Economic Indicators JOLTS

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) tells us how many job openings there are each month, how many workers were hired, how many quit their job, how many were laid off, and how many experienced other separations (which includes worker deaths).


Key numbers • December 2020

1.6 Job seekers ratio • The number of unemployed persons per job opening
3.8 million Excess unemployed • The number of unemployed persons in excess of the number job openings

December

A stalled recovery: Hires fall in the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey

Next update: March 2021

By Elise Gould • February 9, 2021

Last week, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that, as of the middle of January, the economy was still 9.9 million jobs below where it was in February 2020. This translates into a 12.1 million job shortfall when using a reasonable counterfactual of job growth if the recession hadn’t occurred. Today’s BLS Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) reports little change in December, a clear sign that the recovery is not charging ahead. In fact, hiring and job openings are below where they were before the recession hit, which makes it impossible to recover anytime soon when we have such a massive hole to fill in the labor market.

In December, job openings were little changed while hires softened considerably, falling from 5.9 million to 5.5 million. In particular, hiring decreased in leisure and hospitality—in both accommodation and food services and in arts, entertainment, and recreation. Hiring also declined in transportation, warehousing, and utilities.

One of the most striking indicators from today’s report is the job seekers ratio—the ratio of unemployed workers (averaged for mid-December and mid-January) to job openings (at the end of December). On average, there were 10.4 million unemployed workers compared with only 6.6 million job openings. This translates into a job seekers ratio of about 1.6 unemployed workers to every job opening. Put another way, for every 16 workers who were officially counted as unemployed, there were only available jobs for 10 of them. That means, no matter what they did, there were no jobs for 3.8 million unemployed workers. And this misses the fact that many more weren’t counted among the unemployed: The economic pain remains widespread with 25.5 million workers hurt by the coronavirus downturn.

On the whole, the U.S. economy is seeing a significantly slower hiring pace than we experienced in May or June. In December, hiring was below where it was before the recession, a big problem given that we have only recovered just over half of the job losses from this spring. And job openings are now substantially below where they were before the recession began (6.6 million at the end of December, compared to 7.1 million on average in the year prior to the recession). With hiring and job openings at these levels, the economy is facing a long, slow recovery without additional action from Congress.

Policymakers need to act now at the scale of the problem to address the continuing economic crisis.

Quick reminders about the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS):

  • JOLTS data provide information on all pieces that go into the net change in the number of jobs. These components include hires, layoffs, voluntary quits, and other job separations (which includes retirements and worker deaths). Putting those components together reveals the overall (or net) change.
  • JOLTS data provide information about the end of one month to the end of the next, whereas the monthly employment numbers provide information from the middle of one month to the middle of the next.

Hires, quits, and layoff rates, 2000–2020

 

