Oct-1968 3.40%
Nov-1968 3.40%
Dec-1968 3.40%
Jan-1969 3.40%
Feb-1969 3.40%
Mar-1969 3.40%
Apr-1969 3.40%
May-1969 3.40%
Jun-1969 3.50%
Jul-1969 3.50%
Aug-1969 3.50%
Sep-1969 3.70%
Oct-1969 3.70%
Nov-1969 3.50%
Dec-1969 3.50%
Jan-1970 3.90%
Feb-1970 4.20%
Mar-1970 4.40%
Apr-1970 4.60%
May-1970 4.80%
Jun-1970 4.90%
Jul-1970 5.00%
Aug-1970 5.10%
Sep-1970 5.40%
Oct-1970 5.50%
Nov-1970 5.90%
Dec-1970 6.10%
Jan-1971 5.90%
Feb-1971 5.90%
Mar-1971 6.00%
Apr-1971 5.90%
May-1971 5.90%
Jun-1971 5.90%
Jul-1971 6.00%
Aug-1971 6.10%
Sep-1971 6.00%
Oct-1971 5.80%
Nov-1971 6.00%
Dec-1971 6.00%
Jan-1972 5.80%
Feb-1972 5.70%
Mar-1972 5.80%
Apr-1972 5.70%
May-1972 5.70%
Jun-1972 5.70%
Jul-1972 5.60%
Aug-1972 5.60%
Sep-1972 5.50%
Oct-1972 5.60%
Nov-1972 5.30%
Dec-1972 5.20%
Jan-1973 4.90%
Feb-1973 5.00%
Mar-1973 4.90%
Apr-1973 5.00%
May-1973 4.90%
Jun-1973 4.90%
Jul-1973 4.80%
Aug-1973 4.80%
Sep-1973 4.80%
Oct-1973 4.60%
Nov-1973 4.80%
Dec-1973 4.90%
Jan-1974 5.10%
Feb-1974 5.20%
Mar-1974 5.10%
Apr-1974 5.10%
May-1974 5.10%
Jun-1974 5.40%
Jul-1974 5.50%
Aug-1974 5.50%
Sep-1974 5.90%
Oct-1974 6.00%
Nov-1974 6.60%
Dec-1974 7.20%
Jan-1975 8.10%
Feb-1975 8.10%
Mar-1975 8.60%
Apr-1975 8.80%
May-1975 9.00%
Jun-1975 8.80%
Jul-1975 8.60%
Aug-1975 8.40%
Sep-1975 8.40%
Oct-1975 8.40%
Nov-1975 8.30%
Dec-1975 8.20%
Jan-1976 7.90%
Feb-1976 7.70%
Mar-1976 7.60%
Apr-1976 7.70%
May-1976 7.40%
Jun-1976 7.60%
Jul-1976 7.80%
Aug-1976 7.80%
Sep-1976 7.60%
Oct-1976 7.70%
Nov-1976 7.80%
Dec-1976 7.80%
Jan-1977 7.50%
Feb-1977 7.60%
Mar-1977 7.40%
Apr-1977 7.20%
May-1977 7.00%
Jun-1977 7.20%
Jul-1977 6.90%
Aug-1977 7.00%
Sep-1977 6.80%
Oct-1977 6.80%
Nov-1977 6.80%
Dec-1977 6.40%
Jan-1978 6.40%
Feb-1978 6.30%
Mar-1978 6.30%
Apr-1978 6.10%
May-1978 6.00%
Jun-1978 5.90%
Jul-1978 6.20%
Aug-1978 5.90%
Sep-1978 6.00%
Oct-1978 5.80%
Nov-1978 5.90%
Dec-1978 6.00%
Jan-1979 5.90%
Feb-1979 5.90%
Mar-1979 5.80%
Apr-1979 5.80%
May-1979 5.60%
Jun-1979 5.70%
Jul-1979 5.70%
