Economic Snapshot | Trade and Globalization

U.S.-China Trade Deficits Cost Millions of Jobs, with Losses in Every State and in All but One Congressional District

Since China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, the massive growth of the U.S. goods trade deficit with that country has cost 3.2 million U.S. jobs. Three fourths of the jobs lost, 2.4 million in total, were in manufacturing. These lost manufacturing jobs accounted for about two-thirds of all U.S. manufacturing jobs lost in this period. Growing U.S.-China trade deficits have caused job losses in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and in all but one U.S. congressional district, as shown in the map below.

Economic Snapshot

Net U.S. jobs displaced due to goods trade deficit with China as a share of total congressional district employment, 2001–2013

Rank (by jobs displaced as share of total) State District Net jobs displaced District employment (in 2011) Jobs displaced as a share of employment
373 Alabama 1 3,500 283,000 1.24%
243 Alabama 2 5,100 276,900 1.84%
139 Alabama 3 6,400 274,600 2.33%
71 Alabama 4 7,600 262,900 2.89%
50 Alabama 5 10,100 311,900 3.24%
265 Alabama 6 5,600 318,400 1.76%
324 Alabama 7 3,800 253,500 1.50%
424 Alaska Statewide 2,600 344,300 0.76%
362 Arizona 1 3,400 264,900 1.28%
279 Arizona 2 5,100 299,200 1.70%
385 Arizona 3 3,100 262,200 1.18%
352 Arizona 4 3,100 233,500 1.33%
21 Arizona 5 13,600 317,900 4.28%
134 Arizona 6 8,600 366,000 2.35%
148 Arizona 7 6,400 282,300 2.27%
201 Arizona 8 6,100 301,700 2.02%
49 Arizona 9 11,700 360,300 3.25%
322 Arkansas 1 4,200 277,400 1.51%
190 Arkansas 2 7,000 336,300 2.08%
122 Arkansas 3 7,900 327,000 2.42%
246 Arkansas 4 5,400 295,100 1.83%
233 California 1 4,900 260,300 1.88%
329 California 2 4,700 323,100 1.45%
423 California 3 2,200 286,600 0.77%
61 California 4 8,900 294,200 3.03%
206 California 5 6,500 326,800 1.99%
223 California 6 5,500 288,300 1.91%
42 California 7 10,800 313,200 3.45%
378 California 8 2,900 235,500 1.23%
376 California 9 3,400 275,300 1.24%
280 California 10 4,700 277,200 1.70%
250 California 11 5,900 324,200 1.82%
75 California 12 11,300 399,400 2.83%
47 California 13 11,100 340,200 3.26%
22 California 14 15,200 364,000 4.18%
6 California 15 28,000 336,400 8.32%
434 California 16 1,100 244,900 0.45%
1 California 17 61,500 346,100 17.77%
2 California 18 50,700 344,500 14.72%
3 California 19 39,900 324,000 12.31%
221 California 20 5,800 302,500 1.92%
436 California 21 -1,100 243,800 -0.45%
430 California 22 1,900 289,600 0.66%
429 California 23 1,800 274,100 0.66%
395 California 24 3,600 323,500 1.11%
128 California 25 7,200 302,700 2.38%
188 California 26 6,800 325,900 2.09%
99 California 27 8,600 332,200 2.59%
166 California 28 7,800 359,900 2.17%
119 California 29 7,400 303,700 2.44%
91 California 30 9,600 358,200 2.68%
208 California 31 5,800 292,200 1.98%
77 California 32 8,300 293,800 2.83%
127 California 33 8,700 364,200 2.39%
11 California 34 16,200 309,400 5.24%
30 California 35 11,100 284,800 3.90%
415 California 36 2,300 251,900 0.91%
72 California 37 9,700 335,600 2.89%