Date Hires Quits Layoffs
Dec-2000 4.1 2.2 1.5
Jan-2001 4.3 2.5 1.7
Feb-2001 4 2.3 1.4
Mar-2001 4.2 2.3 1.6
Apr-2001 3.9 2.4 1.4
May-2001 4.1 2.3 1.5
Jun-2001 3.9 2.2 1.5
Jul-2001 4 2.2 1.6
Aug-2001 4 2.2 1.5
Sep-2001 3.8 2.1 1.6
Oct-2001 3.9 2.1 1.8
Nov-2001 3.7 1.9 1.7
Dec-2001 3.7 1.9 1.5
Jan-2002 3.7 2.2 1.5
Feb-2002 3.7 2 1.5
Mar-2002 3.6 1.9 1.4
Apr-2002 3.8 2 1.5
May-2002 3.7 1.9 1.5
Jun-2002 3.7 1.9 1.5
Jul-2002 3.8 2 1.6
Aug-2002 3.7 2 1.5
Sep-2002 3.7 1.9 1.5
Oct-2002 3.7 1.9 1.5
Nov-2002 3.7 1.8 1.5
Dec-2002 3.7 1.9 1.5
Jan-2003 3.9 1.9 1.6
Feb-2003 3.6 1.9 1.5
Mar-2003 3.4 1.8 1.5
Apr-2003 3.5 1.8 1.5
May-2003 3.6 1.8 1.6
Jun-2003 3.6 1.8 1.6
Jul-2003 3.6 1.8 1.6
Aug-2003 3.6 1.7 1.7
Sep-2003 3.7 1.8 1.5
Oct-2003 3.8 1.9 1.5
Nov-2003 3.7 1.8 1.5
Dec-2003 3.8 1.9 1.5
Jan-2004 3.7 1.8 1.6
Feb-2004 3.7 1.9 1.5
Mar-2004 4 2 1.6
Apr-2004 3.9 1.9 1.5
May-2004 3.8 1.8 1.5
Jun-2004 3.8 2 1.4
Jul-2004 3.7 2 1.4
Aug-2004 3.8 2 1.5
Sep-2004 3.8 1.9 1.5
Oct-2004 3.9 1.9 1.4
Nov-2004 3.9 2.1 1.5
Dec-2004 3.9 2 1.5
Jan-2005 3.9 2.1 1.5
Feb-2005 4 2 1.5
Mar-2005 4 2.1 1.6
Apr-2005 4 2.1 1.5
May-2005 3.9 2.1 1.5
Jun-2005 4 2.1 1.5
Jul-2005 4 2 1.4
Aug-2005 4 2.2 1.4
Sep-2005 4.1 2.3 1.5
Oct-2005 3.8 2.1 1.4
Nov-2005 4 2.1 1.3
Dec-2005 3.9 2.1 1.4
Jan-2006 3.9 2.2 1.3
Feb-2006 4 2.2 1.4
Mar-2006 4.1 2.2 1.4
Apr-2006 3.8 2 1.4
May-2006 4 2.2 1.5
Jun-2006 4 2.2 1.3
Jul-2006 4.1 2.2 1.4
Aug-2006 3.9 2.2 1.3
Sep-2006 3.9 2.1 1.3
Oct-2006 3.9 2.2 1.4
Nov-2006 4 2.2 1.4
Dec-2006 3.8 2.2 1.3
Jan-2007 3.9 2.2 1.4
Feb-2007 3.8 2.1 1.3
Mar-2007 4 2.2 1.4
Apr-2007 3.9 2.1 1.5
May-2007 4 2.2 1.4
Jun-2007 3.8 2.1 1.3
Jul-2007 3.8 2.1 1.4
Aug-2007 3.9 2.2 1.5
Sep-2007 3.9 2 1.6
Oct-2007 3.9 2.1 1.5
Nov-2007 3.7 2 1.4
Dec-2007 3.7 2 1.4
Jan-2008 3.7 2.1 1.5
Feb-2008 3.7 2.1 1.4
Mar-2008 3.6 1.9 1.4
Apr-2008 3.6 2.1 1.4
May-2008 3.4 1.9 1.4
Jun-2008 3.6 1.9 1.6
Jul-2008 3.4 1.8 1.5
Aug-2008 3.4 1.8 1.6
Sep-2008 3.3 1.8 1.5
Oct-2008 3.3 1.7 1.7
Nov-2008 3 1.6 1.7
Dec-2008 3.2 1.5 1.9
Jan-2009 3.1 1.5 1.9
Feb-2009 3 1.5 1.9
Mar-2009 2.9 1.4 1.9
Apr-2009 2.9 1.3 2
May-2009 2.9 1.3 1.7
Jun-2009 2.8 1.3 1.7
Jul-2009 3 1.3 1.7
Aug-2009 2.9 1.2 1.6
Sep-2009 3 1.3 1.7
Oct-2009 3 1.3 1.6
Nov-2009 3.1 1.4 1.5
Dec-2009 3.1 1.4 1.6
Jan-2010 3 1.3 1.5
Feb-2010 3 1.4 1.4
Mar-2010 3.3 1.4 1.5
Apr-2010 3.2 1.5 1.3
May-2010 3.4 1.4 1.3
Jun-2010 3.1 1.5 1.6
Jul-2010 3.2 1.4 1.7
Aug-2010 3.1 1.4 1.4
Sep-2010 3.1 1.5 1.4
Oct-2010 3.2 1.4 1.3
Nov-2010 3.2 1.4 1.4
Dec-2010 3.3 1.5 1.4
