The Older Workers and Retirement Chartbook References

AARP and National Alliance for Caregiving. 2020. Caregiving in the U.S.. May 2020.

Abraham, Katharine G., and Susan N. Houseman. 2020. Policies to Improve Workforce Services for Older Americans. Brookings Institution, November 2020.

Abrams, Leah R., Kristen Harknett, and Daniel Schneider. 2022. “Older Workers with Unpredictable Schedules: Implications for Well-Being and Job Retention.” Gerontologist, May 18, 2022.

AFL-CIO. 2021a. “Family Leave“ (web page).

The Older Workers and Retirement Chartbook

A joint project of EPI and the Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis

AFL-CIO. 2021b. “Paid Sick Days” (web page).

AFL-CIO. 2021c. “The Workers First Agenda: 5 Priorities for 2021” (web page).

Altman, Nancy. 2022. “Republicans Want to ‘Reform’ Social Security Behind Closed Doors — Beware!The Hill, June 15, 2022.

American Academy of Actuaries. 2020. “Immigration and Social Security.” Issue Brief, November 2020.

Ammula, Meghana, and Robin Rudowitz. 2022. Fate of Medicaid Expansion and Filling the Coverage Gap May Once Again Depend on the Outcome of State Elections. Kaiser Family Foundation, August 17, 2022.

Antonelli, Angela M. 2020. What are the Potential Benefits of Universal Access to Retirement Savings? An Analysis of National Options to Expand Coverage. Georgetown University Center for Retirement Initiatives, December 2020.

Badgett, M.V. Lee, Christopher S. Carpenter, and Dario Sansone. 2021. “LGBTQ Economics.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 35, no. 2 (Spring), 141–170.

Badgett, M.V. Lee, Soon Kyu Choi, and Bianca D.M. Wilson. 2019. LGBT Poverty in the United States: A Study of Differences Between Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Groups. UCLA School of Law Williams Institute, October 2019.

Bahn, Kate. 2020. How Monopsony Impacts Older Women Workers. Washington Center for Equitable Growth, February 12, 2020.

Baker, Dean. 2018. Can Work Sharing Bring the US Workplace into the 20th Century? Center for Economic and Policy Research, June 2018.

Barnes, Adam. 2022. “Here’s What’s Driving the Nationwide Teacher Shortage.” The Hill, April 21, 2022.

Barney, Lee. 2020. “SECURE Act Dictates Long-Term, Part-Time Employees Be Included in Retirement Plans.” Plan Adviser, December 17, 2020.

Batchelder, Lily L., Fred T. Goldberg, Jr., and Peter R. Orszag. 2006. “Efficiency and Tax Incentives: The Case for Refundable Tax Credits.” Stanford Law Review, Volume 59, Issue 1.

Berkman, Lisa F., and Beth C. Truesdale. 2022. Overtime: America’s Aging Workforce and the Future of Working Longer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bhutta, Neil, Jesse Bricker, Andrew C. Chang, Lisa J. Dettling, Sarena Goodman, Joanne W. Hsu, Kevin B. Moore, Sarah Reber, Alice Henriques Volz, and Richard Windle. 2020. “Changes in U.S. Family Finances from 2016 to 2019: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances.” Federal Reserve Bulletin 106, no. 5.

Bivens, Josh, and Asha Banerjee. 2022. Inequality’s Drag on Aggregate Demand: The Macroeconomic and Fiscal Effects of Rising Income Shares of the Rich. Economic Policy Institute, May 24, 2022.

Bivens, Josh, Melissa Boteach, Rachel Deutsch, Francisco Díez, Rebecca Dixon, Brian Galle, Alix Gould-Werth, Nicole Marquez, Lily Roberts, Heidi Shierholz, and William Spriggs. 2021. Reforming Unemployment Insurance: Stabilizing a System in Crisis and Laying the Foundation for Equity. A joint report of the Center for American Progress, Center for Popular Democracy, Economic Policy Institute, Groundwork Collaborative, National Employment Law Project, National Women’s Law Center, and Washington Center for Equitable Growth. June 2021.

Bivens, Josh, Lora Engdahl, Elise Gould, Teresa Kroeger, Celine McNicholas, Lawrence Mishel, Zane Mokhiber, Heidi Shierholz, Marni von Wilpert, Valerie Wilson, and Ben Zipperer. 2017. How Today’s Unions Help Working People: Giving Workers the Power to Improve Their Jobs and Unrig the Economy. Economic Policy Institute, August 2017.

Bivens, Josh, Elise Gould, Lawrence Mishel, and Heidi Shierholz. 2014. Raising America’s Pay: Why It’s Our Central Economic Policy Challenge. Economic Policy Institute, June 4, 2014.

Bond, Tyler, Joelle Saad-Lessler, and Christian E. Weller. 2020. Still Shortchanged: An Update on Women’s Retirement Preparedness. National Institute on Retirement Security, May 2020.

Brainard, Keith, and Alex Brown. 2018. Significant Reforms to State Retirement Systems. National Association of State Retirement Administrators, December 2018.

BrightScope and Investment Company Institute (ICI). 2022. The BrightScope/ICI Defined Contribution Plan Profile: A Close Look at 401(k) Plans, 2019. September 2022.

Bruder, Jessica. 2017. Nomadland: Surviving America in the Twenty-first Century. New York, N.Y., W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Bucknor, Cherrie, and Dean Baker. 2016. Still Working Hard: An Update on the Share of Older Workers in Physically Demanding Jobs. Center for Economic and Policy Research, March 2016.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 2019. National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in the United States, March 2019. September 2019.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 2020. National Compensation Survey: Retirement Plan Provisions in Private Industry in the United States, 2019. Bulletin 2792, April 2020.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 2022a. National Compensation Survey. 2022 data accessed October 4, 2022.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 2022b. “Unemployment Rate” (online chart). Retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis,, July 27, 2022.

