Economic Indicators JOLTS

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) tells us how many job openings there are each month, how many workers were hired, how many quit their job, how many were laid off, and how many experienced other separations (which includes worker deaths).


Key numbers • March 2021

1.2 Job seekers ratio • The number of unemployed persons per job opening
1.6 million Excess unemployed • The number of unemployed persons in excess of the number job openings

March

Job openings surged in March as the economy continues to recover from the pandemic

Next update: June 2021

By Elise Gould • May 11, 2021

Today’s Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) reports an all-time high number of job openings, surging to 8.1 million for the end of March. This is a positive sign that the economy is moving forward. While hires were little changed, I’m optimistic that in coming months those job openings will translate into filled jobs.

One important indicator from today’s report is the job seekers ratio—the ratio of unemployed workers (averaged for mid-March and mid-April) to job openings (at the end of March). On average, there were 9.8 million unemployed workers compared with 8.1 million job openings. This translates into a job seekers ratio of 1.2 unemployed workers to every job opening. Put another way, for every 12 workers who were officially counted as unemployed, there were only available jobs for 10 of them. That means, no matter what they did, there were no jobs for 1.6 million unemployed workers.

As with job losses, workers in certain industries are facing a steeper uphill battle. In the construction industry as well as arts, entertainment, and recreation, there were more than two unemployed workers per job opening. In educational services, accommodation and food services, other services, and transportation and utilities, there were more than three unemployed workers for every two job openings.

There has been much bemoaning of labor shortages, particularly within accommodations and food services, even though there are no available jobs for one-third of the job seekers in that sector. Any potential shortage from the recent surge in job openings is likely to be quite short-lived, as before long many more workers will come back into job-search as it becomes increasingly safe to pursue these public facing jobs with improving public health metrics, as childcare and schooling becomes more reliable, and as wages rise to compensate for the extra risk of working in face-to-face places during the lingering pandemic. And, as we saw in the April employment data last Friday, the labor market added 241,400 more jobs in accommodation and food services, so the trend is already moving in the right direction.

It’s also important to remember that all potential workers don’t show up in the official count of unemployed, particularly in this recession as workers sheltered at home to avoid the pandemic or to care for family members. The economic pain remains widespread with 22.1 million workers hurt by the coronavirus downturn. I hope hiring picks up in coming months since the labor market continued to face a significant jobs shortfall likely in the range of 9.0 to 11.0 million jobs.

Quick reminders about the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS):

  • JOLTS data provide information on all pieces that go into the net change in the number of jobs. These components include hires, layoffs, voluntary quits, and other job separations (which includes retirements and worker deaths). Putting those components together reveals the overall (or net) change.
  • JOLTS data provide information about the end of one month to the end of the next, whereas the monthly employment numbers provide information from the middle of one month to the middle of the next.