Jan-2011 3.1 1.4 1.4
Feb-2011 3.2 1.5 1.3
Mar-2011 3.4 1.5 1.4
Apr-2011 3.3 1.4 1.4
May-2011 3.2 1.5 1.4
Jun-2011 3.3 1.5 1.5
Jul-2011 3.2 1.5 1.4
Aug-2011 3.3 1.5 1.4
Sep-2011 3.3 1.5 1.4
Oct-2011 3.3 1.5 1.4
Nov-2011 3.3 1.5 1.4
Dec-2011 3.3 1.5 1.4
Jan-2012 3.3 1.5 1.4
Feb-2012 3.4 1.6 1.4
Mar-2012 3.4 1.6 1.3
Apr-2012 3.3 1.6 1.4
May-2012 3.4 1.6 1.5
Jun-2012 3.3 1.6 1.4
Jul-2012 3.2 1.5 1.3
Aug-2012 3.3 1.5 1.4
Sep-2012 3.2 1.5 1.3
Oct-2012 3.3 1.5 1.4
Nov-2012 3.3 1.5 1.4
Dec-2012 3.3 1.5 1.3
Jan-2013 3.3 1.7 1.2
Feb-2013 3.4 1.7 1.2
Mar-2013 3.2 1.6 1.3
Apr-2013 3.4 1.7 1.3
May-2013 3.4 1.6 1.3
Jun-2013 3.3 1.6 1.3
Jul-2013 3.3 1.7 1.3
Aug-2013 3.5 1.7 1.3
Sep-2013 3.5 1.7 1.4
Oct-2013 3.3 1.7 1.2
Nov-2013 3.4 1.7 1.2
Dec-2013 3.4 1.7 1.3
Jan-2014 3.4 1.7 1.3
Feb-2014 3.4 1.7 1.3
Mar-2014 3.5 1.8 1.2
Apr-2014 3.5 1.8 1.3
May-2014 3.5 1.8 1.2
Jun-2014 3.5 1.8 1.3
Jul-2014 3.6 1.9 1.3
Aug-2014 3.5 1.8 1.2
Sep-2014 3.7 2 1.2
Oct-2014 3.7 1.9 1.3
Nov-2014 3.6 1.8 1.2
Dec-2014 3.7 1.8 1.3
Jan-2015 3.6 2 1.3
Feb-2015 3.6 1.9 1.2
Mar-2015 3.6 2 1.4
Apr-2015 3.7 1.9 1.3
May-2015 3.6 1.9 1.2
Jun-2015 3.6 1.9 1.3
Jul-2015 3.6 1.9 1.2
Aug-2015 3.6 2 1.2
Sep-2015 3.7 2 1.4
Oct-2015 3.7 2 1.3
Nov-2015 3.8 2 1.2
Dec-2015 3.9 2.1 1.3
Jan-2016 3.6 2 1.3
Feb-2016 3.9 2.1 1.3
Mar-2016 3.7 2 1.3
Apr-2016 3.7 2.1 1.2
May-2016 3.6 2.1 1.2
Jun-2016 3.7 2.1 1.2
Jul-2016 3.8 2.1 1.2
Aug-2016 3.7 2.1 1.3
Sep-2016 3.6 2.1 1.1
Oct-2016 3.6 2.1 1.1
Nov-2016 3.7 2.1 1.2
Dec-2016 3.7 2.1 1.2
Jan-2017 3.8 2.2 1.2
Feb-2017 3.7 2.1 1.2
Mar-2017 3.7 2.1 1.2
Apr-2017 3.6 2.1 1.2
May-2017 3.7 2.1 1.2
Jun-2017 3.9 2.2 1.3
Jul-2017 3.7 2.1 1.3
Aug-2017 3.8 2.1 1.3
Sep-2017 3.7 2.2 1.2
Oct-2017 3.8 2.2 1.2
Nov-2017 3.7 2.1 1.2
Dec-2017 3.7 2.2 1.2
Jan-2018 3.7 2.1 1.3
Feb-2018 3.8 2.1 1.2
Mar-2018 3.8 2.2 1.2
Apr-2018 3.8 2.3 1.2
May-2018 3.9 2.3 1.2
Jun-2018 3.9 2.3 1.2
Jul-2018 3.8 2.3 1.2
Aug-2018 3.9 2.3 1.2
Sep-2018 3.8 2.3 1.2
Oct-2018 3.9 2.3 1.2
Nov-2018 3.9 2.3 1.3
Dec-2018 3.8 2.3 1.2
Jan-2019 3.9 2.4 1.2
Feb-2019 3.8 2.4 1.2
Mar-2019 3.8 2.3 1.1
Apr-2019 4 2.3 1.3
May-2019 3.8 2.3 1.2
Jun-2019 3.8 2.3 1.2
Jul-2019 4 2.4 1.2
Aug-2019 3.9 2.3 1.2
Sep-2019 3.9 2.3 1.3
Oct-2019 3.8 2.3 1.2
Nov-2019 3.9 2.3 1.2
Dec-2019 3.9 2.3 1.2
Jan-2020 3.9 2.3 1.1
Feb-2020 3.8 2.3 1.2
Mar-2020 3.4 1.8 7.6
Apr-2020 3.1 1.4 5.9
May-2020 5.4 1.6 1.4
Jun-2020 5.1 1.9 1.4
Jul-2020 4.2 2.1 1.3
Aug-2020 4.2 2 1.1
Sep-2020 4.2 2.2 1
Oct-2020 4.2 2.2 1.2
Nov-2020 4.2 2.2 1.4
Dec-2020 3.9 2.3 1.3