Aug-1979 6.00%
Sep-1979 5.90%
Oct-1979 6.00%
Nov-1979 5.90%
Dec-1979 6.00%
Jan-1980 6.30%
Feb-1980 6.30%
Mar-1980 6.30%
Apr-1980 6.90%
May-1980 7.50%
Jun-1980 7.60%
Jul-1980 7.80%
Aug-1980 7.70%
Sep-1980 7.50%
Oct-1980 7.50%
Nov-1980 7.50%
Dec-1980 7.20%
Jan-1981 7.50%
Feb-1981 7.40%
Mar-1981 7.40%
Apr-1981 7.20%
May-1981 7.50%
Jun-1981 7.50%
Jul-1981 7.20%
Aug-1981 7.40%
Sep-1981 7.60%
Oct-1981 7.90%
Nov-1981 8.30%
Dec-1981 8.50%
Jan-1982 8.60%
Feb-1982 8.90%
Mar-1982 9.00%
Apr-1982 9.30%
May-1982 9.40%
Jun-1982 9.60%
Jul-1982 9.80%
Aug-1982 9.80%
Sep-1982 10.10%
Oct-1982 10.40%
Nov-1982 10.80%
Dec-1982 10.80%
Jan-1983 10.40%
Feb-1983 10.40%
Mar-1983 10.30%
Apr-1983 10.20%
May-1983 10.10%
Jun-1983 10.10%
Jul-1983 9.40%
Aug-1983 9.50%
Sep-1983 9.20%
Oct-1983 8.80%
Nov-1983 8.50%
Dec-1983 8.30%
Jan-1984 8.00%
Feb-1984 7.80%
Mar-1984 7.80%
Apr-1984 7.70%
May-1984 7.40%
Jun-1984 7.20%
Jul-1984 7.50%
Aug-1984 7.50%
Sep-1984 7.30%
Oct-1984 7.40%
Nov-1984 7.20%
Dec-1984 7.30%
Jan-1985 7.30%
Feb-1985 7.20%
Mar-1985 7.20%
Apr-1985 7.30%
May-1985 7.20%
Jun-1985 7.40%
Jul-1985 7.40%
Aug-1985 7.10%
Sep-1985 7.10%
Oct-1985 7.10%
Nov-1985 7.00%
Dec-1985 7.00%
Jan-1986 6.70%
Feb-1986 7.20%
Mar-1986 7.20%
Apr-1986 7.10%
May-1986 7.20%
Jun-1986 7.20%
Jul-1986 7.00%
Aug-1986 6.90%
Sep-1986 7.00%
Oct-1986 7.00%
Nov-1986 6.90%
Dec-1986 6.60%
Jan-1987 6.60%
Feb-1987 6.60%
Mar-1987 6.60%
Apr-1987 6.30%
May-1987 6.30%
Jun-1987 6.20%
Jul-1987 6.10%
Aug-1987 6.00%
Sep-1987 5.90%
Oct-1987 6.00%
Nov-1987 5.80%
Dec-1987 5.70%
Jan-1988 5.70%
Feb-1988 5.70%
Mar-1988 5.70%
Apr-1988 5.40%
May-1988 5.60%
Jun-1988 5.40%
Jul-1988 5.40%
Aug-1988 5.60%
Sep-1988 5.40%
Oct-1988 5.40%
Nov-1988 5.30%
Dec-1988 5.30%
Jan-1989 5.40%
Feb-1989 5.20%
Mar-1989 5.00%
Apr-1989 5.20%
May-1989 5.20%
Jun-1989 5.30%
Jul-1989 5.20%
Aug-1989 5.20%
Sep-1989 5.30%
Oct-1989 5.30%
Nov-1989 5.40%
Dec-1989 5.40%
Jan-1990 5.40%
Feb-1990 5.30%
Mar-1990 5.20%