Burn, Ian, Daniel Firoozi, David Ladd, and David Neumark. 2022. “Help Really Wanted? The Impact of Age Stereotypes in Job Ads on Applications from Older Workers.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 30287, July 2022.

Butrica, Barbara A., and Nadia S. Karamcheva. 2018. “The Impact of Informal Caregiving on Older Adults’ Labor Supply and Economic Resources.” Proceedings, Annual Conference on Taxation and Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the National Tax Association, vol. 111, 1–27.

Butrica, Barbara A., and Stipica Mudrazija. 2020. “Financial Security at Older Ages.” Center for Retirement Research at Boston College Working Paper 2020-19.

Cahill, Kevin E., and Joseph F. Quinn. 2020. “The Importance of Gradual Retirement in America Today.” Public Policy & Aging Report 30, no. 3: 107–112.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP). 2021. Chart Book: Social Security Disability Insurance. February 2021.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP). 2022a. Chart Book: Tracking the Recovery from the Pandemic Recession. September 2022.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP). 2022b. Policy Basics: Supplemental Security Income. Updated August 12, 2022.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP). 2022c. Robust COVID Relief Achieved Historic Gains Against Poverty and Hardship, Bolstered Economy. February 24, 2022.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2022. “Risk for COVID-19 Infection, Hospitalization, and Death by Age Group“ (table). Updated September 16, 2022.

Chiteji, Ngina. 2020. “Wealth and Retirement: Pondering the Fate of Formerly Incarcerated Men During the Golden Years.” The Review of Black Political Economy 48, no. 2 (October).

Choi, Joseph. 2022. “Senate Republican Bill Would Repeal Democratic Drug Pricing Law.” The Hill, October 7, 2022.

Choi, Soon Kyu, and Ilan H. Meyer. 2016. LGBT Aging: A Review of Research Findings, Needs, and Policy Implications. The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, August 2016.

Clark, Robert L., and John B. Shoven. 2019. Enhancing Work Incentives for Older Workers: Social Security and Medicare Proposals to Reduce Work Disincentives. Brookings Institution, January 2019.

Cloyd, Stacy. 2021. Social Security Disability Insurance and Retirement Benefits. National Center on Law and Elder Rights, February 2021.

Coalition on Human Needs. 2022. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 with Some Important Human Needs Provisions Clears the Senate. August 9, 2022.

Colvin, Alexander J.S. 2018. The Growing Use of Mandatory Arbitration; Access to the Courts Is Now Barred for More Than 60 Million American Workers. Economic Policy Institute, April 6, 2018.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO). 2014. The Long-Term Budget Outlook. July 2014.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO). 2022a. Policy Approaches to Reduce What Commercial Insurers Pay for Hospitals’ and Physicians’ Services. September 2022.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO). 2022b. The Prices That Commercial Health Insurers and Medicare Pay for Hospitals’ and Physicians’ Services. January 20, 2022.

Cooper, David, and Teresa Kroeger. 2017. Employers Steal Billions from Workers’ Paychecks Each Year; Survey Data Show Millions of Workers Are Paid Less Than the Minimum Wage, at Significant Cost to Taxpayers and State Economies. Economic Policy Institute, May 10, 2017.

Cooper, David, Zane Mokhiber, and Ben Zipperer. 2021. Raising the Federal Minimum Wage to $15 by 2025 Would Lift the Pay of 32 Million Workers. Economic Policy Institute, March 9, 2021.

Copeland, Craig. 2020. EBRI IRA Database: IRA Balances, Contributions, Rollovers, Withdrawals, and Asset Allocation, 2017 Update. Issue Brief no. 513. Employee Benefit Research Institute, September 2020.

Copeland, Craig. 2022. The Perfect Storm — Factors Contributing to Lower Retirement Confidence Among Women Who Are Not Married. Issue Brief no. 567. Employee Benefit Research Institute, September 2022.

Copeland, Craig, and Lisa Greenwald. 2021. 2021 Retirement Confidence Survey: A Closer Look at Black and Hispanic Americans. Issue Brief no. 530. Employee Benefit Research Institute, June 2021.

Copeland, Craig, and Lisa Greenwald. 2022. Retirement Confidence Survey and the LGBTQ Community. Issue Brief no. 560. Employee Benefits Research Institute, June 2022.

Creamer, John. 2022. “Examining the Impact of Medical Expenses on Supplemental Poverty Rates.” U.S. Census Bureau Working Paper no. 2022-13, June 2022.

Cubanski, Juliette, Tricia Neuman, and Meredith Freed. 2022. Explaining the Prescription Drug Provisions in the Inflation Reduction Act. Kaiser Family Foundation, September 22, 2022.

Data for Progress. 2022. Survey of likely voters conducted June 17-21, 2022.

Davis, Owen. 2021. A Tale of Two Retirements. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis, December 2021.

Davis, Owen, and Siavash Radpour. 2021. “Dissecting the Pandemic Retirement Surge.” Research Note 2021-03. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis and Department of Economics, The New School for Social Research, December 2021.

Dean, Adam, Jamie McCallum, Simeon D. Kimmel, and Atheendar S. Venkataramani. 2022. “Resident Mortality and Worker Infection Rates from COVID-19 Lower in Union Than Nonunion US Nursing Homes, 2020–21.” Health Affairs 41, no. 5 (May): 751–759.

Deshpande, Manasi, and Yue Li. 2019. “Who Is Screened Out? Application Costs and the Targeting of Disability Programs.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 11, no. 4 (November): 213–48.