 

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The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Shaded areas denote recessions. The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. The layoff rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment. The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey

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Total hires, layoffs, and quits, 2000-2020

Date Hires Quits Layoffs
Dec-2000 5,426 2,868 2,035
Jan-2001 5,722 3,261 2,220
Feb-2001 5,303 3,040 1,838
Mar-2001 5,528 3,041 2,126
Apr-2001 5,204 3,172 1,880
May-2001 5,410 2,991 2,041
Jun-2001 5,109 2,886 2,004
Jul-2001 5,244 2,969 2,060
Aug-2001 5,223 2,933 2,004
Sep-2001 4,954 2,704 2,101
Oct-2001 5,078 2,798 2,327
Nov-2001 4,914 2,544 2,260
Dec-2001 4,829 2,553 1,931
Jan-2002 4,855 2,857 1,908
Feb-2002 4,801 2,558 1,964
Mar-2002 4,706 2,479 1,870
Apr-2002 4,928 2,633 1,956
May-2002 4,857 2,536 1,977
Jun-2002 4,869 2,529 2,003
Jul-2002 4,946 2,579 2,120
Aug-2002 4,871 2,567 1,915
Sep-2002 4,879 2,522 2,016
Oct-2002 4,798 2,426 1,940
Nov-2002 4,792 2,388 1,950
Dec-2002 4,893 2,490 2,014
Jan-2003 5,058 2,436 2,113
Feb-2003 4,714 2,473 2,006
Mar-2003 4,470 2,382 1,939
Apr-2003 4,600 2,289 1,999
May-2003 4,678 2,290 2,078
Jun-2003 4,682 2,322 2,065
Jul-2003 4,639 2,283 2,078
Aug-2003 4,666 2,201 2,154
Sep-2003 4,799 2,357 1,927
Oct-2003 4,902 2,421 1,975
Nov-2003 4,767 2,395 1,954
Dec-2003 4,984 2,436 2,012
Jan-2004 4,900 2,360 2,044
Feb-2004 4,788 2,437 1,972
Mar-2004 5,227 2,573 2,052
Apr-2004 5,152 2,541 2,013
May-2004 4,976 2,427 1,917
Jun-2004 5,009 2,667 1,877
Jul-2004 4,891 2,631 1,895
Aug-2004 5,013 2,591 1,964
Sep-2004 5,062 2,535 2,024
Oct-2004 5,149 2,558 1,911
Nov-2004 5,181 2,776 2,042
Dec-2004 5,153 2,687 1,953
Jan-2005 5,201 2,740 2,017
Feb-2005 5,276 2,642 2,059
Mar-2005 5,273 2,738 2,179
Apr-2005 5,362 2,747 1,961
May-2005 5,271 2,763 2,020
Jun-2005 5,376 2,759 2,007
Jul-2005 5,328 2,744 1,905
Aug-2005 5,409 2,963 1,900
Sep-2005 5,493 3,051 2,031
Oct-2005 5,124 2,869 1,881
Nov-2005 5,344 2,881 1,773
Dec-2005 5,294 2,841 1,926
Jan-2006 5,271 2,949 1,796
Feb-2006 5,474 2,948 1,875
Mar-2006 5,524 2,948 1,877
Apr-2006 5,215 2,783 1,856
May-2006 5,498 3,003 1,988
Jun-2006 5,455 3,046 1,807
Jul-2006 5,573 3,059 1,865
Aug-2006 5,373 3,062 1,771
Sep-2006 5,288 2,895 1,828
Oct-2006 5,375 2,992 1,905
Nov-2006 5,495 3,025 1,928
Dec-2006 5,214 2,987 1,775
Jan-2007 5,426 2,959 1,936
Feb-2007 5,160 2,921 1,845
Mar-2007 5,479 2,985 1,872
Apr-2007 5,353 2,913 2,002
May-2007 5,469 3,012 1,963
Jun-2007 5,267 2,912 1,836
Jul-2007 5,217 2,958 1,904
Aug-2007 5,358 3,023 2,029
Sep-2007 5,344 2,698 2,186
Oct-2007 5,398 2,933 2,005
Nov-2007 5,176 2,774 1,967
Dec-2007 5,119 2,763 1,923
Jan-2008 5,071 2,851 2,010
Feb-2008 5,077 2,866 1,990
Mar-2008 4,924 2,652 1,906
Apr-2008 4,948 2,840 1,957
May-2008 4,691 2,609 1,948
Jun-2008 4,893 2,597 2,153
Jul-2008 4,637 2,495 2,076
Aug-2008 4,682 2,452 2,185
Sep-2008 4,499 2,477 2,087
Oct-2008 4,548 2,352 2,253
Nov-2008 4,104 2,148 2,289
Dec-2008 4,348 2,081 2,497
Jan-2009 4,095 1,978 2,614
Feb-2009 4,061 1,945 2,590
Mar-2009 3,858 1,829 2,560
Apr-2009 3,888 1,713 2,651
May-2009 3,758 1,684 2,228
Jun-2009 3,639 1,686 2,242
Jul-2009 3,857 1,689 2,274
Aug-2009 3,810 1,561 2,113
Sep-2009 3,944 1,631 2,195
Oct-2009 3,838 1,663 2,028
Nov-2009 4,024 1,803 1,911
Dec-2009 4,004 1,758 2,045
Jan-2010 3,904 1,744 1,902
Feb-2010 3,864 1,834 1,817
Mar-2010 4,302 1,853 1,916
