4th-grade NAEP reading scores in three cities compared with large urban and national averages, by race and income, 2005 and 2011
|Washington, D.C.**||252 (252)||187 (186)||255 (255)||191 (191)||215 (216)||183 (183)||234 (234)||188 (188)|
|Large urban average||228||196||232||202||226||198||232||204|
* Students categorized as low-income are those eligible for free or reduced-price lunch under the National School Lunch Program.
** The scores in parentheses are from DC budget consultant Mary Levy's NAEP data, which, unlike TUDA NAEP data, always include charter schools.
Note: Large, urban districts are those participating in the NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA), which uses NAEP scores from a representative sample of students in large, urban districts with high proportions of low-income and minority students. TUDA began in 2002 with six districts and had 21 as of 2011.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics (2005b, 2011b) and Levy (2012c)