Apr-1990 5.40%
May-1990 5.40%
Jun-1990 5.20%
Jul-1990 5.50%
Aug-1990 5.70%
Sep-1990 5.90%
Oct-1990 5.90%
Nov-1990 6.20%
Dec-1990 6.30%
Jan-1991 6.40%
Feb-1991 6.60%
Mar-1991 6.80%
Apr-1991 6.70%
May-1991 6.90%
Jun-1991 6.90%
Jul-1991 6.80%
Aug-1991 6.90%
Sep-1991 6.90%
Oct-1991 7.00%
Nov-1991 7.00%
Dec-1991 7.30%
Jan-1992 7.30%
Feb-1992 7.40%
Mar-1992 7.40%
Apr-1992 7.40%
May-1992 7.60%
Jun-1992 7.80%
Jul-1992 7.70%
Aug-1992 7.60%
Sep-1992 7.60%
Oct-1992 7.30%
Nov-1992 7.40%
Dec-1992 7.40%
Jan-1993 7.30%
Feb-1993 7.10%
Mar-1993 7.00%
Apr-1993 7.10%
May-1993 7.10%
Jun-1993 7.00%
Jul-1993 6.90%
Aug-1993 6.80%
Sep-1993 6.70%
Oct-1993 6.80%
Nov-1993 6.60%
Dec-1993 6.50%
Jan-1994 6.60%
Feb-1994 6.60%
Mar-1994 6.50%
Apr-1994 6.40%
May-1994 6.10%
Jun-1994 6.10%
Jul-1994 6.10%
Aug-1994 6.00%
Sep-1994 5.90%
Oct-1994 5.80%
Nov-1994 5.60%
Dec-1994 5.50%
Jan-1995 5.60%
Feb-1995 5.40%
Mar-1995 5.40%
Apr-1995 5.80%
May-1995 5.60%
Jun-1995 5.60%
Jul-1995 5.70%
Aug-1995 5.70%
Sep-1995 5.60%
Oct-1995 5.50%
Nov-1995 5.60%
Dec-1995 5.60%
Jan-1996 5.60%
Feb-1996 5.50%
Mar-1996 5.50%
Apr-1996 5.60%
May-1996 5.60%
Jun-1996 5.30%
Jul-1996 5.50%
Aug-1996 5.10%
Sep-1996 5.20%
Oct-1996 5.20%
Nov-1996 5.40%
Dec-1996 5.40%
Jan-1997 5.30%
Feb-1997 5.20%
Mar-1997 5.20%
Apr-1997 5.10%
May-1997 4.90%
Jun-1997 5.00%
Jul-1997 4.90%
Aug-1997 4.80%
Sep-1997 4.90%
Oct-1997 4.70%
Nov-1997 4.60%
Dec-1997 4.70%
Jan-1998 4.60%
Feb-1998 4.60%
Mar-1998 4.70%
Apr-1998 4.30%
May-1998 4.40%
Jun-1998 4.50%
Jul-1998 4.50%
Aug-1998 4.50%
Sep-1998 4.60%
Oct-1998 4.50%
Nov-1998 4.40%
Dec-1998 4.40%
Jan-1999 4.30%
Feb-1999 4.40%
Mar-1999 4.20%
Apr-1999 4.30%
May-1999 4.20%
Jun-1999 4.30%
Jul-1999 4.30%
Aug-1999 4.20%
Sep-1999 4.20%
Oct-1999 4.10%
Nov-1999 4.10%
Dec-1999 4.00%
Jan-2000 4.00%
Feb-2000 4.10%
Mar-2000 4.00%
Apr-2000 3.80%
May-2000 4.00%
Jun-2000 4.00%
Jul-2000 4.00%
Aug-2000 4.10%
Sep-2000 3.90%
Oct-2000 3.90%
Nov-2000 3.90%
Dec-2000 3.90%
Jan-2001 4.20%