Hires, quits, and layoff rates, 2000–2021

Date Hires Quits Layoffs
2000-12-01 4.1 2.2 1.5
2001-01-01 4.3 2.4 1.7
2001-02-01 4 2.3 1.4
2001-03-01 4.2 2.3 1.6
2001-04-01 3.9 2.4 1.4
2001-05-01 4.1 2.3 1.5
2001-06-01 3.9 2.2 1.5
2001-07-01 4 2.2 1.5
2001-08-01 4 2.2 1.5
2001-09-01 3.8 2.1 1.6
2001-10-01 3.9 2.1 1.8
2001-11-01 3.7 2 1.7
2001-12-01 3.7 2 1.5
2002-01-01 3.7 2.2 1.5
2002-02-01 3.7 2 1.5
2002-03-01 3.6 1.9 1.4
2002-04-01 3.8 2 1.5
2002-05-01 3.7 1.9 1.5
2002-06-01 3.7 1.9 1.5
2002-07-01 3.8 2 1.6
2002-08-01 3.7 2 1.5
2002-09-01 3.7 1.9 1.5
2002-10-01 3.7 1.9 1.5
2002-11-01 3.7 1.8 1.5
2002-12-01 3.7 1.9 1.5
2003-01-01 3.9 1.9 1.6
2003-02-01 3.6 1.9 1.5
2003-03-01 3.4 1.8 1.5
2003-04-01 3.5 1.8 1.5
2003-05-01 3.6 1.8 1.6
2003-06-01 3.6 1.8 1.6
2003-07-01 3.6 1.7 1.6
2003-08-01 3.6 1.7 1.7
2003-09-01 3.7 1.8 1.5
2003-10-01 3.8 1.9 1.5
2003-11-01 3.7 1.8 1.5
2003-12-01 3.8 1.9 1.5
2004-01-01 3.7 1.8 1.6
2004-02-01 3.7 1.9 1.5
2004-03-01 4 2 1.6
2004-04-01 3.9 1.9 1.5
2004-05-01 3.8 1.8 1.5
2004-06-01 3.8 2 1.4
2004-07-01 3.7 2 1.4
2004-08-01 3.8 2 1.5
2004-09-01 3.8 1.9 1.5
2004-10-01 3.9 1.9 1.4
2004-11-01 3.9 2.1 1.5
2004-12-01 3.9 2 1.5
2005-01-01 3.9 2.1 1.5
2005-02-01 4 2 1.6
2005-03-01 4 2.1 1.6
2005-04-01 4 2.1 1.5
2005-05-01 3.9 2.1 1.5
2005-06-01 4 2.1 1.5
2005-07-01 4 2 1.4
2005-08-01 4 2.2 1.4
2005-09-01 4.1 2.3 1.5
2005-10-01 3.8 2.1 1.4
2005-11-01 4 2.1 1.3
2005-12-01 3.9 2.1 1.4
2006-01-01 3.9 2.2 1.3
2006-02-01 4 2.2 1.4
2006-03-01 4.1 2.2 1.4
2006-04-01 3.8 2 1.4
2006-05-01 4 2.2 1.5
2006-06-01 4 2.2 1.3
2006-07-01 4.1 2.2 1.4
2006-08-01 3.9 2.2 1.3
2006-09-01 3.9 2.1 1.3
2006-10-01 3.9 2.2 1.4
2006-11-01 4 2.2 1.4
2006-12-01 3.8 2.2 1.3
2007-01-01 3.9 2.1 1.4
2007-02-01 3.8 2.1 1.3
2007-03-01 4 2.2 1.4
2007-04-01 3.9 2.1 1.5
2007-05-01 4 2.2 1.4
2007-06-01 3.8 2.1 1.3
2007-07-01 3.8 2.1 1.4
2007-08-01 3.9 2.2 1.5
2007-09-01 3.9 1.9 1.6
2007-10-01 3.9 2.1 1.4
2007-11-01 3.7 2 1.4
2007-12-01 3.7 2 1.4
2008-01-01 3.7 2.1 1.4
2008-02-01 3.7 2.1 1.4
2008-03-01 3.6 1.9 1.4
2008-04-01 3.6 2.1 1.4
2008-05-01 3.4 1.9 1.4
2008-06-01 3.6 1.9 1.6
2008-07-01 3.4 1.8 1.5
2008-08-01 3.4 1.8 1.6
2008-09-01 3.3 1.8 1.5
2008-10-01 3.3 1.7 1.7
2008-11-01 3 1.6 1.7
2008-12-01 3.2 1.5 1.8
2009-01-01 3.1 1.5 1.9
2009-02-01 3 1.5 1.9
2009-03-01 2.9 1.4 1.9
2009-04-01 2.9 1.3 2
2009-05-01 2.9 1.3 1.7
2009-06-01 2.8 1.3 1.7
2009-07-01 3 1.3 1.7
2009-08-01 2.9 1.2 1.6
2009-09-01 3 1.2 1.7
2009-10-01 3 1.3 1.6
2009-11-01 3.1 1.4 1.5
2009-12-01 3.1 1.4 1.6
2010-01-01 3 1.3 1.4
2010-02-01 3 1.4 1.4
2010-03-01 3.3 1.4 1.5
2010-04-01 3.2 1.5 1.3
2010-05-01 3.4 1.4 1.3
2010-06-01 3.1 1.5 1.6
2010-07-01 3.2 1.4 1.7
2010-08-01 3.1 1.4 1.4
2010-09-01 3.1 1.5 1.4
2010-10-01 3.2 1.4 1.3
2010-11-01 3.2 1.4 1.4
2010-12-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2011-01-01 3.1 1.4 1.4
2011-02-01 3.2 1.5 1.3
2011-03-01 3.4 1.5 1.4
2011-04-01 3.3 1.4 1.4
2011-05-01 3.2 1.5 1.4
2011-06-01 3.3 1.5 1.5
2011-07-01 3.2 1.5 1.4
2011-08-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2011-09-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2011-10-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2011-11-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2011-12-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2012-01-01 3.3 1.5 1.3