Dolby, Teon. 2021. “10 Things to Know about the Expanded EITC.” (blog post). Center for Law and Social Policy, December 1, 2021.

Dolls, Mathias, Clemens Fuest, and Andreas Peichl. 2010. “Social Protection as an Automatic Stabilizer.” IZA Policy Paper no. 18, September 2010.

Dube, Arindrajit. 2021. A Plan to Reform the Unemployment Insurance System in the United States. The Hamilton Project, Brookings Institution, April 12, 2021.

Dushi, Irena, and Brad Trenkamp. 2021. “Improving the Measurement of Retirement Income of the Aged Population.” Social Security Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics (ORES) Working Paper no. 116, January 2021.

Economic Policy Institute (EPI). 2018. “Policy Agenda” (web page). Updated December 5, 2018.

Economic Policy Institute (EPI). 2022. “The Productivity–Pay Gap” (web page). Updated October 2022.

Emlet, Charles A. 2016. “Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.” Generations 40, no. 2 (Summer): 16–22.

Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA). 2021. Private Pension Plan Bulletin Historical Tables and Graphs 1975-2019. September 2021.

Enda, Grace, and William G. Gale. 2020. How Does Gender Equality Affect Women in Retirement? Brookings Institution, July 2020.

Entmacher, Joan, and Amy Matsui. 2013. “Addressing the Challenges Women Face in Retirement: Improving Social Security, Pensions, and SSI.” John Marshall Law Review 46, no. 3: 749–793.

Entmacher, Joan, Mikki Waid, and Benjamin Veghte. 2016. Overcoming Barriers to Retirement Security for Women: The Role of Social Security. National Academy of Social Insurance, December 2016.

Fahle, Sean, and Kathleen McGarry. 2018. “Women Working Longer: Labor Market Implications of Providing Family Care.” In Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages, edited by Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz, 157–181. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Farber, Henry S. 2017. “Employment, Hours, and Earnings Consequences of Job Loss: US evidence from the Displaced Workers Survey.” Journal of Labor Economics 35, no. S1 (July): 235–272.

Farber, Henry S., Chris M. Herbst, Daniel Silverman, and Till von Wachter. 2019. “Whom Do Employers Want? The Role of Recent Employment and Unemployment Status and Age.” Journal of Labor Economics 37, no. 2 (April): 323–49.

Farmand, Aida, and Teresa Ghilarducci. 2019. “Why American Older Workers Have Lost Bargaining Power.” Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis and Department of Economics, The New School for Social Research Working Paper no. 2019-2, updated May 2022.

Farmand, Aida, and Teresa Ghilarducci. 2022. “Monopsony Power, Race, and Gender.” Economics and Finance, Oxford Research Encyclopedias.

Farmand, Aida, Teresa Ghilarducci, Siavash Radpour, and Bridget Fisher. 2020. Older Women and Older Black Workers Are Overrepresented in High-Risk Jobs. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis Policy Note, July 2020.

Farooq, Ammar, Adriana D. Kugler, and Umberto Muratori. 2022. “Do Unemployment Insurance Benefits Improve Match and Employer Quality? Evidence from Recent U.S. Recessions.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 27574, May 2020, revised April 2022.

Federal Reserve System Board of Governors (Federal Reserve). 2022a. Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), 2019 SCF full public microdata. Last updated March 2022.

Federal Reserve Board of Governors (Federal Reserve). 2022b. “Distributional Financial Accounts. Defined benefit pension entitlements and defined contribution pension entitlements by wealth percentile group, 1989Q3-2022Q2.“ Interactive charts and tables accessed October 16, 2022.

Federal Reserve Board of Governors (Federal Reserve). 2022c. Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2021. May 2022.

Feigenbaum, James, Alexander Hertel-Fernandez, and Vanessa Williamson. 2019. “From the Bargaining Table to the Ballot Box: Political Effects of Right to Work Laws.” Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 24259, January 2019.

Fisher, Bridget, and Teresa Ghilarducci. 2017. State Retirement Reform: Lifting Up Best Practices. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis, December 2017.

Flood, Sarah, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles, J. Robert Warren, and Michael Westberry. 2021. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 9.0 . Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2021. Accessed September 2022.

Fox, Liana E., and Kalee Burns. 2021. The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2020. U.S. Census Bureau, September 2021.

Frakt, Austin. 2019. “The Huge Waste in the U.S. Health System.” The New York Times, October 7, 2019.

Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I, Amanda E. B. Bryan, Sarah Jen, Jayn Goldsen, Hyun-Jun Kim, and Anna Muraco. 2017. “The Unfolding of LGBT Lives: Key Events Associated with Health and Well-being in Later Life.” Gerontologist 57, suppl. 1: 15–29.

Frick, Walter. 2015. “Welfare Makes America More Entrepreneurial.” The Atlantic, March 26, 2015.

Friedberg, Leora, Wenliang Hou, Wei Sun, and Anthony Webb. 2017. “Lapses in Long-Term Care Insurance.” Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis and Department of Economics, The New School for Social Research, Working Paper No. 2017-8.

Garfield, Rachek, Matthew Rae, and Robin Rudowitz. 2021. Coverage Implications of Policies to Lower the Age of Medicare Eligibility. Kaiser Family Foundation, May 21, 2021.

Gatta, Mary, and Jessica Horning. 2022. “Dying with Your Boots On: The Realities of Working Longer in Low-Wage Work“. In Overtime: America’s Aging Workforce and the Future of Working Longer, edited by Lisa F. Berkman and Beth C. Truesdale. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Georgetown University Center for Retirement Initiatives. 2021. “State-Facilitated Retirement Savings Programs: A Snapshot of Program Design Features.” State Brief no. 21–02, October 31, 2021.