Feb-2001 4.20%
Mar-2001 4.30%
Apr-2001 4.40%
May-2001 4.30%
Jun-2001 4.50%
Jul-2001 4.60%
Aug-2001 4.90%
Sep-2001 5.00%
Oct-2001 5.30%
Nov-2001 5.50%
Dec-2001 5.70%
Jan-2002 5.70%
Feb-2002 5.70%
Mar-2002 5.70%
Apr-2002 5.90%
May-2002 5.80%
Jun-2002 5.80%
Jul-2002 5.80%
Aug-2002 5.70%
Sep-2002 5.70%
Oct-2002 5.70%
Nov-2002 5.90%
Dec-2002 6.00%
Jan-2003 5.80%
Feb-2003 5.90%
Mar-2003 5.90%
Apr-2003 6.00%
May-2003 6.10%
Jun-2003 6.30%
Jul-2003 6.20%
Aug-2003 6.10%
Sep-2003 6.10%
Oct-2003 6.00%
Nov-2003 5.80%
Dec-2003 5.70%
Jan-2004 5.70%
Feb-2004 5.60%
Mar-2004 5.80%
Apr-2004 5.60%
May-2004 5.60%
Jun-2004 5.60%
Jul-2004 5.50%
Aug-2004 5.40%
Sep-2004 5.40%
Oct-2004 5.50%
Nov-2004 5.40%
Dec-2004 5.40%
Jan-2005 5.30%
Feb-2005 5.40%
Mar-2005 5.20%
Apr-2005 5.20%
May-2005 5.10%
Jun-2005 5.00%
Jul-2005 5.00%
Aug-2005 4.90%
Sep-2005 5.00%
Oct-2005 5.00%
Nov-2005 5.00%
Dec-2005 4.90%
Jan-2006 4.70%
Feb-2006 4.80%
Mar-2006 4.70%
Apr-2006 4.70%
May-2006 4.60%
Jun-2006 4.60%
Jul-2006 4.70%
Aug-2006 4.70%
Sep-2006 4.50%
Oct-2006 4.40%
Nov-2006 4.50%
Dec-2006 4.40%
Jan-2007 4.60%
Feb-2007 4.50%
Mar-2007 4.40%
Apr-2007 4.50%
May-2007 4.40%
Jun-2007 4.60%
Jul-2007 4.70%
Aug-2007 4.60%
Sep-2007 4.70%
Oct-2007 4.70%
Nov-2007 4.70%
Dec-2007 5.00%
Jan-2008 5.00%
Feb-2008 4.90%
Mar-2008 5.10%
Apr-2008 5.00%
May-2008 5.40%
Jun-2008 5.60%
Jul-2008 5.80%
Aug-2008 6.10%
Sep-2008 6.10%
Oct-2008 6.50%
Nov-2008 6.80%
Dec-2008 7.30%
Jan-2009 7.80%
Feb-2009 8.30%
Mar-2009 8.70%
Apr-2009 9.00%
May-2009 9.40%
Jun-2009 9.50%
Jul-2009 9.50%
Aug-2009 9.60%
Sep-2009 9.80%
Oct-2009 10.00%
Nov-2009 9.90%
Dec-2009 9.90%
Jan-2010 9.80%
Feb-2010 9.80%
Mar-2010 9.90%
Apr-2010 9.90%
May-2010 9.60%
Jun-2010 9.40%
Jul-2010 9.40%
Aug-2010 9.50%
Sep-2010 9.50%
Oct-2010 9.40%
Nov-2010 9.80%
Dec-2010 9.30%
Jan-2011 9.10%
Feb-2011 9.00%
Mar-2011 9.00%
Apr-2011 9.10%
May-2011 9.00%
Jun-2011 9.10%
Jul-2011 9.00%
Aug-2011 9.00%
Sep-2011 9.00%
Oct-2011 8.80%
Nov-2011 8.60%