2012-02-01 3.4 1.6 1.4
2012-03-01 3.4 1.6 1.3
2012-04-01 3.3 1.6 1.4
2012-05-01 3.4 1.6 1.5
2012-06-01 3.3 1.6 1.4
2012-07-01 3.2 1.5 1.3
2012-08-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2012-09-01 3.2 1.4 1.3
2012-10-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2012-11-01 3.3 1.5 1.4
2012-12-01 3.3 1.5 1.3
2013-01-01 3.3 1.7 1.2
2013-02-01 3.4 1.7 1.2
2013-03-01 3.2 1.6 1.3
2013-04-01 3.4 1.7 1.3
2013-05-01 3.4 1.6 1.3
2013-06-01 3.3 1.6 1.3
2013-07-01 3.3 1.7 1.3
2013-08-01 3.5 1.7 1.3
2013-09-01 3.5 1.7 1.4
2013-10-01 3.3 1.7 1.2
2013-11-01 3.4 1.7 1.2
2013-12-01 3.4 1.7 1.3
2014-01-01 3.4 1.7 1.3
2014-02-01 3.4 1.8 1.3
2014-03-01 3.5 1.8 1.2
2014-04-01 3.5 1.8 1.3
2014-05-01 3.5 1.8 1.2
2014-06-01 3.5 1.8 1.3
2014-07-01 3.6 1.9 1.3
2014-08-01 3.5 1.8 1.2
2014-09-01 3.7 2 1.2
2014-10-01 3.7 1.9 1.3
2014-11-01 3.6 1.9 1.2
2014-12-01 3.7 1.8 1.3
2015-01-01 3.6 2 1.3
2015-02-01 3.6 1.9 1.2
2015-03-01 3.6 2 1.4
2015-04-01 3.7 1.9 1.3
2015-05-01 3.6 1.9 1.2
2015-06-01 3.6 1.9 1.3
2015-07-01 3.6 1.9 1.2
2015-08-01 3.6 2 1.2
2015-09-01 3.7 2 1.4
2015-10-01 3.7 2 1.3
2015-11-01 3.8 2 1.2
2015-12-01 3.9 2.1 1.3
2016-01-01 3.6 2 1.3
2016-02-01 3.8 2.1 1.3
2016-03-01 3.7 2 1.3
2016-04-01 3.7 2.1 1.2
2016-05-01 3.6 2.1 1.3
2016-06-01 3.7 2.1 1.2
2016-07-01 3.8 2.1 1.2
2016-08-01 3.7 2.1 1.3
2016-09-01 3.7 2.1 1.1
2016-10-01 3.6 2.1 1.1
2016-11-01 3.7 2.1 1.2
2016-12-01 3.7 2.1 1.2
2017-01-01 3.8 2.2 1.2
2017-02-01 3.7 2.1 1.2
2017-03-01 3.7 2.2 1.2
2017-04-01 3.6 2.1 1.2
2017-05-01 3.7 2.1 1.2
2017-06-01 3.9 2.2 1.3
2017-07-01 3.8 2.1 1.3
2017-08-01 3.8 2.1 1.3
2017-09-01 3.7 2.2 1.3
2017-10-01 3.8 2.2 1.2
2017-11-01 3.7 2.1 1.2
2017-12-01 3.7 2.2 1.1
2018-01-01 3.7 2.1 1.4
2018-02-01 3.8 2.2 1.2
2018-03-01 3.8 2.2 1.2
2018-04-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2018-05-01 3.9 2.3 1.2
2018-06-01 3.9 2.3 1.2
2018-07-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2018-08-01 3.9 2.3 1.2
2018-09-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2018-10-01 3.9 2.3 1.2
2018-11-01 3.9 2.3 1.3
2018-12-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2019-01-01 3.8 2.3 1.1
2019-02-01 3.8 2.4 1.2
2019-03-01 3.8 2.3 1.1
2019-04-01 4 2.3 1.3
2019-05-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2019-06-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2019-07-01 4 2.4 1.2
2019-08-01 3.9 2.4 1.2
2019-09-01 3.9 2.3 1.3
2019-10-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2019-11-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2019-12-01 3.9 2.3 1.3
2020-01-01 3.9 2.3 1.2
2020-02-01 3.9 2.2 1.3
2020-03-01 3.4 1.9 8.6
2020-04-01 3 1.6 7.2
2020-05-01 6.2 1.7 1.6
2020-06-01 5.6 1.9 1.6
2020-07-01 4.5 2.3 1.3
2020-08-01 4.6 2.1 1.1
2020-09-01 4.2 2.3 1.1
2020-10-01 4.2 2.4 1.2
2020-11-01 4.2 2.3 1.5
2020-12-01 3.8 2.4 1.3
2021-01-01 3.8 2.3 1.2
2021-02-01 4.0 2.4 1.2
2021-03-01 4.2 2.4 1.0
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Shaded areas denote recessions. The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. The layoff rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment. The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey

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Total hires, layoffs, and quits, 2000-2021

Date Hires Quits Layoffs
2000-12-01 5426 2882 2018
2001-01-01 5722 3245 2220
2001-02-01 5303 3053 1855
2001-03-01 5528 3054 2133
2001-04-01 5204 3163 1883
2001-05-01 5410 2993 2029
2001-06-01 5109 2878 2015
2001-07-01 5244 2947 2038
2001-08-01 5223 2928 2011
2001-09-01 4954 2703 2107
2001-10-01 5078 2795 2319
2001-11-01 4914 2560 2255
2001-12-01 4829 2559 1922
2002-01-01 4855 2845 1907
2002-02-01 4801 2572 1978
2002-03-01 4706 2493 1883
2002-04-01 4928 2624 1956
2002-05-01 4857 2537 1967
2002-06-01 4869 2522 2015
2002-07-01 4946 2561 2102
2002-08-01 4871 2561 1923
2002-09-01 4879 2521 2022
2002-10-01 4798 2423 1935
2002-11-01 4792 2403 1944
2002-12-01 4893 2501 2007
2003-01-01 5058 2429 2109
2003-02-01 4714 2490 2015
2003-03-01 4470 2394 1949
2003-04-01 4600 2279 1998
2003-05-01 4678 2291 2072
2003-06-01 4682 2315 2076
2003-07-01 4639 2271 2062
2003-08-01 4666 2195 2162
2003-09-01 4799 2354 1932
2003-10-01 4902 2415 1969
2003-11-01 4767 2411 1951
2003-12-01 4984 2444 2007
2004-01-01 4900 2354 2037
2004-02-01 4788 2448 1985
2004-03-01 5227 2582 2065
2004-04-01 5152 2534 2010
2004-05-01 4976 2428 1914
2004-06-01 5009 2659 1887
2004-07-01 4891 2609 1885
2004-08-01 5013 2586 1974
2004-09-01 5062 2531 2027
2004-10-01 5149 2550 1903
2004-11-01 5181 2789 2037
2004-12-01 5153 2695 1951
2005-01-01 5201 2732 2008
2005-02-01 5276 2651 2068
2005-03-01 5273 2747 2188
2005-04-01 5362 2741 1957
2005-05-01 5271 2763 2021
2005-06-01 5376 2754 2015
2005-07-01 5328 2735 1898
2005-08-01 5409 2957 1905
2005-09-01 5493 3046 2032
2005-10-01 5124 2863 1873
2005-11-01 5344 2895 1769
2005-12-01 5294 2849 1923
2006-01-01 5271 2945 1784
2006-02-01 5474 2965 1882
2006-03-01 5524 2956 1888
2006-04-01 5215 2778 1853
2006-05-01 5498 3002 1991
2006-06-01 5455 3042 1817
2006-07-01 5573 3047 1860
2006-08-01 5373 3056 1775
2006-09-01 5288 2888 1831
2006-10-01 5375 2983 1898
2006-11-01 5495 3043 1926
2006-12-01 5214 2999 1772
2007-01-01 5426 2956 1922
2007-02-01 5160 2933 1850
2007-03-01 5479 2997 1882
2007-04-01 5353 2911 2000
2007-05-01 5469 3010 1967
2007-06-01 5267 2910 1845
2007-07-01 5217 2951 1896
2007-08-01 5358 3014 2033
2007-09-01 5344 2691 2188
2007-10-01 5398 2926 1998
2007-11-01 5176 2784 1966
2007-12-01 5119 2773 1915
2008-01-01 5071 2847 1989
2008-02-01 5077 2881 1995
2008-03-01 4924 2661 1918
2008-04-01 4948 2837 1958
2008-05-01 4691 2607 1950
2008-06-01 4893 2595 2172
2008-07-01 4637 2489 2071
2008-08-01 4682 2445 2190
2008-09-01 4499 2468 2088
2008-10-01 4548 2347 2250
2008-11-01 4104 2157 2290
2008-12-01 4348 2084 2482
2009-01-01 4095 1976 2581
2009-02-01 4061 1952 2599
2009-03-01 3858 1834 2575
2009-04-01 3888 1712 2654
2009-05-01 3758 1683 2231
2009-06-01 3639 1685 2261
2009-07-01 3857 1685 2267
2009-08-01 3810 1555 2119
2009-09-01 3944 1627 2195
2009-10-01 3838 1660 2028
2009-11-01 4024 1810 1913
2009-12-01 4004 1766 2033
2010-01-01 3904 1742 1880
2010-02-01 3864 1844 1825
2010-03-01 4302 1856 1924
2010-04-01 4159 1897 1749
2010-05-01 4420 1813 1762
2010-06-01 4111 1911 2075
2010-07-01 4163 1785 2166
2010-08-01 4046 1842 1890
2010-09-01 4034 1895 1832
2010-10-01 4173 1846 1745
2010-11-01 4182 1887 1849
2010-12-01 4299 1977 1854