64 California 38 9,300 313,300 2.97%
37 California 39 12,000 332,000 3.61%
8 California 40 15,600 280,500 5.56%
222 California 41 5,200 271,900 1.91%
102 California 42 7,800 307,000 2.54%
97 California 43 7,900 302,800 2.61%
52 California 44 8,700 270,600 3.22%
16 California 45 16,200 354,400 4.57%
36 California 46 11,400 314,400 3.63%
140 California 47 7,600 327,600 2.32%
27 California 48 14,100 352,600 4.00%
26 California 49 12,000 299,700 4.00%
132 California 50 7,000 296,200 2.36%
303 California 51 4,100 258,600 1.59%
13 California 52 17,000 350,100 4.86%
163 California 53 7,500 342,700 2.19%
229 Colorado 1 7,300 384,400 1.90%
39 Colorado 2 13,800 384,600 3.59%
394 Colorado 3 3,700 331,400 1.12%
40 Colorado 4 12,300 344,100 3.57%
142 Colorado 5 7,300 315,900 2.31%
162 Colorado 6 8,100 369,600 2.19%
235 Colorado 7 6,800 362,500 1.88%
262 Connecticut 1 6,200 349,800 1.77%
275 Connecticut 2 6,000 348,600 1.72%
169 Connecticut 3 7,600 352,700 2.15%
143 Connecticut 4 7,900 343,000 2.30%
153 Connecticut 5 7,800 348,300 2.24%
356 Delaware Statewide 5,500 420,400 1.31%
417 DC Statewide 2,800 310,600 0.90%
418 Florida 1 2,700 303,900 0.89%
390 Florida 2 3,400 301,500 1.13%
419 Florida 3 2,400 277,000 0.87%
366 Florida 4 4,200 329,900 1.27%
347 Florida 5 3,800 284,000 1.34%
357 Florida 6 3,700 283,200 1.31%
289 Florida 7 5,300 322,500 1.64%
90 Florida 8 7,600 283,400 2.68%
405 Florida 9 3,200 317,200 1.01%
386 Florida 10 3,900 331,500 1.18%
360 Florida 11 2,800 217,400 1.29%
170 Florida 12 6,100 283,200 2.15%
167 Florida 13 6,700 309,200 2.17%
336 Florida 14 4,600 320,700 1.43%
354 Florida 15 4,000 304,200 1.31%
320 Florida 16 4,200 276,100 1.52%
435 Florida 17 1,100 248,700 0.44%
367 Florida 18 3,600 284,000 1.27%
407 Florida 19 2,600 265,200 0.98%
338 Florida 20 4,300 302,100 1.42%
353 Florida 21 4,200 316,800 1.33%
212 Florida 22 6,500 332,000 1.96%
186 Florida 23 7,100 339,900 2.09%
350 Florida 24 3,900 293,400 1.33%
307 Florida 25 5,100 326,000 1.56%
388 Florida 26 3,800 335,600 1.13%
317 Florida 27 4,800 313,600 1.53%
404 Georgia 1 2,900 286,100 1.01%
292 Georgia 2 4,100 251,200 1.63%
88 Georgia 3 7,700 285,800 2.69%
273 Georgia 4 5,400 311,700 1.73%
264 Georgia 5 5,600 318,100 1.76%
104 Georgia 6 9,100 361,200 2.52%
55 Georgia 7 9,800 312,500 3.14%
363 Georgia 8 3,500 272,700 1.28%
86 Georgia 9 7,700 284,600 2.71%
255 Georgia 10 5,200 287,400 1.81%
174 Georgia 11 7,300 340,900 2.14%
282 Georgia 12 4,700 278,200 1.69%
306 Georgia 13 4,900 312,800 1.57%
10 Georgia 14 15,700 290,700 5.40%
380 Hawaii 1 4,000 330,100 1.21%
426 Hawaii 2 2,100 299,400 0.70%
74 Idaho 1 9,400 329,900 2.85%
195 Idaho 2 7,300 355,000 2.06%
321 Illinois 1 4,400 290,200 1.52%
263 Illinois 2 4,900 278,200 1.76%
259 Illinois 3 5,700 319,500 1.78%
110 Illinois 4 8,100 326,600 2.48%
155 Illinois 5 8,900 397,600 2.24%
18 Illinois 6 15,700 355,600 4.42%
315 Illinois 7 4,600 298,500 1.54%
56 Illinois 8 11,400 366,300 3.11%
95 Illinois 9 9,100 347,200 2.62%
58 Illinois 10 9,900 324,800 3.05%
65 Illinois 11 10,300 347,300 2.97%
345 Illinois 12 4,100 301,000 1.36%
387 Illinois 13 3,700 326,600 1.13%
85 Illinois 14 9,500 351,000 2.71%