Dec-2011 8.50%
Jan-2012 8.30%
Feb-2012 8.30%
Mar-2012 8.20%
Apr-2012 8.20%
May-2012 8.20%
Jun-2012 8.20%
Jul-2012 8.20%
Aug-2012 8.10%
Sep-2012 7.80%
Oct-2012 7.80%
Nov-2012 7.70%
Dec-2012 7.90%
Jan-2013 8.00%
Feb-2013 7.70%
Mar-2013 7.50%
Apr-2013 7.60%
May-2013 7.50%
Jun-2013 7.50%
Jul-2013 7.30%
Aug-2013 7.20%
Sep-2013 7.20%
Oct-2013 7.20%
Nov-2013 6.90%
Dec-2013 6.70%
Jan-2014 6.60%
Feb-2014 6.70%
Mar-2014 6.70%
Apr-2014 6.20%
May-2014 6.30%
Jun-2014 6.10%
Jul-2014 6.20%
Aug-2014 6.10%
Sep-2014 5.90%
Oct-2014 5.70%
Nov-2014 5.80%
Dec-2014 5.60%
Jan-2015 5.70%
Feb-2015 5.50%
Mar-2015 5.40%
Apr-2015 5.40%
May-2015 5.60%
Jun-2015 5.30%
Jul-2015 5.20%
Aug-2015 5.10%
Sep-2015 5.00%
Oct-2015 5.00%
Nov-2015 5.10%
Dec-2015 5.00%
Jan-2016 4.80%
Feb-2016 4.90%
Mar-2016 5.00%
Apr-2016 5.10%
May-2016 4.80%
Jun-2016 4.90%
Jul-2016 4.80%
Aug-2016 4.90%
Sep-2016 5.00%
Oct-2016 4.90%
Nov-2016 4.70%
Dec-2016 4.70%
Jan-2017 4.70%
Feb-2017 4.60%
Mar-2017 4.40%
Apr-2017 4.40%
May-2017 4.40%
Jun-2017 4.30%
Jul-2017 4.30%
Aug-2017 4.40%
Sep-2017 4.30%
Oct-2017 4.20%
Nov-2017 4.20%
Dec-2017 4.10%
Jan-2018 4.00%
Feb-2018 4.10%
Mar-2018 4.00%
Apr-2018 4.00%
May-2018 3.80%
Jun-2018 4.00%
Jul-2018 3.80%
Aug-2018 3.80%
Sep-2018 3.70%
Oct-2018 3.80%
Nov-2018 3.80%
Dec-2018 3.90%
Jan-2019 4.00%
Feb-2019 3.80%
Mar-2019 3.80%
Apr-2019 3.60%
May-2019 3.60%
Jun-2019 3.60%
Jul-2019 3.70%
Aug-2019 3.70%
Sep-2019 3.50%
Oct-2019 3.60%
Nov-2019 3.60%
Dec-2019 3.60%
Jan-2020 3.50%
Feb-2020 3.50%
Mar-2020 4.40%
Apr-2020 14.70%
May-2020 13.20%
Jun-2020 11.00%
Jul-2020 10.20%
Aug-2020 8.40%
Sep-2020 7.90%
Oct-2020 6.90%
Nov-2020 6.70%
Dec-2020 6.70%
Jan-2021 6.40%
Feb-2021 6.20%
Mar-2021 6.00%
Apr-2021 6.00%
May-2021 5.80%
Jun-2021 5.90%
Jul-2021 5.40%
Aug-2021 5.20%
Sep-2021 4.70%
Oct-2021 4.60%
Nov-2021 4.20%
Dec-2021 3.90%
Jan-2022 4.00%
Feb-2022 3.80%
Mar-2022 3.60%
Apr-2022 3.60%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey. 