2011-01-01 4000 1832 1827
2011-02-01 4231 1958 1755
2011-03-01 4430 2033 1794
2011-04-01 4296 1882 1792
2011-05-01 4261 1965 1904
2011-06-01 4366 1923 1942
2011-07-01 4261 1986 1845
2011-08-01 4298 2031 1845
2011-09-01 4429 2041 1872
2011-10-01 4370 1997 1794
2011-11-01 4365 2039 1912
2011-12-01 4356 1981 1801
2012-01-01 4457 2030 1797
2012-02-01 4560 2130 1903
2012-03-01 4575 2167 1784
2012-04-01 4389 2134 1880
2012-05-01 4533 2138 1969
2012-06-01 4440 2152 1892
2012-07-01 4327 2072 1722
2012-08-01 4450 2069 1894
2012-09-01 4302 1950 1805
2012-10-01 4389 2035 1891
2012-11-01 4489 2078 1921
2012-12-01 4452 2051 1700
2013-01-01 4487 2280 1678
2013-02-01 4571 2298 1664
2013-03-01 4369 2124 1787
2013-04-01 4572 2296 1793
2013-05-01 4663 2234 1836
2013-06-01 4440 2203 1761
2013-07-01 4561 2363 1713
2013-08-01 4730 2316 1816
2013-09-01 4726 2302 1892
2013-10-01 4518 2372 1675
2013-11-01 4622 2391 1630
2013-12-01 4614 2287 1770
2014-01-01 4626 2311 1806
2014-02-01 4696 2411 1767
2014-03-01 4763 2449 1703
2014-04-01 4880 2474 1764
2014-05-01 4808 2483 1710
2014-06-01 4925 2507 1761
2014-07-01 5008 2633 1781
2014-08-01 4810 2549 1699
2014-09-01 5149 2732 1718
2014-10-01 5111 2718 1835
2014-11-01 4978 2600 1726
2014-12-01 5192 2552 1857
2015-01-01 5061 2764 1789
2015-02-01 5127 2741 1757
2015-03-01 5126 2754 1973
2015-04-01 5196 2705 1856
2015-05-01 5142 2743 1711
2015-06-01 5125 2756 1821
2015-07-01 5150 2764 1703
2015-08-01 5163 2879 1773
2015-09-01 5287 2778 1964
2015-10-01 5338 2810 1845
2015-11-01 5358 2897 1779
2015-12-01 5540 3056 1803
2016-01-01 5220 2875 1805
2016-02-01 5470 2994 1894
2016-03-01 5359 2917 1850
2016-04-01 5294 2955 1771
2016-05-01 5197 3009 1825
2016-06-01 5281 3018 1750
2016-07-01 5426 2967 1759
2016-08-01 5327 2998 1860
2016-09-01 5306 3047 1588
2016-10-01 5210 3074 1664
2016-11-01 5308 3026 1751
2016-12-01 5343 2989 1708
2017-01-01 5497 3166 1738
2017-02-01 5345 3085 1714
2017-03-01 5394 3145 1759
2017-04-01 5309 3028 1705
2017-05-01 5477 3125 1804
2017-06-01 5664 3166 1935
2017-07-01 5508 3107 1858
2017-08-01 5571 3109 1919
2017-09-01 5409 3214 1885
2017-10-01 5605 3177 1835
2017-11-01 5463 3166 1740
2017-12-01 5424 3194 1676
2018-01-01 5459 3034 1994
2018-02-01 5633 3200 1758
2018-03-01 5636 3305 1783
2018-04-01 5610 3366 1741
2018-05-01 5865 3401 1767
2018-06-01 5777 3401 1793
2018-07-01 5707 3444 1791
2018-08-01 5863 3476 1838
2018-09-01 5616 3424 1778
2018-10-01 5876 3460 1824
2018-11-01 5815 3435 1905
2018-12-01 5709 3381 1824
2019-01-01 5741 3521 1689
2019-02-01 5668 3543 1769
2019-03-01 5684 3524 1721
2019-04-01 6051 3494 1954
2019-05-01 5719 3487 1776
2019-06-01 5776 3527 1771
2019-07-01 5987 3627 1826
2019-08-01 5907 3591 1825
2019-09-01 5970 3449 1982
2019-10-01 5799 3414 1793
2019-11-01 5842 3482 1788
2019-12-01 5882 3487 1952
2020-01-01 5974 3568 1788
2020-02-01 5979 3430 1953
2020-03-01 5132 2902 13046
2020-04-01 3942 2107 9307
2020-05-01 8272 2206 2096
2020-06-01 7697 2646 2204
2020-07-01 6237 3182 1845
2020-08-01 6431 2987 1573
2020-09-01 5932 3307 1555
2020-10-01 6035 3352 1728
2020-11-01 6019 3296 2123
2020-12-01 5411 3407 1823
2021-01-01 5465 3306 1724
2021-02-01 5794 3383 1723
2021-03-01 6009 3508 1480
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.