Ghilarducci, Teresa. 2008. Guaranteed Retirement Accounts: Toward Retirement Income Security. Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper no. 204, March 3, 2008.

Ghilarducci, Teresa. 2021. “Why We Need an Older Workers Bureau.” Schwartz Center for Economic Analysis Insights Blog, August 4, 2021.

Ghilarducci, Teresa, Bridget Fisher, Kyle Moore, and Anthony Webb. 2016. Gender and Racial Disparities in Physical Job Demands of Older Workers. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis Policy Note, October 2016.

Ghilarducci, Teresa, and Kevin Hassett. 2021. What If Low-Income American Workers Had Access to Wealth Building Vehicles Like the Federal Employees’ Thrift Savings Plan? Economic Innovation Group, March 25, 2021.

Ghilarducci, Teresa, Martha Susana Jaimes, and Anthony Webb. 2018. Old-Age Poverty: Single Women and Widows: A Lack of Retirement Security. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis Policy Note, August 2018.

Ghilarducci, Teresa, Michael Papadopoulos, Bridget Fisher, and Anthony Webb. 2021. Working Longer Cannot Solve the Retirement Income Crisis. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis Policy Note, February 2021.

Ghilarducci, Teresa, Michael Papadopoulos, and Anthony Webb. 2022. “The Illusory Benefit of Working Longer on Retirement Financial Preparedness: Rethinking Advice That Working Longer Increases Retirement Income.” Journal of Retirement 10, no. 1 (Summer): 7–27.

Ghilarducci, Teresa, Joelle Saad-Lessler, and Eloy Fisher. 2011. “The Automatic Stabilizing Effects of Social Security and 401(k) Plans.” Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis Working Paper no. 2011-2, The New School for Social Research, December 2011.

Godbout, Ted. 2022. Which Industry Has the Best 401(k) Plan? National Association of Plan Advisors, April 8, 2022.

Golden, Lonnie. 2020. Part-Time Workers Pay a Big-Time Penalty; Hourly Wages-and-Benefits Penalties for Part-Time Work Are Largest for Those Seeking Full-Time Jobs and for Men, but Affect More Women. Economic Policy Institute, February 27, 2020.

Goodman, Nanette, Michael Morris, and Kelvin Boston. 2019. Financial Inequality: Disability, Race and Poverty in America. National Disability Institute.

Goss, Stephen C. 2022. “Saving Social Security: Expanding Benefits and Demanding the Wealthy Pay Their Fair Share or Cutting Benefits and Increasing Retirement Anxiety.” Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Budget, June 9, 2022.

Gould, Elise. 2020a. “Older Workers Can’t Work From Home and Are at a Higher Risk for COVID-19.” Working Economics Blog (Economic Policy Institute), March 31, 2020.

Gould, Elise. 2020b. “Union Workers Are More Likely to Have Paid Sick Days and Health Insurance: COVID-19 Sheds Light on Least-Empowered Workers.” Working Economics Blog (Economic Policy Institute), March 12, 2020.

Government Accountability Office (GAO) 2021. Retirement Security: Debt Increased for Older Americans over Time, but the Implications Vary by Debt Type. April 2021.

Grabell, Michael. 2015. “OSHA Report Echoes ProPublica and NPR’s Workers’ Comp Findings.” ProPublica, March 6, 2015.

Gronniger, Tracey. 2022. “Hearing on SSA Customer Service.” Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Social Security, May 17, 2022.

Guth, Madeline, Meghana Ammula, and Elizabeth Hinton. 2021. Understanding the Impact of Medicaid Premiums & Cost-Sharing: Updated Evidence from the Literature and Section 1115 Waivers. Kaiser Family Foundation, September 9, 2021.

Hacker, Jacob. 2002. The Divided Welfare State: The Battle over Public and Private Social Benefits in the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hacker, Jacob. 2006. The Great Risk Shift: The Assault on American Jobs, Families, Health Care and Retirement and How You Can Fight Back. New York: Oxford University Press.

Harris, Seth D. 2020. Increasing Employment for Older Workers with Effective Protections Against Employment Discrimination. Brookings Institution, November 2020.

Harrison, Will. 2021. “Supreme Court’s Attack on Age Discrimination Protections Remains Unfixed.” Alliance for Justice Blog, June 22, 2021.

Hassan, Adeel. 2021. “Coronavirus Cases and Deaths Were Vastly Underestimated in U.S. Meatpacking Plants, a House Report Says.” New York Times, October 28, 2021.

Heidkamp, Maria, Carl Van Horn, Michele Martin, and Kathy Krepcio. 2022. Helping Older, Long-term Unemployed Job Seekers: A Report on the Heldrich Center’s New Start Career Network. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University. July 2022.

Hipple, Steven F. 2016. “Labor Force Participation: What Has Happened Since the Peak?” Monthly Labor Review, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 2016.

Hou, Wenliang, and Geoffrey T. Sanzenbacher. 2020. “Measuring Racial/Ethnic Retirement Wealth Inequality.” Center for Retirement Research at Boston College Working Paper No. 2020-2, January 2020.

Huston, Barry F. 2019. Social Security: Demographic Trends and the Funding Shortfall. Congressional Research Service, November 4, 2019.

Isaacs, Katelin P., Zhe Li, Sharmila Choudhury, and Isaac A. Nicchitta. 2021. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Recent Evidence and Implications for the Social Security Retirement Age. Congressional Research Service, July 2021.

Jackson, Victoria, and Matt Saenz. 2021. States Can Choose Better Path for Higher Education Funding in COVID-19 Recession. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, February 2021.

Johnson, Richard W. 2004. “Trends in Job Demands Among Older Workers, 1992–2002.” Monthly Labor Review, Bureau of Labor Statistics, July: 48–56.