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Jobs Day

Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month

Date Share of newly employed workers who said that they were not actively searching for work in the previous month
Apr-1990 61.91%
May-1990 62.55%
Jun-1990 61.98%
Jul-1990 62.01%
Aug-1990 61.56%
Sep-1990 62.30%
Oct-1990 61.03%
Nov-1990 61.24%
Dec-1990 60.36%
Jan-1991 59.87%
Feb-1991 58.97%
Mar-1991 58.51%
Apr-1991 57.68%
May-1991 57.58%
Jun-1991 57.20%
Jul-1991 58.03%
Aug-1991 57.75%
Sep-1991 57.72%
Oct-1991 57.27%
Nov-1991 56.94%
Dec-1991 57.05%
Jan-1992 56.81%
Feb-1992 57.08%
Mar-1992 57.11%
Apr-1992 57.16%
May-1992 57.30%
Jun-1992 56.58%
Jul-1992 56.42%
Aug-1992 56.13%
Sep-1992 55.95%
Oct-1992 55.74%
Nov-1992 55.83%
Dec-1992 56.14%
Jan-1993 56.61%
Feb-1993 57.70%
Mar-1993 58.25%
Apr-1993 58.41%
May-1993 58.24%
Jun-1993 58.06%
Jul-1993 57.54%
Aug-1993 57.51%
Sep-1993 58.03%
Oct-1993 58.92%
Nov-1993 58.48%
Dec-1993 58.30%
Jan-1994 58.76%
Feb-1994 59.24%
Mar-1994 59.09%
Apr-1994 58.66%
May-1994 58.31%
Jun-1994 58.47%
Jul-1994 58.58%
Aug-1994 59.04%
Sep-1994 59.14%
Oct-1994 59.80%
Nov-1994 60.09%
Dec-1994 60.32%
Jan-1995 60.35%
Feb-1995 59.53%
Mar-1995 59.69%
Apr-1995 59.74%
May-1995 59.22%
Jun-1995 59.54%
Jul-1995 59.50%
Aug-1995 59.97%
Sep-1995 60.22%
Oct-1995 59.86%
Nov-1995 60.61%
Dec-1995 59.90%
Jan-1996 59.78%
Feb-1996 60.28%
Mar-1996 60.69%
Apr-1996 60.99%
May-1996 60.71%
Jun-1996 60.85%
Jul-1996 61.46%
Aug-1996 60.78%
Sep-1996 60.92%
Oct-1996 60.24%
Nov-1996 60.56%
Dec-1996 59.62%
Jan-1997 59.08%
Feb-1997 58.93%
Mar-1997 60.28%
Apr-1997 61.40%
May-1997 61.77%
Jun-1997 61.13%
Jul-1997 60.35%
Aug-1997 61.26%
Sep-1997 61.89%
Oct-1997 62.50%
Nov-1997 62.69%
Dec-1997 62.83%
Jan-1998 63.34%
Feb-1998 62.70%
Mar-1998 62.88%
Apr-1998 62.38%
May-1998 63.49%
Jun-1998 63.25%
Jul-1998 64.18%
Aug-1998 63.98%
Sep-1998 65.24%
Oct-1998 65.14%
Nov-1998 65.06%
Dec-1998 64.93%
Jan-1999 65.59%
Feb-1999 65.54%
Mar-1999 64.20%
Apr-1999 65.28%
May-1999 66.12%
Jun-1999 67.42%
Jul-1999 66.38%
Aug-1999 65.65%
Sep-1999 65.35%
Oct-1999 65.50%
Nov-1999 65.26%
Dec-1999 65.11%
Jan-2000 64.37%
Feb-2000 65.40%
Mar-2000 65.66%
Apr-2000 65.87%
May-2000 65.60%
Jun-2000 65.92%
Jul-2000 65.39%
Aug-2000 65.47%
Sep-2000 65.60%
Oct-2000 66.51%
Nov-2000 67.39%
Dec-2000 68.09%