The job-seekers ratio, 2000–2020

Date Unemployed job seekers per job opening
2000-12-01 1.15
2001-01-01 1.16
2001-02-01 1.20
2001-03-01 1.30
2001-04-01 1.35
2001-05-01 1.44
2001-06-01 1.50
2001-07-01 1.53
2001-08-01 1.76
2001-09-01 1.82
2001-10-01 2.12
2001-11-01 2.15
2001-12-01 2.24
2002-01-01 2.22
2002-02-01 2.40
2002-03-01 2.34
2002-04-01 2.45
2002-05-01 2.43
2002-06-01 2.46
2002-07-01 2.48
2002-08-01 2.35
2002-09-01 2.51
2002-10-01 2.42
2002-11-01 2.44
2002-12-01 2.71
2003-01-01 2.49
2003-02-01 2.66
2003-03-01 2.81
2003-04-01 2.86
2003-05-01 2.77
2003-06-01 2.70
2003-07-01 3.00
2003-08-01 2.79
2003-09-01 2.86
2003-10-01 2.62
2003-11-01 2.54
2003-12-01 2.44
2004-01-01 2.41
2004-02-01 2.36
2004-03-01 2.36
2004-04-01 2.33
2004-05-01 2.22
2004-06-01 2.46
2004-07-01 2.11
2004-08-01 2.25
2004-09-01 2.09
2004-10-01 2.03
2004-11-01 2.28
2004-12-01 1.93
2005-01-01 2.07
2005-02-01 1.98
2005-03-01 1.91
2005-04-01 1.84
2005-05-01 2.00
2005-06-01 1.84
2005-07-01 1.73
2005-08-01 1.80
2005-09-01 1.72
2005-10-01 1.79
2005-11-01 1.75
2005-12-01 1.67
2006-01-01 1.62
2006-02-01 1.65
2006-03-01 1.50
2006-04-01 1.47
2006-05-01 1.57
2006-06-01 1.54
2006-07-01 1.62
2006-08-01 1.48
2006-09-01 1.43
2006-10-01 1.48
2006-11-01 1.47
2006-12-01 1.50
2007-01-01 1.47
2007-02-01 1.45
2007-03-01 1.37
2007-04-01 1.45
2007-05-01 1.48
2007-06-01 1.45
2007-07-01 1.55
2007-08-01 1.57
2007-09-01 1.55
2007-10-01 1.56
2007-11-01 1.60
2007-12-01 1.69
2008-01-01 1.64
2008-02-01 1.79
2008-03-01 1.83
2008-04-01 1.99
2008-05-01 2.02
2008-06-01 2.29
2008-07-01 2.45
2008-08-01 2.58
2008-09-01 3.04
2008-10-01 3.05
2008-11-01 3.38
2008-12-01 3.71
2009-01-01 4.56
2009-02-01 4.60
2009-03-01 5.38
2009-04-01 6.18
2009-05-01 5.73
2009-06-01 5.85
2009-07-01 6.59
2009-08-01 6.38
2009-09-01 6.10
2009-10-01 6.35
2009-11-01 6.06
2009-12-01 5.87
2010-01-01 5.32
2010-02-01 5.69
2010-03-01 5.70
2010-04-01 4.78
2010-05-01 4.91
2010-06-01 5.17
2010-07-01 4.73
2010-08-01 4.87
2010-09-01 4.99
2010-10-01 4.57
2010-11-01 4.58
2010-12-01 4.64
2011-01-01 4.48
2011-02-01 4.27
2011-03-01 4.25
2011-04-01 4.27
2011-05-01 4.38
2011-06-01 4.01
2011-07-01 3.81
2011-08-01 4.17
2011-09-01 3.65
2011-10-01 3.72
2011-11-01 3.70
2011-12-01 3.44
2012-01-01 3.28
2012-02-01 3.53
2012-03-01 3.19
2012-04-01 3.34
2012-05-01 3.31
2012-06-01 3.24
2012-07-01 3.36
2012-08-01 3.23
2012-09-01 3.12
2012-10-01 3.20
2012-11-01 3.13
2012-12-01 3.12
2013-01-01 3.11
2013-02-01 2.95
2013-03-01 2.88
2013-04-01 2.94
2013-05-01 2.82
2013-06-01 2.78
2013-07-01 2.91
2013-08-01 2.76
2013-09-01 2.71
2013-10-01 2.60
2013-11-01 2.57
2013-12-01 2.50
2014-01-01 2.49
2014-02-01 2.37
2014-03-01 2.29
2014-04-01 2.14
2014-05-01 2.03
2014-06-01 1.91
2014-07-01 1.98
2014-08-01 1.76
2014-09-01 1.86
2014-10-01 1.80
2014-11-01 1.84
2014-12-01 1.72
2015-01-01 1.64
2015-02-01 1.57
2015-03-01 1.64
2015-04-01 1.55
2015-05-01 1.54
2015-06-01 1.56
2015-07-01 1.33
2015-08-01 1.45
2015-09-01 1.44
2015-10-01 1.38
2015-11-01 1.39
2015-12-01 1.33
2016-01-01 1.27
2016-02-01 1.36
2016-03-01 1.31
2016-04-01 1.35
2016-05-01 1.33
2016-06-01 1.34
2016-07-01 1.29
2016-08-01 1.39
2016-09-01 1.34
2016-10-01 1.37
2016-11-01 1.26
2016-12-01 1.26
2017-01-01 1.31
2017-02-01 1.22
2017-03-01 1.23
2017-04-01 1.16
2017-05-01 1.19
2017-06-01 1.08
2017-07-01 1.12
2017-08-01 1.10
2017-09-01 1.07
2017-10-01 1.05
2017-11-01 1.07
2017-12-01 1.03
2018-01-01 0.99
2018-02-01 0.99
2018-03-01 0.95
2018-04-01 0.92
2018-05-01 0.90
2018-06-01 0.86
2018-07-01 0.85
2018-08-01 0.85
2018-09-01 0.83
2018-10-01 0.84
2018-11-01 0.82
2018-12-01 0.86
2019-01-01 0.84
2019-02-01 0.87
2019-03-01 0.83
2019-04-01 0.82
2019-05-01 0.82
2019-06-01 0.83
2019-07-01 0.84
2019-08-01 0.82
2019-09-01 0.82
2019-10-01 0.81
2019-11-01 0.85
2019-12-01 0.86
2020-01-01 0.80
2020-02-01 0.92
2020-03-01 2.63
2020-04-01 4.76
2020-05-01 3.55
2020-06-01 2.78
2020-07-01 2.22
2020-08-01 2.02
2020-09-01 1.78
2020-10-01 1.58
2020-11-01 1.59
2020-12-01 1.55
2021-01-01 1.42
2021-02-01 1.31
2021-03-01 1.20
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Shaded areas denote recessions. Unemployment levels represent the average of the unemployment level for the current month and the subsequent month in the Current Population Survey to better line up with the job openings data from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey and Current Population Survey