Apr-2010 4,159 1,898 1,744
May-2010 4,420 1,814 1,761
Jun-2010 4,111 1,911 2,061
Jul-2010 4,163 1,789 2,173
Aug-2010 4,046 1,852 1,886
Sep-2010 4,034 1,901 1,834
Oct-2010 4,173 1,848 1,746
Nov-2010 4,182 1,881 1,848
Dec-2010 4,299 1,968 1,865
Jan-2011 4,000 1,833 1,846
Feb-2011 4,231 1,952 1,748
Mar-2011 4,430 2,028 1,787
Apr-2011 4,296 1,883 1,787
May-2011 4,261 1,966 1,903
Jun-2011 4,366 1,923 1,926
Jul-2011 4,261 1,990 1,850
Aug-2011 4,298 2,043 1,842
Sep-2011 4,429 2,045 1,875
Oct-2011 4,370 2,000 1,796
Nov-2011 4,365 2,031 1,911
Dec-2011 4,356 1,975 1,811
Jan-2012 4,457 2,032 1,817
Feb-2012 4,560 2,123 1,896
Mar-2012 4,575 2,163 1,775
Apr-2012 4,389 2,136 1,868
May-2012 4,533 2,140 1,968
Jun-2012 4,440 2,151 1,883
Jul-2012 4,327 2,075 1,729
Aug-2012 4,450 2,080 1,889
Sep-2012 4,302 1,957 1,808
Oct-2012 4,389 2,037 1,897
Nov-2012 4,489 2,070 1,920
Dec-2012 4,452 2,045 1,708
Jan-2013 4,487 2,281 1,690
Feb-2013 4,571 2,281 1,655
Mar-2013 4,369 2,118 1,780
Apr-2013 4,572 2,297 1,786
May-2013 4,663 2,237 1,833
Jun-2013 4,440 2,203 1,755
Jul-2013 4,561 2,367 1,731
Aug-2013 4,730 2,331 1,814
Sep-2013 4,726 2,307 1,892
Oct-2013 4,518 2,374 1,681
Nov-2013 4,622 2,384 1,630
Dec-2013 4,614 2,281 1,774
Jan-2014 4,626 2,312 1,815
Feb-2014 4,696 2,401 1,758
Mar-2014 4,763 2,441 1,697
Apr-2014 4,880 2,476 1,752
May-2014 4,808 2,486 1,706
Jun-2014 4,925 2,506 1,753
Jul-2014 5,008 2,637 1,801
Aug-2014 4,810 2,564 1,698
Sep-2014 5,149 2,737 1,716
Oct-2014 5,111 2,721 1,844
Nov-2014 4,978 2,588 1,727
Dec-2014 5,192 2,543 1,860
Jan-2015 5,061 2,766 1,800
Feb-2015 5,127 2,731 1,746
Mar-2015 5,126 2,748 1,960
Apr-2015 5,196 2,706 1,848
May-2015 5,142 2,746 1,708
Jun-2015 5,125 2,756 1,813
Jul-2015 5,150 2,768 1,721
Aug-2015 5,163 2,888 1,773
Sep-2015 5,287 2,783 1,963
Oct-2015 5,338 2,814 1,852
Nov-2015 5,358 2,891 1,779
Dec-2015 5,540 3,043 1,804
Jan-2016 5,204 2,893 1,831
Feb-2016 5,559 2,997 1,926
Mar-2016 5,362 2,900 1,877
Apr-2016 5,277 2,954 1,774
May-2016 5,206 3,010 1,792
Jun-2016 5,277 2,988 1,733
Jul-2016 5,419 2,976 1,786
Aug-2016 5,301 3,007 1,827
Sep-2016 5,283 3,044 1,596
Oct-2016 5,234 3,078 1,636
Nov-2016 5,316 3,017 1,767
Dec-2016 5,380 2,986 1,718
Jan-2017 5,517 3,176 1,765
Feb-2017 5,366 3,081 1,698
Mar-2017 5,395 3,134 1,749
Apr-2017 5,265 3,034 1,704
May-2017 5,454 3,126 1,796
Jun-2017 5,642 3,157 1,958
Jul-2017 5,502 3,118 1,900
Aug-2017 5,528 3,134 1,866
Sep-2017 5,401 3,212 1,807
Oct-2017 5,635 3,193 1,819
Nov-2017 5,473 3,157 1,732
Dec-2017 5,426 3,222 1,736
Jan-2018 5,511 3,034 1,957
Feb-2018 5,669 3,175 1,781
Mar-2018 5,629 3,301 1,794
Apr-2018 5,587 3,373 1,729
May-2018 5,819 3,405 1,776
Jun-2018 5,783 3,389 1,807
Jul-2018 5,691 3,443 1,791
Aug-2018 5,792 3,446 1,796
Sep-2018 5,610 3,400 1,780
Oct-2018 5,855 3,485 1,830
Nov-2018 5,818 3,460 1,910
Dec-2018 5,762 3,415 1,832
Jan-2019 5,834 3,530 1,734
Feb-2019 5,703 3,541 1,791
Mar-2019 5,689 3,525 1,698
Apr-2019 6,000 3,492 1,950
May-2019 5,687 3,486 1,764
Jun-2019 5,760 3,481 1,763
Jul-2019 5,975 3,612 1,812
Aug-2019 5,839 3,544 1,792
Sep-2019 5,959 3,429 1,962
Oct-2019 5,757 3,442 1,778
Nov-2019 5,857 3,528 1,769
Dec-2019 5,927 3,528 1,893
Jan-2020 5,921 3,575 1,749
Feb-2020 5,864 3,436 1,846
Mar-2020 5,111 2,789 11,489
Apr-2020 4,047 1,877 7,708
May-2020 7,199 2,067 1,903
Jun-2020 6,970 2,605 1,995
Jul-2020 5,903 2,932 1,745
Aug-2020 5,952 2,839 1,533
Sep-2020 5,886 3,074 1,437
Oct-2020 5,912 3,150 1,676
Nov-2020 5,935 3,180 2,055
Dec-2020 5,539 3,286 1,812