Jan-2001 69.03%
Feb-2001 68.55%
Mar-2001 67.91%
Apr-2001 66.88%
May-2001 65.76%
Jun-2001 65.32%
Jul-2001 65.75%
Aug-2001 66.18%
Sep-2001 66.57%
Oct-2001 65.46%
Nov-2001 64.39%
Dec-2001 62.92%
Jan-2002 62.56%
Feb-2002 62.33%
Mar-2002 61.68%
Apr-2002 61.94%
May-2002 62.81%
Jun-2002 64.43%
Jul-2002 64.51%
Aug-2002 64.04%
Sep-2002 63.05%
Oct-2002 63.07%
Nov-2002 63.70%
Dec-2002 64.09%
Jan-2003 64.21%
Feb-2003 64.19%
Mar-2003 64.49%
Apr-2003 64.28%
May-2003 63.65%
Jun-2003 63.54%
Jul-2003 63.05%
Aug-2003 63.24%
Sep-2003 63.43%
Oct-2003 64.32%
Nov-2003 64.73%
Dec-2003 63.66%
Jan-2004 63.62%
Feb-2004 63.43%
Mar-2004 64.88%
Apr-2004 64.32%
May-2004 64.29%
Jun-2004 63.73%
Jul-2004 64.21%
Aug-2004 64.54%
Sep-2004 64.10%
Oct-2004 64.23%
Nov-2004 63.98%
Dec-2004 64.44%
Jan-2005 64.64%
Feb-2005 64.77%
Mar-2005 64.87%
Apr-2005 65.12%
May-2005 65.76%
Jun-2005 66.09%
Jul-2005 66.57%
Aug-2005 65.87%
Sep-2005 66.54%
Oct-2005 66.17%
Nov-2005 65.95%
Dec-2005 65.92%
Jan-2006 65.79%
Feb-2006 67.29%
Mar-2006 67.26%
Apr-2006 67.64%
May-2006 67.31%
Jun-2006 67.18%
Jul-2006 66.71%
Aug-2006 66.40%
Sep-2006 65.90%
Oct-2006 66.91%
Nov-2006 67.63%
Dec-2006 68.30%
Jan-2007 68.03%
Feb-2007 67.01%
Mar-2007 66.48%
Apr-2007 65.82%
May-2007 66.20%
Jun-2007 67.60%
Jul-2007 67.68%
Aug-2007 67.56%
Sep-2007 66.87%
Oct-2007 66.99%
Nov-2007 67.49%
Dec-2007 66.60%
Jan-2008 66.40%
Feb-2008 65.45%
Mar-2008 65.60%
Apr-2008 64.74%
May-2008 65.14%
Jun-2008 64.94%
Jul-2008 65.27%
Aug-2008 64.24%
Sep-2008 62.91%
Oct-2008 62.13%
Nov-2008 61.91%
Dec-2008 62.30%
Jan-2009 62.22%
Feb-2009 61.64%
Mar-2009 60.79%
Apr-2009 59.80%
May-2009 59.64%
Jun-2009 58.27%
Jul-2009 57.46%
Aug-2009 56.99%
Sep-2009 56.76%
Oct-2009 57.64%
Nov-2009 56.75%
Dec-2009 57.69%
Jan-2010 57.86%
Feb-2010 58.77%
Mar-2010 58.67%
Apr-2010 57.39%
May-2010 56.43%
Jun-2010 56.57%
Jul-2010 57.23%
Aug-2010 58.44%
Sep-2010 58.81%
Oct-2010 58.89%
Nov-2010 58.93%
Dec-2010 58.43%
Jan-2011 59.14%
Feb-2011 59.47%
Mar-2011 60.14%
Apr-2011 60.35%
May-2011 60.22%
Jun-2011 59.68%
Jul-2011 59.78%
Aug-2011 59.58%
Sep-2011 60.64%
Oct-2011 59.75%
Nov-2011 59.83%
Dec-2011 59.07%
Jan-2012 59.15%
Feb-2012 59.13%
Mar-2012 59.43%
Apr-2012 60.28%
May-2012 60.91%
Jun-2012 61.59%
Jul-2012 61.78%
Aug-2012 62.33%
Sep-2012 62.28%
Oct-2012 61.99%
Nov-2012 61.84%