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Job openings levels and unemployment levels, 2000–2021

date openings unemployment, two-month average
2000-12-01 5088 5828.5
2001-01-01 5234 6056
2001-02-01 5097 6115
2001-03-01 4762 6206
2001-04-01 4615 6248.5
2001-05-01 4425 6355
2001-06-01 4361 6533.5
2001-07-01 4447 6812.5
2001-08-01 4024 7092
2001-09-01 4071 7418
2001-10-01 3707 7848.5
2001-11-01 3775 8130.5
2001-12-01 3677 8220
2002-01-01 3699 8198.5
2002-02-01 3436 8259.5
2002-03-01 3612 8451.5
2002-04-01 3471 8499
2002-05-01 3457 8396
2002-06-01 3412 8391.5
2002-07-01 3367 8347
2002-08-01 3517 8277.5
2002-09-01 3301 8279
2002-10-01 3479 8413.5
2002-11-01 3514 8580
2002-12-01 3169 8580
2003-01-01 3441 8569
2003-02-01 3229 8603
2003-03-01 3099 8715
2003-04-01 3108 8899.5
2003-05-01 3289 9111.5
2003-06-01 3390 9138.5
2003-07-01 2981 8953.5
2003-08-01 3190 8908.5
2003-09-01 3091 8826.5
2003-10-01 3305 8654
2003-11-01 3324 8446.5
2003-12-01 3414 8343.5
2004-01-01 3424 8268.5
2004-02-01 3532 8329
2004-03-01 3525 8330.5
2004-04-01 3511 8191
2004-05-01 3710 8249
2004-06-01 3337 8211
2004-07-01 3814 8063
2004-08-01 3541 7958.5
2004-09-01 3821 7994
2004-10-01 3943 7996.5
2004-11-01 3472 7933
2004-12-01 4074 7859
2005-01-01 3804 7882
2005-02-01 3965 7858.5
2005-03-01 4044 7704.5
2005-04-01 4159 7661.5
2005-05-01 3797 7587.5
2005-06-01 4062 7465
2005-07-01 4256 7375.5
2005-08-01 4142 7449
2005-09-01 4352 7503
2005-10-01 4184 7509.5
2005-11-01 4248 7422.5
2005-12-01 4282 7171.5
2006-01-01 4397 7124
2006-02-01 4325 7128
2006-03-01 4732 7096
2006-04-01 4790 7050
2006-05-01 4463 6990.5
2006-06-01 4614 7088
2006-07-01 4394 7133
2006-08-01 4710 6969
2006-09-01 4737 6787
2006-10-01 4591 6799.5
2006-11-01 4645 6817
2006-12-01 4620 6939
2007-01-01 4763 7021.5
2007-02-01 4699 6829
2007-03-01 4962 6790.5
2007-04-01 4689 6808
2007-05-01 4657 6872.5
2007-06-01 4859 7064
2007-07-01 4598 7108
2007-08-01 4546 7118.5
2007-09-01 4652 7203.5
2007-10-01 4636 7238.5
2007-11-01 4646 7442.5
2007-12-01 4545 7665
2008-01-01 4624 7591
2008-02-01 4279 7659.5
2008-03-01 4225 7729.5
2008-04-01 4035 8016
2008-05-01 4194 8485
2008-06-01 3830 8756
2008-07-01 3749 9187.5
2008-08-01 3674 9466
2008-09-01 3222 9784
2008-10-01 3377 10306
2008-11-01 3231 10912
2008-12-01 3146 11672
2009-01-01 2738 12478
2009-02-01 2864 13162
2009-03-01 2534 13639.5
2009-04-01 2295 14176
2009-05-01 2549 14603
2009-06-01 2503 14654
2009-07-01 2232 14707.5
2009-08-01 2338 14911.5
2009-09-01 2487 15180.5
2009-10-01 2406 15285.5
2009-11-01 2503 15158.5
2009-12-01 2568 15072
2010-01-01 2837 15079.5
2010-02-01 2666 15157.5
2010-03-01 2679 15263.5
2010-04-01 3153 15087
2010-05-01 2988 14661.5
2010-06-01 2801 14493
2010-07-01 3082 14580
2010-08-01 2999 14613.5
2010-09-01 2918 14547.5
2010-10-01 3235 14798.5
2010-11-01 3211 14714.5
2010-12-01 3058 14180.5
2011-01-01 3104 13916.5
2011-02-01 3226 13778.5
2011-03-01 3261 13847
2011-04-01 3259 13906
2011-05-01 3179 13908.5
2011-06-01 3455 13862.5
2011-07-01 3623 13790.5
2011-08-01 3329 13883
2011-09-01 3774 13771
2011-10-01 3619 13448
2011-11-01 3565 13197.5
2011-12-01 3768 12945
2012-01-01 3909 12805
2012-02-01 3616 12763
2012-03-01 3979 12679.5
2012-04-01 3793 12653
2012-05-01 3835 12676
2012-06-01 3911 12674
2012-07-01 3735 12563.5
2012-08-01 3809 12293
2012-09-01 3882 12119.5
2012-10-01 3775 12064.5
2012-11-01 3878 12151.5
2012-12-01 3970 12384.5
2013-01-01 3923 12210.5
2013-02-01 4004 11819.5
2013-03-01 4076 11724.5
2013-04-01 3988 11707
2013-05-01 4145 11702.5
2013-06-01 4150 11543
2013-07-01 3885 11307
2013-08-01 4085 11274.5
2013-09-01 4128 11203
2013-10-01 4222 10961.5
2013-11-01 4119 10595.5
2013-12-01 4121 10303
2014-01-01 4127 10275.5
2014-02-01 4373 10364.5
2014-03-01 4388 10041
2014-04-01 4566 9780.5
2014-05-01 4747 9659.5
2014-06-01 4982 9534
2014-07-01 4846 9603.5
2014-08-01 5349 9430.5
2014-09-01 4914 9126
2014-10-01 5012 9040
2014-11-01 4843 8903.5
2014-12-01 5130 8801
2015-01-01 5344 8742
2015-02-01 5466 8557
2015-03-01 5210 8532.5
2015-04-01 5598 8692
2015-05-01 5563 8540.5
2015-06-01 5248 8207
2015-07-01 6056 8079.5
2015-08-01 5467 7949.5
2015-09-01 5488 7914.5
2015-10-01 5773 7961
2015-11-01 5708 7953.5
2015-12-01 5845 7767
2016-01-01 6012 7664.5
2016-02-01 5770 7831.5
2016-03-01 6129 8014
2016-04-01 5803 7859.5
2016-05-01 5777 7698
2016-06-01 5742 7692.5
2016-07-01 5962 7712.5
2016-08-01 5677 7868.5
2016-09-01 5868 7882
2016-10-01 5591 7682
2016-11-01 5971 7537
2016-12-01 5964 7493.5
2017-01-01 5646 7421
2017-02-01 5931 7247.5
2017-03-01 5813 7157.5
2017-04-01 6103 7108
2017-05-01 5810 6940.5
2017-06-01 6334 6843
2017-07-01 6203 6952
2017-08-01 6300 6959.5
2017-09-01 6279 6730
2017-10-01 6380 6689.5
2017-11-01 6282 6695.5
2017-12-01 6359 6564
2018-01-01 6601 6543
2018-02-01 6586 6544.5
2018-03-01 6833 6525
2018-04-01 6910 6380
2018-05-01 6987 6320.5
2018-06-01 7271 6281
2018-07-01 7209 6148.5
2018-08-01 7204 6102
2018-09-01 7352 6100.5
2018-10-01 7295 6139.5
2018-11-01 7574 6247
2018-12-01 7436 6410.5
2019-01-01 7478 6285
2019-02-01 7058 6164.5
2019-03-01 7332 6098
2019-04-01 7257 5980
2019-05-01 7279 5939.5
2019-06-01 7165 5941.5
2019-07-01 7137 5984.5
2019-08-01 7150 5864
2019-09-01 7100 5825
2019-10-01 7340 5914.5
2019-11-01 6915 5875.5
2019-12-01 6730 5820
2020-01-01 7154 5756.5
2020-02-01 7012 6451
2020-03-01 5769 15147
2020-04-01 4630 22042
2020-05-01 5447 19336
2020-06-01 6112 17002.5
2020-07-01 6717 14925
2020-08-01 6451 13038.5
2020-09-01 6611 11792
2020-10-01 6873 10888.5
2020-11-01 6766 10732
2020-12-01 6752 10433
2021-01-01 7099 10051
2021-02-01 7526 9841
2021-03-01 8123 9761