 

ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey

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The job-seekers ratio, 2000–2020

 

Date Unemployed job seekers per job opening
Dec-2000 1.20
Jan-2001 1.13
Feb-2001 1.22
Mar-2001 1.32
Apr-2001 1.31
May-2001 1.41
Jun-2001 1.49
Jul-2001 1.49
Aug-2001 1.75
Sep-2001 1.83
Oct-2001 2.10
Nov-2001 2.23
Dec-2001 2.33
Jan-2002 2.17
Feb-2002 2.45
Mar-2002 2.37
Apr-2002 2.38
May-2002 2.39
Jun-2002 2.46
Jul-2002 2.41
Aug-2002 2.34
Sep-2002 2.52
Oct-2002 2.40
Nov-2002 2.52
Dec-2002 2.82
Jan-2003 2.45
Feb-2003 2.71
Mar-2003 2.84
Apr-2003 2.77
May-2003 2.73
Jun-2003 2.69
Jul-2003 2.91
Aug-2003 2.78
Sep-2003 2.86
Oct-2003 2.60
Nov-2003 2.62
Dec-2003 2.54
Jan-2004 2.39
Feb-2004 2.39
Mar-2004 2.39
Apr-2004 2.27
May-2004 2.20
Jun-2004 2.45
Jul-2004 2.07
Aug-2004 2.24
Sep-2004 2.09
Oct-2004 2.01
Nov-2004 2.36
Dec-2004 2.00
Jan-2005 2.06
Feb-2005 2.01
Mar-2005 1.92
Apr-2005 1.79
May-2005 1.97
Jun-2005 1.83
Jul-2005 1.70
Aug-2005 1.79
Sep-2005 1.71
Oct-2005 1.78
Nov-2005 1.80
Dec-2005 1.73
Jan-2006 1.62
Feb-2006 1.67
Mar-2006 1.51
Apr-2006 1.43
May-2006 1.55
Jun-2006 1.53
Jul-2006 1.60
Aug-2006 1.47
Sep-2006 1.42
Oct-2006 1.46
Nov-2006 1.50
Dec-2006 1.55
Jan-2007 1.48
Feb-2007 1.48
Mar-2007 1.38
Apr-2007 1.41
May-2007 1.46
Jun-2007 1.45
Jul-2007 1.52
Aug-2007 1.55
Sep-2007 1.54
Oct-2007 1.55
Nov-2007 1.64
Dec-2007 1.74
Jan-2008 1.65
Feb-2008 1.81
Mar-2008 1.84
Apr-2008 1.94
May-2008 2.00
Jun-2008 2.27
Jul-2008 2.42
Aug-2008 2.55
Sep-2008 3.02
Oct-2008 3.03
Nov-2008 3.46
Dec-2008 3.82
Jan-2009 4.57
Feb-2009 4.64
Mar-2009 5.41
Apr-2009 6.05
May-2009 5.67
Jun-2009 5.82
Jul-2009 6.50
Aug-2009 6.31
Sep-2009 6.12
Oct-2009 6.31
Nov-2009 6.23
Dec-2009 6.06
Jan-2010 5.32
Feb-2010 5.72
Mar-2010 5.70
Apr-2010 4.69
May-2010 4.86
Jun-2010 5.15
Jul-2010 4.66
Aug-2010 4.83
Sep-2010 5.00
Oct-2010 4.54
Nov-2010 4.70
Dec-2010 4.78
Jan-2011 4.49
Feb-2011 4.29
Mar-2011 4.26
Apr-2011 4.17
May-2011 4.34
Jun-2011 4.00
Jul-2011 3.75
Aug-2011 4.13
Sep-2011 3.66
Oct-2011 3.68
Nov-2011 3.79
Dec-2011 3.53
Jan-2012 3.28
Feb-2012 3.54
Mar-2012 3.19
Apr-2012 3.26
May-2012 3.28
Jun-2012 3.24
Jul-2012 3.31
Aug-2012 3.20
Sep-2012 3.14
Oct-2012 3.17
Nov-2012 3.21
Dec-2012 3.23
Jan-2013 3.12
Feb-2013 2.97
Mar-2013 2.87
Apr-2013 2.87
May-2013 2.80
Jun-2013 2.77
Jul-2013 2.87
Aug-2013 2.74
Sep-2013 2.73
Oct-2013 2.57
Nov-2013 2.65
Dec-2013 2.58
Jan-2014 2.49
Feb-2014 2.38
Mar-2014 2.29
Apr-2014 2.10
May-2014 2.02
Jun-2014 1.91
Jul-2014 1.95
Aug-2014 1.75
Sep-2014 1.87
Oct-2014 1.78
Nov-2014 1.89
Dec-2014 1.77
Jan-2015 1.63
Feb-2015 1.57
Mar-2015 1.64
Apr-2015 1.52
May-2015 1.53
Jun-2015 1.56
Jul-2015 1.32
Aug-2015 1.44
Sep-2015 1.45
Oct-2015 1.37
Nov-2015 1.43
Dec-2015 1.38
Jan-2016 1.29
Feb-2016 1.36
Mar-2016 1.30
Apr-2016 1.33
May-2016 1.33
Jun-2016 1.34
Jul-2016 1.27
Aug-2016 1.38
Sep-2016 1.36
Oct-2016 1.36
Nov-2016 1.28
Dec-2016 1.29
Jan-2017 1.33
Feb-2017 1.23
Mar-2017 1.22
Apr-2017 1.15
May-2017 1.20
Jun-2017 1.09
Jul-2017 1.10
Aug-2017 1.10
Sep-2017 1.08
Oct-2017 1.04
Nov-2017 1.07
Dec-2017 1.05
Jan-2018 0.99
Feb-2018 1.00
Mar-2018 0.94
Apr-2018 0.90
May-2018 0.91
Jun-2018 0.87
Jul-2018 0.84
Aug-2018 0.84
Sep-2018 0.84
Oct-2018 0.84
Nov-2018 0.82
Dec-2018 0.88
Jan-2019 0.84
Feb-2019 0.88
Mar-2019 0.82
Apr-2019 0.81
May-2019 0.82
Jun-2019 0.84
Jul-2019 0.83
Aug-2019 0.82
Sep-2019 0.82
Oct-2019 0.80
Nov-2019 0.85
Dec-2019 0.89
Jan-2020 0.83
Feb-2020 0.92
Mar-2020 2.51
Apr-2020 4.41
May-2020 3.61
Jun-2020 2.84
Jul-2020 2.23
Aug-2020 2.05
Sep-2020 1.82
Oct-2020 1.64
Nov-2020 1.63
Dec-2020 1.57
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Shaded areas denote recessions. Unemployment levels represent the average of the unemployment level for the current month and the subsequent month in the Current Population Survey to better line up with the job openings data from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey and Current Population Survey