Johnson, Richard W. 2019. What Is the Lifetime Risk of Needing and Receiving Long-Term Services and Supports? U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, April 2019.

Johnson, Richard W. 2020. How Can Policymakers Close the Racial Gap in Retirement Security? Urban Institute, October 2020.

Johnson, Richard W., and Barbara A. Butrica. 2012. Age Disparities in Unemployment and Reemployment During the Great Recession and Recovery. Urban Institute, May 2012.

Johnson, Richard W., and Melissa M. Favreault. 2021. Economic Hardship and Medicaid Enrollment in Later Life: Assessing the Impact of Disability, Health, and Marital Status Shocks. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, January 2021.

Johnson, Richard W., and Peter Gosselin. 2018. How Secure Is Employment at Older Ages? Urban Institute, December 2018.

Johnson, Richard W., and Janette Kawachi. 2007. “Job Changes at Older Ages: Effects on Wages, Benefits, and Other Job Attributes.” Urban Institute working paper. February 2007.

Johnson, Richard W., Janette Kawachi, and Eric K. Lewis. 2009. Older Workers on the Move: Recareering in Later Life. AARP Public Policy Institute, April.

Johnson, Richard W., Gordon B.T. Mermin, and Matthew Resseger. 2007. Employment at Older Ages and the Changing Nature of Work. AARP Public Policy Institute, November 2007.

Johnson, Richard W., Stipica Mudrazija, and Claire Xiaozhi Wang. 2016. Hispanics’ Retirement Security. Urban Institute, December 2016.

Justice in Aging. 2020a. Medicaid and Medicare Home and Community Based Services Policy Priorities for the New Administration. December 2020.

Justice in Aging. 2020b. Older Women and Poverty.

Kaiser Family Foundation. 2019. An Overview of Medicare. February 13, 2019.

Katch, Hannah, Jennifer Wagner, and Aviva Aron-Dine. 2018. Taking Medicaid Coverage Away from People Not Meeting Work Requirements Will Reduce Low-Income Families’ Access to Care and Worsen Health Outcomes. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, August 2018.

Keisler-Starkey, Katherine, and Lisa N. Bunch. 2022. Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2021. U.S. Census Bureau.

Kilbourne, Amy M. 2005. “Care Without Coverage: Too Little, Too Late.” Journal of the National Medical Association 97, no. 11: 1578.

Koenig, Gary, Jason J. Fichtner, and William G. Gale. 2021. Supplemental Transition Accounts for Retirement: A Proposal to Increase Retirement Income Security and Reform Social Security. AARP Public Policy Institute.

Koenig, Gary, Lori Trawinski, and Sara Rix. 2015. The Long Road Back: Struggling to Find Work after Unemployment. AARP, March 2015.

Kolhatkar, Sheelah. 2022. “McKinsey Is a Consulting Powerhouse. But Is It a Force for Good?New York Times, September 29, 2022.

Kristal, Tali, Yinon Cohen, and Edo Navot. 2018. “Benefit Inequality among American Workers by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity, 1982–2015.” Sociological Science, July 19, 2018.

Krueger, Alan. 2017. “Where Have All the Workers Gone? An Inquiry into the Decline of the U.S. Labor Force Participation Rate.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Fall 2017 edition.

Lahey, Joanna N. 2008. “Age, Women, and Hiring: An Experimental Study.” Journal of Human Resources 43, no. 1 (Winter), 30–56.

Lahey, Joanna N. 2018. “Understanding Why Black Women Are Not Working Longer.” in Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz (eds.) Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages. University of Chicago Press.

Lewis, Tanya. 2021. “Nursing Home Workers Had One of the Deadliest Jobs of 2020.” Scientific American, February 2021.

LGBT Movement Advancement Project (MAP) and Services and Advocacy for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Elders (SAGE). 2010. Improving the Lives of LGBT Older Adults. March 2010.

Li, Zhe, and Joseph Dalaker. 2021. Poverty Among the Population Aged 65 and Older. Congressional Research Service, April 14, 2021.

Lilly, Bethany. 2022. “Strengthening Social Security’s Customer Service.” Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Social Security, May 17, 2022.

Lin, I-Fen, and Susan L. Brown. 2021. “The Economic Consequences of Gray Divorce for Women and Men.” The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 76, no. 10 (December): 2073–2085.

Long-Term Services and Supports Trust Commission. 2022. LTSS Trust Commission Recommendations Report. RCW 50B.04.030 (4). Washington State Department of Social and Health Services, January 2022.

Looney, Adam, and Vivien Lee. 2018. Parents Are Borrowing More and More to Send Their Kids to College—and Many Are Struggling to Repay. Brookings Institution, November 2018.

Lunney, Kellie. 2016. “Members of Congress Really Seem to Like the TSP. Lawmakers put forward yet another proposal to create a retirement account for American workers modeled after feds’ Thrift Savings Plan.” Government Executive, June 28, 2016.

MACPAC. 2022a. “Eligibility for Long-Term Services and Supports” (web page). Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission. Accessed October 2022.

MACPAC. 2022b. “Medicaid 101” (web page). Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission. Accessed October 2022.

Madden, Jeanne M., Susmitha Bayapureddy, Becky A. Briesacher, Fang Zhang, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Stephen B. Soumerai, Jerry H. Gurwitz, and Alison A. Galbraith. 2021. “Affordability of Medical Care Among Medicare Enrollees.” JAMA Health Forum. 2021;2.12:e214104. December 10, 2021.

Madowitz, Michael, Anne Price, and Christian E. Weller. 2020. Public Work Provides Economic Security for Black Families and Communities. Center for American Progress, October 23, 2020.

Maestas, Nicole. 2018. “The Return to Work and Women’s Employment Decisions.” in Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz (eds.) Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages. University of Chicago Press.