 

ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Shaded areas denote recessions. Unemployment levels represent the average of the unemployment level for the current month and the subsequent month in the Current Population Survey to better line up with the job openings data from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey and Current Population Survey. Unemployment levels represent the average of the unemployment level for the current month and the subsequent month to better line up with the job openings data.

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Unemployment and job openings by industry (in thousands), March 2021

Industry Unemployment, three-month average Job openings, three-month average Ratio
Mining 108.3 24.3 4.5
Construction 898.0 305.0 2.9
Arts, entertainment, and recreation 379.7 152.0 2.5
Transportation and utilities 621.7 347.3 1.8
Other services 482.7 274.7 1.8
Accommodation and food services 1369.0 802.7 1.7
Real estate and rental and leasing 137.7 81.0 1.7
Educational services 228.7 136.0 1.7
Retail trade 1154.3 738.3 1.6
Information 171.3 111.7 1.5
Durable goods manufacturing 415.3 319.3 1.3
Nondurable goods manufacturing 319.0 281.0 1.1
Finance and Insurance 223.3 247.0 0.9
Wholesale trade 200.7 224.7 0.9
Government 612.0 733.3 0.8
Professional and business services 1155.0 1395.7 0.8
Health care and social assistance 736.7 1356.0 0.5
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Unemployment levels represent the average of the unemployment level for the current month and the subsequent month in the Current Population Survey to better line up with the job openings data from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey. Both unemployment data and job openings data are then averaged over three months to smooth for better data reliability. These data are non-seasonally adjusted so caution is warranted when making comparisons across time.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey and Current Population Survey.

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