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Job openings levels and unemployment levels, 2000–2020

date openings unemployment, two-month average
Dec-2000 4,868 5,829
Jan-2001 5,362 6,056
Feb-2001 5,008 6,115
Mar-2001 4,698 6,206
Apr-2001 4,752 6,249
May-2001 4,503 6,355
Jun-2001 4,378 6,534
Jul-2001 4,578 6,813
Aug-2001 4,042 7,092
Sep-2001 4,045 7,418
Oct-2001 3,729 7,849
Nov-2001 3,649 8,131
Dec-2001 3,523 8,220
Jan-2002 3,782 8,199
Feb-2002 3,377 8,260
Mar-2002 3,573 8,452
Apr-2002 3,576 8,499
May-2002 3,508 8,396
Jun-2002 3,415 8,392
Jul-2002 3,461 8,347
Aug-2002 3,531 8,278
Sep-2002 3,290 8,279
Oct-2002 3,502 8,414
Nov-2002 3,405 8,580
Dec-2002 3,039 8,580
Jan-2003 3,500 8,569
Feb-2003 3,178 8,603
Mar-2003 3,064 8,715
Apr-2003 3,208 8,900
May-2003 3,336 9,112
Jun-2003 3,398 9,139
Jul-2003 3,073 8,954
Aug-2003 3,204 8,909
Sep-2003 3,082 8,827
Oct-2003 3,330 8,654
Nov-2003 3,218 8,447
Dec-2003 3,281 8,344
Jan-2004 3,462 8,269
Feb-2004 3,478 8,329
Mar-2004 3,492 8,331
Apr-2004 3,615 8,191
May-2004 3,758 8,249
Jun-2004 3,345 8,211
Jul-2004 3,900 8,063
Aug-2004 3,556 7,959
Sep-2004 3,829 7,994
Oct-2004 3,970 7,997
Nov-2004 3,360 7,933
Dec-2004 3,935 7,859
Jan-2005 3,827 7,882
Feb-2005 3,901 7,859
Mar-2005 4,019 7,705
Apr-2005 4,272 7,662
May-2005 3,842 7,588
Jun-2005 4,072 7,465
Jul-2005 4,337 7,376
Aug-2005 4,160 7,449
Sep-2005 4,376 7,503
Oct-2005 4,218 7,510
Nov-2005 4,118 7,423
Dec-2005 4,146 7,172
Jan-2006 4,404 7,124
Feb-2006 4,260 7,128
Mar-2006 4,706 7,096
Apr-2006 4,915 7,050
May-2006 4,505 6,991
Jun-2006 4,625 7,088
Jul-2006 4,467 7,133
Aug-2006 4,739 6,969
Sep-2006 4,778 6,787
Oct-2006 4,643 6,800
Nov-2006 4,530 6,817
Dec-2006 4,469 6,939
Jan-2007 4,750 7,022
Feb-2007 4,618 6,829
Mar-2007 4,926 6,791
Apr-2007 4,820 6,808
May-2007 4,699 6,873
Jun-2007 4,882 7,064
Jul-2007 4,668 7,108
Aug-2007 4,586 7,119
Sep-2007 4,682 7,204
Oct-2007 4,676 7,239
Nov-2007 4,537 7,443
Dec-2007 4,400 7,665
Jan-2008 4,604 7,591
Feb-2008 4,233 7,660
Mar-2008 4,205 7,730
Apr-2008 4,124 8,016
May-2008 4,237 8,485
Jun-2008 3,849 8,756
Jul-2008 3,800 9,188
Aug-2008 3,709 9,466
Sep-2008 3,240 9,784
Oct-2008 3,403 10,306
Nov-2008 3,158 10,912
Dec-2008 3,059 11,672
Jan-2009 2,731 12,478
Feb-2009 2,838 13,162
Mar-2009 2,521 13,640
Apr-2009 2,343 14,176
May-2009 2,574 14,603
Jun-2009 2,517 14,654
Jul-2009 2,264 14,708
Aug-2009 2,365 14,912
Sep-2009 2,481 15,181
Oct-2009 2,422 15,286
Nov-2009 2,435 15,159
Dec-2009 2,487 15,072
Jan-2010 2,833 15,080
Feb-2010 2,651 15,158
Mar-2010 2,679 15,264
Apr-2010 3,217 15,087
May-2010 3,019 14,662
Jun-2010 2,813 14,493
Jul-2010 3,127 14,580
Aug-2010 3,025 14,614
Sep-2010 2,912 14,548
Oct-2010 3,256 14,799
Nov-2010 3,134 14,715
Dec-2010 2,969 14,181
Jan-2011 3,100 13,917
Feb-2011 3,213 13,779
Mar-2011 3,253 13,847
Apr-2011 3,337 13,906
May-2011 3,207 13,909
Jun-2011 3,467 13,863
Jul-2011 3,676 13,791
Aug-2011 3,358 13,883
Sep-2011 3,763 13,771
Oct-2011 3,650 13,448
Nov-2011 3,485 13,198