Maestas, Nicole, and Xiaoyan Li. 2006. “Discouraged Workers? Job Search Outcomes of Older Workers.” University of Michigan Retirement Research Center Working Paper 2006-133.

Maestas, Nicole, Kathleen J. Mullen, David Powell, Till von Wachter, and Jeffrey B. Wenger. 2017. Working Conditions in the United States: Results of the 2015 American Working Conditions Survey. RAND Corporation.

Maestas, Nicole, Kathleen J. Mullen, and Alexander Strand. 2013. “Does Disability Insurance Receipt Discourage Work? Using Examiner Assignment to Estimate Causal Effects of SSDI Receipt.” American Economic Review, 103 (5): 1797-1829.

Marr, Chuck, Nathaniel Frentz, and Chye-Ching Huang. 2013. Retirement Tax Incentives Are Ripe for Reform; Current Incentives Are Expensive, Inefficient, and Inequitable. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, December 13, 2013.

Matsui, Amy K. 2021. “Gaps in Retirement Savings Based on Race, Ethnicity and Gender.” Written Statement for the U.S. Department of Labor’s Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Benefit Pension Plans, August 20, 2021.

McLaughlin, Joanne Song. 2019. “Age Discrimination Laws, Physical Challenges, and Work Accommodations for Older Adults.” Generations 43.3: 59-62. 2022. “Long-Term Care” (web page). Accessed October 2022.

Michaels, David, and Gregory R. Wagner. 2020. “Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Worker Safety During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” JAMA vol. 324, no. 14: 1389–1390.

Mishel, Lawrence, Lynn Rhinehart, and Lane Windham. 2020. Explaining the Erosion of Private-Sector Unions: How Corporate Practices and Legal Changes Have Undercut the Ability of Workers to Organize and Bargain. Economic Policy Institute, November 2020.

Mitchell, David. 2022. Retirement Tax Incentives Supercharge the Fortunes of Wealthy Americans. Washington Center for Equitable Growth, March 17, 2022.

Mitchell, Olivia S., and Annamaria Lusardi. 2015. “Financial Literacy and Economic Outcomes: Evidence and Policy Implications.” Pension Research Council Working Paper WP2015-01, January 2015.

Morrissey, Monique. 2009. Toward a Universal, Secure, and Adequate Retirement System. Retirement USA Conference Report, October 21, 2009.

Morrissey, Monique. 2015. “Do Disability Benefits Reduce Work Effort?Working Economics Blog (Economic Policy Institute), July 8, 2015.

Morrissey, Monique. 2019. Steady Contributions, Affordability, and Lifetime Income Are the Building Blocks of a Retirement System That Works for Working Families: Expanding Social Security Is the Most Important Step. Economic Policy Institute, December 2019.

Munnell, Alicia H. 2015. “The Average Retirement Age—An Update.” Issue in Brief 15-4. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, March 2015.

Munnell, Alicia H., Jean-Pierre Aubry, and Caroline V. Crawford. 2015. How Has the Shift to Defined Contribution Plans Affected Saving? Issue in Brief 15-16. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, September 2015.

Munnell, Alicia H., Anqi Chen, and Robert L. Siliciano. 2021. The National Retirement Risk Index: An Update from the 2019 SCF. Issue in Brief 21-2, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, January 2021.

Munnell, Alicia H., and Laura Quinby. 2009. Pension Coverage and Retirement Security. Issue in Brief 9-26. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, December 2009.

Munnell, Alicia H., Matthew S. Rutledge, and Geoffrey T. Sanzenbacher. 2019. Retiring Earlier Than Planned: What Matters Most? Issue in Brief 19-3. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, February 2019.

Munnell, Alicia H., Abigail N. Walters, Anek Belbase, and Wenliang Hou. 2020. “Are Homeownership Patterns Stable Enough to Tap Home Equity?“ Center for Retirement Research at Boston College Working Paper no. 2020-7, January 2020.

Naidu, Suresh, and Michael Carr. 2022. “If You Don’t Like Your Job, Can You Always Quit? Pervasive Monopsony Power and Freedom in the Labor Market.” Journal of Law and Political Economy 3, no. 1: 131–159.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (National Academies). 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income; Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. National Academies Press.

National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI). Forthcoming. Older U.S. Workers in Arduous Jobs Need Stronger Social Supports.

National Council on Aging (NCOA). 2022. About the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP). July 2022.

National Employment Law Project (NELP). 2020. Unemployment Insurance Provisions in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. March 2020.

National Employment Law Project (NELP) and Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP). 2016. Work Sharing: An Alternative to Layoffs. July 2016.

National Women’s Law Center and Justice in Aging. 2021. Supporting the Economic Security and Health of Older Women of Color. September 2021.

Nelson, Jaeger. 2022. “Economic Effects of Five Illustrative Single-Payer Health Care Systems.” Congressional Budget Office Working Paper 2022-02, February 2022.

Neumark, David, Ian Burn, and Patrick Button. 2019. “Is It Harder for Older Workers to Find Jobs? New and Improved Evidence from a Field Experiment.” Journal of Political Economy 127, no. 2 (April), 922–970.

Neumark, David, Ian Burn, Patrick Button, and Nanneh Chehras. 2019. “Do State Laws Protecting Older Workers from Discrimination Reduce Age Discrimination in Hiring? Evidence from a Field Experiment.” Journal of Law and Economics 62, no. 2 (May): 373–402.

Nin, Ya. 2015. “Sicker and Poorer: The Consequences of Being Uninsured for People with Disability During the Medicare Waiting Period.” Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology.

Nuñez, Luis. 2022. “SSI’s 50th Anniversary Highlights Need for Reform Following Decades of Stagnation.” Off the Charts (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities blog), October 27, 2022.