Dec-2012 62.51%
Jan-2013 62.22%
Feb-2013 61.55%
Mar-2013 61.63%
Apr-2013 63.06%
May-2013 63.46%
Jun-2013 63.16%
Jul-2013 62.29%
Aug-2013 62.90%
Sep-2013 63.49%
Oct-2013 64.29%
Nov-2013 64.11%
Dec-2013 63.55%
Jan-2014 63.95%
Feb-2014 63.56%
Mar-2014 63.91%
Apr-2014 62.79%
May-2014 64.24%
Jun-2014 64.45%
Jul-2014 66.02%
Aug-2014 65.52%
Sep-2014 65.33%
Oct-2014 64.91%
Nov-2014 65.27%
Dec-2014 65.75%
Jan-2015 67.20%
Feb-2015 67.84%
Mar-2015 68.47%
Apr-2015 68.06%
May-2015 68.53%
Jun-2015 68.09%
Jul-2015 68.85%
Aug-2015 68.61%
Sep-2015 68.80%
Oct-2015 68.65%
Nov-2015 68.53%
Dec-2015 68.95%
Jan-2016 68.73%
Feb-2016 70.19%
Mar-2016 71.16%
Apr-2016 71.18%
May-2016 69.49%
Jun-2016 68.60%
Jul-2016 68.59%
Aug-2016 69.46%
Sep-2016 69.11%
Oct-2016 67.92%
Nov-2016 67.43%
Dec-2016 68.59%
Jan-2017 69.55%
Feb-2017 69.48%
Mar-2017 69.57%
Apr-2017 69.96%
May-2017 70.23%
Jun-2017 70.45%
Jul-2017 70.08%
Aug-2017 70.68%
Sep-2017 70.29%
Oct-2017 70.21%
Nov-2017 70.19%
Dec-2017 70.21%
Jan-2018 71.18%
Feb-2018 71.33%
Mar-2018 71.40%
Apr-2018 71.45%
May-2018 71.49%
Jun-2018 72.40%
Jul-2018 72.79%
Aug-2018 72.82%
Sep-2018 72.83%
Oct-2018 72.51%
Nov-2018 72.66%
Dec-2018 72.57%
Jan-2019 72.37%
Feb-2019 72.51%
Mar-2019 72.04%
Apr-2019 72.50%
May-2019 73.34%
Jun-2019 73.92%
Jul-2019 74.12%
Aug-2019 73.69%
Sep-2019 73.60%
Oct-2019 74.34%
Nov-2019 74.41%
Dec-2019 74.05%
Jan-2020 72.87%
Feb-2020 72.36%
Mar-2020 72.92%
Apr-2020 73.16%
May-2020 62.62%
Jun-2020 50.45%
Jul-2020 41.17%
Aug-2020 44.22%
Sep-2020 50.16%
Oct-2020 54.46%
Nov-2020 58.13%
Dec-2020 61.32%
Jan-2021 62.51%
Feb-2021 63.02%
Mar-2021 63.52%
Apr-2021 65.40%
May-2021 66.68%
Jun-2021 67.30%
Jul-2021 67.49%
Aug-2021 67.85%
Sep-2021 68.36%
Oct-2021 69.33%
Nov-2021 70.05%
Dec-2021 70.22%
Jan-2022 70.68%
Feb-2022 70.66%
Mar-2022 71.10%
Apr-2022 71.70%
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Because of volatility in these data, the line reflects three month moving averages.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Labor Force Flows: Unemployed to Employed (16 Years and Over) [LNS17100000], and Not in Labor Force to Employed (16 years and over) [LNS17200000], retrieved from FRED (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis).

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Past employment reports