Dec-2011 3,662 12,945
Jan-2012 3,904 12,805
Feb-2012 3,605 12,763
Mar-2012 3,976 12,680
Apr-2012 3,878 12,653
May-2012 3,861 12,676
Jun-2012 3,916 12,674
Jul-2012 3,790 12,564
Aug-2012 3,839 12,293
Sep-2012 3,861 12,120
Oct-2012 3,808 12,065
Nov-2012 3,787 12,152
Dec-2012 3,840 12,385
Jan-2013 3,915 12,211
Feb-2013 3,981 11,820
Mar-2013 4,080 11,725
Apr-2013 4,078 11,707
May-2013 4,173 11,703
Jun-2013 4,166 11,543
Jul-2013 3,946 11,307
Aug-2013 4,112 11,275
Sep-2013 4,105 11,203
Oct-2013 4,268 10,962
Nov-2013 4,002 10,596
Dec-2013 3,996 10,303
Jan-2014 4,131 10,276
Feb-2014 4,347 10,365
Mar-2014 4,388 10,041
Apr-2014 4,662 9,781
May-2014 4,775 9,660
Jun-2014 4,999 9,534
Jul-2014 4,919 9,604
Aug-2014 5,383 9,431
Sep-2014 4,876 9,126
Oct-2014 5,066 9,040
Nov-2014 4,719 8,904
Dec-2014 4,981 8,801
Jan-2015 5,362 8,742
Feb-2015 5,446 8,557
Mar-2015 5,208 8,533
Apr-2015 5,712 8,692
May-2015 5,599 8,541
Jun-2015 5,263 8,207
Jul-2015 6,143 8,080
Aug-2015 5,510 7,950
Sep-2015 5,445 7,915
Oct-2015 5,832 7,961
Nov-2015 5,573 7,954
Dec-2015 5,676 7,767
Jan-2016 5,994 7,665
Feb-2016 5,757 7,832
Mar-2016 6,137 8,014
Apr-2016 5,868 7,860
May-2016 5,812 7,698
Jun-2016 5,768 7,693
Jul-2016 6,094 7,713
Aug-2016 5,716 7,869
Sep-2016 5,816 7,882
Oct-2016 5,626 7,682
Nov-2016 5,867 7,537
Dec-2016 5,835 7,494
Jan-2017 5,607 7,421
Feb-2017 5,872 7,248
Mar-2017 5,816 7,158
Apr-2017 6,142 7,108
May-2017 5,851 6,941
Jun-2017 6,351 6,843
Jul-2017 6,354 6,952
Aug-2017 6,335 6,960
Sep-2017 6,239 6,730
Oct-2017 6,383 6,690
Nov-2017 6,204 6,696
Dec-2017 6,235 6,564
Jan-2018 6,645 6,543
Feb-2018 6,575 6,545
Mar-2018 6,865 6,525
Apr-2018 6,985 6,380
May-2018 7,028 6,321
Jun-2018 7,280 6,281
Jul-2018 7,326 6,149
Aug-2018 7,249 6,102
Sep-2018 7,282 6,101
Oct-2018 7,237 6,140
Nov-2018 7,509 6,247
Dec-2018 7,303 6,411
Jan-2019 7,520 6,285
Feb-2019 7,048 6,165
Mar-2019 7,364 6,098
Apr-2019 7,284 5,980
May-2019 7,300 5,940
Jun-2019 7,185 5,942
Jul-2019 7,236 5,985
Aug-2019 7,166 5,864
Sep-2019 7,046 5,825
Oct-2019 7,309 5,915
Nov-2019 6,793 5,876
Dec-2019 6,552 5,820
Jan-2020 7,012 5,757
Feb-2020 7,004 6,451
Mar-2020 6,011 15,147
Apr-2020 4,996 22,042
May-2020 5,371 19,336
Jun-2020 6,001 17,003
Jul-2020 6,697 14,925
Aug-2020 6,352 13,039
Sep-2020 6,494 11,792
Oct-2020 6,632 10,889
Nov-2020 6,527 10,732
Dec-2020 6,646 10,433
ChartData Download data

The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

Notes: Shaded areas denote recessions. Unemployment levels represent the average of the unemployment level for the current month and the subsequent month in the Current Population Survey to better line up with the job openings data from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey and Current Population Survey. Unemployment levels represent the average of the unemployment level for the current month and the subsequent month to better line up with the job openings data.

Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website.