309 Illinois 15 4,900 316,500 1.55%
260 Illinois 16 5,900 330,800 1.78%
213 Illinois 17 6,100 311,700 1.96%
316 Illinois 18 5,200 337,500 1.54%
257 Indiana 1 5,600 310,600 1.80%
84 Indiana 2 8,700 317,800 2.74%
53 Indiana 3 10,400 327,000 3.18%
210 Indiana 4 6,500 328,500 1.98%
242 Indiana 5 6,600 357,700 1.85%
118 Indiana 6 7,600 311,900 2.44%
171 Indiana 7 6,700 312,200 2.15%
87 Indiana 8 8,900 329,300 2.70%
211 Indiana 9 6,700 339,400 1.97%
185 Iowa 1 8,200 392,300 2.09%
236 Iowa 2 7,000 373,400 1.87%
349 Iowa 3 5,200 390,800 1.33%
398 Iowa 4 4,200 382,300 1.10%
422 Kansas 1 2,900 345,900 0.84%
335 Kansas 2 4,900 339,900 1.44%
176 Kansas 3 7,900 370,300 2.13%
402 Kansas 4 3,500 332,900 1.05%
182 Kentucky 1 6,000 284,800 2.11%
131 Kentucky 2 7,500 317,100 2.37%
137 Kentucky 3 7,800 333,300 2.34%
272 Kentucky 4 5,800 333,500 1.74%
365 Kentucky 5 3,000 234,300 1.28%
46 Kentucky 6 11,000 335,400 3.28%
416 Louisiana 1 3,200 354,000 0.90%
420 Louisiana 2 2,800 329,000 0.85%
414 Louisiana 3 3,000 328,100 0.91%
400 Louisiana 4 3,400 311,100 1.09%
421 Louisiana 5 2,400 283,900 0.85%
410 Louisiana 6 3,500 367,800 0.95%
285 Maine 1 5,700 340,400 1.67%
241 Maine 2 5,600 302,700 1.85%
342 Maryland 1 4,800 342,300 1.40%
371 Maryland 2 4,400 351,700 1.25%
346 Maryland 3 5,000 369,500 1.35%
327 Maryland 4 5,700 384,100 1.48%
372 Maryland 5 4,600 368,200 1.25%
251 Maryland 6 6,600 363,200 1.82%
343 Maryland 7 4,400 315,700 1.39%
261 Maryland 8 7,100 400,100 1.77%
308 Massachusetts 1 5,300 341,000 1.55%
24 Massachusetts 2 14,600 356,500 4.10%
7 Massachusetts 3 20,000 355,400 5.63%
35 Massachusetts 4 13,600 374,800 3.63%
43 Massachusetts 5 13,200 387,400 3.41%
107 Massachusetts 6 9,300 372,000 2.50%
300 Massachusetts 7 5,900 369,800 1.60%
192 Massachusetts 8 7,800 375,600 2.08%
184 Massachusetts 9 7,400 352,300 2.10%
339 Michigan 1 4,100 290,200 1.41%
117 Michigan 2 7,700 315,900 2.44%
168 Michigan 3 6,800 315,300 2.16%
218 Michigan 4 5,500 286,300 1.92%
294 Michigan 5 4,300 264,800 1.62%
203 Michigan 6 6,200 310,400 2.00%
278 Michigan 7 5,100 299,100 1.71%
200 Michigan 8 6,700 330,800 2.03%
217 Michigan 9 6,300 326,100 1.93%
144 Michigan 10 7,100 308,700 2.30%
161 Michigan 11 7,500 342,100 2.19%
337 Michigan 12 4,500 313,800 1.43%
281 Michigan 13 3,900 230,700 1.69%
277 Michigan 14 4,400 257,700 1.71%
14 Minnesota 1 16,300 348,200 4.68%
23 Minnesota 2 14,900 358,300 4.16%
25 Minnesota 3 14,200 353,800 4.01%
156 Minnesota 4 7,500 336,000 2.23%
111 Minnesota 5 8,700 352,000 2.47%
69 Minnesota 6 10,100 348,700 2.90%
249 Minnesota 7 6,000 328,700 1.83%
252 Minnesota 8 5,500 303,400 1.81%
78 Mississippi 1 8,600 305,600 2.81%
374 Mississippi 2 3,300 266,900 1.24%
331 Mississippi 3 4,400 303,900 1.45%
355 Mississippi 4 4,000 304,900 1.31%
425 Montana Statewide 3,600 480,000 0.75%
330 Missouri 1 4,800 331,500 1.45%
202 Missouri 2 7,600 378,600 2.01%
326 Missouri 3 5,500 370,000 1.49%
369 Missouri 4 4,100 324,900 1.26%
302 Missouri 5 5,500 345,300 1.59%
344 Missouri 6 4,900 355,900 1.38%
239 Missouri 7 6,300 337,400 1.87%
256 Missouri 8 5,400 298,500 1.81%
325 Nebraska 1 4,800 321,700 1.49%