Ochieng, Nancy, Juliette Cubanski, Tricia Neuman, Samantha Artiga, and Anthony Damico. 2021. Racial and Ethnic Health Inequities and Medicare. Kaiser Family Foundation, February 16, 2021.

Olen, Helaine. 2019. “Age Discrimination Is More Common than You’d Think.” Washington Post, January 6, 2019.

Olen, Helaine. 2021. “Home Health Care Belongs in the Infrastructure Package. We All Pay for It Anyway.” Washington Post, July 7, 2021.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2020. Social Spending Makes Up 20% of OECD GDP. November 2020.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2021a. Pensions at a Glance 2021; OECD and G20 Indicators.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2021b. Health at a Glance 2021; OECD Indicators.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2021c. Pensions at a Glance 2021: Country Profiles – United States.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2021d. OECD Employment Outlook: Hours Worked, 2021 or latest available.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2022. OECD Employment Outlook: Employment rate by age group, 55-64 year-olds, 2022 Q3 or latest available.

Pew Charitable Trusts. 2016. How States Are Working to Address the Retirement Savings Challenge. An Analysis of State-Sponsored Initiatives to Help Private Sector Workers Save. The Pew Charitable Trusts, June 2016.

Purcell, Patrick J. 2015. “Income Taxes on Social Security Benefits.” Social Security Issue Paper no. 2015-02, December 2015.

Quinby, Laura, and Gal Wettstein. 2021. Are Older Workers Capable of Working Longer? Issue in Brief 21-12. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, July 2021.

Quinnell, Kenneth. 2014. “11 Ways the ‘Schedules That Work’ Act Would Make the Lives of Working Families Better.” (blog) AFL-CIO, July 23, 2014.

Radpour, Siavash, Michael Papadopoulos, and Teresa Ghilarducci. 2021. “Trends in Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plan Access and Participation Rates: Reconciling Different Data Sources.” Research Note 2021-01. Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis and Department of Economics, The New School for Social Research, January 2021.

Rae, Matthew, Krutika Amin, and Cynthia Cox. 2022. ACA’s Maximum Out-of-Pocket Limit Is Growing Faster Than Wages. Kaiser Family Foundation, July 20, 2022.

Rahman-Davies, Abibat. 2022. Where Do We Go from Here on the Child Tax Credit and Earned Income Tax Credit? Friends Committee on National Legislation, August 17, 2022.

RAND Center for the Study of Aging (RAND). 2022. RAND HRS Longitudinal File 2018, Version 2. Produced with funding from the National Institute on Aging and the Social Security Administration, July 2022.

Retirement Equity Lab (RELAB). 2020. Older Workers Know They Face an Unfriendly Labor Market. Status of Older Workers Report, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis at The New School for Social Research, February 2020.

Rhee, Nari. 2021a. “Examining Pathways to Build a Stronger More Inclusive Retirement System.” Testimony before the Health, Employment, Labor and Pensions Subcommittee, House Committee on Education and Labor, June 23, 2021.

Rhee, Nari. 2021b. “Gaps in Retirement Savings Based on Race, Ethnicity and Gender.” Written Statement for the U.S. Department of Labor’s Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Benefit Pension Plans, June 24, 2021.

Rhee, Nari, and William B. Fornia. 2014. Still a Better Bang for the Buck: An Update on the Economic Efficiencies of Defined Benefit Pensions. National Institute on Retirement Security, December 2014.

Rho, Hye Jin. 2010. Hard Work? Patterns in Physically Demanding Labor Among Older Workers. Center for Economic Policy Research, August 2010.

Richman, Karen, Teresa Ghilarducci, Roger Knight, Erin Jelm, and Joelle Saad-Lesser. 2012. Confianza, Savings, and Retirement: A Study of Mexican Immigrants. University of Notre Dame Institute for Latino Studies, February 2012.

Richter, Alexander W., Daniel Chapman, and Emil Mihaylov. 2018. “Declining U.S. Labor Force Participation Rates Stand Out.” Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Economic Letter 13, no. 6.

Risher, Howard. 2022. “The Case for Creating an Older Workers Bureau.” Government Executive, July 1.

Romig, Kathleen. 2021. “The Case for Updating and Simplifying Supplemental Security Income.” Testimony before the Senate Finance Committee, Subcommittee on Social Security, Pensions, and Family Policy, September 21, 2021.

Romig, Kathleen. 2022a. “COVID Surge Illustrates Urgent Need for Paid Leave.” Off the Charts (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities blog), February 1, 2022.

Romig, Kathleen. 2022b. Social Security Administration Cuts Hurt Every State. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, May 26, 2022.

Rothstein, Richard. 2017. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. New York: Liveright.

Rutledge, Matthew S. 2018a. What Explains the Widening Gap in Retirement Ages by Education? Issue in Brief 18-10. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, May 2018.

Rutledge, Matthew S. 2018b. How Is the Mortality Gap Affecting Social Security Progressivity? Issue in Brief 18-16. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, September 2018.

Sabelhaus, John, and Jeffrey P. Thompson. 2021. “Racial Wealth Disparities: Reconsidering the Roles of Human Capital and Inheritance.” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Working Paper 22-3.

Sabelhaus, John, and Alice Henriques Volz. 2020. “Social Security Wealth, Inequality, and Lifecycle Saving.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 27110, May 2020.

SAGE and National Resource Center on LGBT Aging. n.d. Facts on LGBT Aging.

Sammon, Alexander. 2020. “The Collapse of Long-Term Care Insurance.” American Prospect, October 20, 2020.

Santhanam, Laura. 2020. “How Canada Got Universal Health Care and What the U.S. Could Learn.” PBS News Hour, August 31, 2020.

Schmidt, John. 2022. “Retirement Guide for LGBTQ Americans.” Forbes, updated June 3, 2022.

Schmitt, John, and Jori Kandra. 2021. “The Carceral State and the Labor Market.” Working Economics Blog (Economic Policy Institute), April 29, 2021.

Schuster, Barbara. 2021. “Student Debt Weakens Retirement Security; COVID-19 Aggravates the Situation.” Generations Today 42, no. 5.

Schwing, Emily. 2020. “How OSHA Has Failed to Protect America’s Workers From COVID-19.” Reveal, April 4, 2020.

Shah Goda, Gopi, and Evan J. Soltas. 2022. “The Impacts of Covid-19 Illnesses on Workers.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 30435, September 2022.

Shvedov, Maxim, and Jennifer Schramm. 2020. Making the Earned Income Tax Credit Work for Workers Ages 65 and Older. AARP Public Policy Institute, March 31, 2020.

Siegel Bernard, Tara. 2022. “They Got the Debt, but Not the Degree.” New York Times, June 1, 2022.

Smalligan, Jack, and Chantel Boyens. 2020. Paid Medical Leave Research: What We Know and What We Need to Know to Improve Health and Economic Well-Being in the United States. Washington Center for Equitable Growth, April 30, 2020.

Smith, Sean M., and Stephen M. Pegula, “Fatal Occupational Injuries to Older Workers.” Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 2020.

Social Security Administration (SSA). 2020. [SSI Program] Recipients by Sex and Age. December 2020.

Social Security Administration (SSA). n.d. “Same-Sex Couples.” Website accessed October 24, 2022.

Stein, Norman. 2021. “Gaps in Retirement Savings Based on Race, Ethnicity and Gender.” Written Statement for the U.S. Department of Labor’s Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Benefit Pension Plans, June 24, 2021.

Tavares, Jane L., and Marc A. Cohen. 2022. Chronic Inequities: Measuring Disease Cost Burden among Older Adults in the U.S. National Council on Aging, April 2022.

Tax Policy Center. 2020. “T20-0142 – Eliminate Tax Expenditures for Retirement Saving Plans (Present Value Method), Baseline: Current Law with TCJA Permanently Extended, Distribution of Federal Tax Change by Expanded Cash Income Percentile, 2020.” (table). Updated May 7, 2020.

Thompson, Jeffrey P., and Alice Henriques Volz. 2021. “A New Look at Racial Disparities Using a More Comprehensive Wealth Measure.” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Current Policy Perspectives, August 16, 2021.

Toossi, Mitra, and Elka Torpey. 2017. “Older Workers: Labor Force Trends and Career Options.” Career Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2017.

Townsend Kiernan, Katherine, and Sarah Miller. 2021. “The Importance of Addressing Long-Term Unemployment for Economic Recovery.” Workforce Currents 2021-06. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, August 5, 2021.

U.S. Department of Labor. 2021. “Table E4. Number of Participants in Pension Plans by Type of Plan, 1975–2019.” In Private Pension Plan Bulletin Historical Tables and Graphs 1975–2019

United for ALICE. 2022. Financial Hardship Among People with Disabilities: United States. National Research Brief, July 2022.

University of Michigan. 2022. Health and Retirement Study, 2012–2018 public use dataset. Produced and distributed with funding from the National Institute on Aging (grant number NIA U01AG009740).

Vallas, Rebecca. 2022. “Hearing on Strengthening Social Security’s Customer Service.” Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Social Security, May 17, 2022.

Vallas, Rebecca, Kim Knackstedt, Hayley Brown, Julie Cai, Shawn Fremstad, and Andrew Stettner. 2022. Economic Justice Is Disability Justice. The Century Foundation and the Disability Economic Justice Collaborative, April 2022.

Veghte, Benjamin W. 2021. Designing Universal Long-Term Services and Supports Programs: Lessons from Germany and Other Countries. National Academy of Social Insurance, May 2021.

Wagner, Jennifer, and Farah Erzouki. 2022. Time to Get It Right: State Actions Now Can Preserve Medicaid Coverage When Public Health Emergency Ends. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, May 2022.

Wamhoff, Steve. 2021. When Tax Breaks for Retirement Savings Enrich the Already Rich. Institute for Taxation and Economic Policy, June 25, 2021.

Weaver, David. 2020. “Social Security Disability Benefits: Characteristics of the Approved and Denied Populations.” Journal of Disability Policy Studies 32, no. 1: 51–62.

Weaver, David. 2021. “At Social Security, the Deck is Stacked Against the Disabled.” The Hill, June 16, 2021.

Weller, Christian. 2020. “Unemployed Older Workers Often Face Discrimination, Making A Bad Situation Much Worse.” Forbes, December 19, 2020.

Weller, Christian E., Joelle Saad-Lessler, and Tyler Bond. 2020. Still Shortchanged: An Update on Women’s Retirement Preparedness. National Institute on Retirement Security, May 2020.

Wiehe, Meg, Aidan Davis, Carl Davis, Matt Gardner, Lisa Christensen Gee, and Dylan Grundman. 2018. Who Pays? A Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All 50 States. Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, October 2018.

Wilson, Valerie, and William Darity Jr. 2022. Understanding Black-White Disparities in Labor Market Outcomes Requires Models That Account for Persistent Discrimination and Unequal Bargaining Power. Economic Policy Institute, March 25, 2022.

Wolff, Edward N. 2018. “The Decline of African-American and Hispanic Wealth Since the Great Recession.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 25198, October 2018.

Zhavoronkova, Marina, Bradley D. Custer, Anona Neal, Justin Schweitzer, and Marcella Bombardieri. 2022. How to Ease the Nursing Shortage in America. Center for American Progress, May 2022.