288 Nebraska 2 5,200 316,300 1.64%
428 Nebraska 3 2,100 305,600 0.69%
401 Nevada 1 3,100 284,700 1.09%
283 Nevada 2 5,200 309,400 1.68%
389 Nevada 3 3,800 336,500 1.13%
399 Nevada 4 3,000 274,300 1.09%
63 New Hampshire 1 10,500 352,600 2.98%
33 New Hampshire 2 12,200 332,200 3.67%
247 New Jersey 1 6,200 339,200 1.83%
377 New Jersey 2 4,000 324,400 1.23%
293 New Jersey 3 5,600 344,200 1.63%
228 New Jersey 4 6,200 326,400 1.90%
79 New Jersey 5 10,000 356,100 2.81%
129 New Jersey 6 8,400 353,600 2.38%
45 New Jersey 7 12,400 377,100 3.29%
103 New Jersey 8 9,400 371,000 2.53%
126 New Jersey 9 8,100 338,500 2.39%
244 New Jersey 10 5,700 310,700 1.83%
96 New Jersey 11 9,400 358,800 2.62%
237 New Jersey 12 6,600 352,400 1.87%
196 New Mexico 1 6,400 311,900 2.05%
427 New Mexico 2 1,900 273,100 0.70%
323 New Mexico 3 4,300 284,800 1.51%
113 New York 1 8,400 343,300 2.45%
135 New York 2 8,400 357,800 2.35%
268 New York 3 5,900 336,700 1.75%
361 New York 4 4,400 342,500 1.28%
286 New York 5 5,600 336,200 1.67%
276 New York 6 5,600 327,000 1.71%
98 New York 7 8,400 322,200 2.61%
305 New York 8 4,600 292,700 1.57%
328 New York 9 4,800 324,900 1.48%
304 New York 10 5,700 360,300 1.58%
314 New York 11 4,900 317,500 1.54%
209 New York 12 8,300 418,800 1.98%
313 New York 13 4,900 317,200 1.54%
319 New York 14 5,200 341,800 1.52%
351 New York 15 3,400 255,900 1.33%
298 New York 16 5,200 323,600 1.61%
204 New York 17 6,800 341,400 1.99%
15 New York 18 15,200 332,100 4.58%
68 New York 19 9,600 327,300 2.93%
301 New York 20 5,700 357,600 1.59%
253 New York 21 5,600 309,200 1.81%
130 New York 22 7,600 320,200 2.37%
199 New York 23 6,600 324,600 2.03%
181 New York 24 6,900 327,300 2.11%
70 New York 25 9,700 335,400 2.89%
296 New York 26 5,300 327,700 1.62%
215 New York 27 6,600 337,800 1.95%
207 North Carolina 1 5,800 291,800 1.99%
28 North Carolina 2 12,100 303,800 3.98%
403 North Carolina 3 3,100 305,600 1.01%
82 North Carolina 4 9,800 350,900 2.79%
54 North Carolina 5 10,200 324,500 3.14%
41 North Carolina 6 12,200 341,800 3.57%
348 North Carolina 7 4,200 315,400 1.33%
31 North Carolina 8 11,400 301,700 3.78%
125 North Carolina 9 8,900 371,400 2.40%
38 North Carolina 10 11,700 324,000 3.61%
112 North Carolina 11 7,300 295,400 2.47%
67 North Carolina 12 9,400 319,800 2.94%
32 North Carolina 13 13,200 349,900 3.77%
431 North Dakota Statewide 2,400 370,800 0.65%
270 Ohio 1 5,800 332,300 1.75%
298 Ohio 2 5,200 323,600 1.61%
271 Ohio 3 5,800 333,000 1.74%
121 Ohio 4 7,700 317,900 2.42%
151 Ohio 5 7,500 334,200 2.24%
216 Ohio 6 5,700 292,300 1.95%
101 Ohio 7 8,400 326,800 2.57%
159 Ohio 8 7,300 328,800 2.22%
254 Ohio 9 5,700 315,000 1.81%
197 Ohio 10 6,400 312,800 2.05%
291 Ohio 11 4,500 275,200 1.64%
290 Ohio 12 5,900 359,500 1.64%
120 Ohio 13 7,800 320,400 2.43%
100 Ohio 14 9,000 349,700 2.57%
274 Ohio 15 5,800 336,400 1.72%
158 Ohio 16 7,900 355,600 2.22%
123 Oklahoma 1 8,700 361,900 2.40%
333 Oklahoma 2 4,200 290,300 1.45%
392 Oklahoma 3 3,700 329,900 1.12%
191 Oklahoma 4 7,300 350,900 2.08%
310 Oklahoma 5 5,400 348,800 1.55%
5 Oregon 1 32,500 377,200 8.62%
318 Oregon 2 4,800 314,200 1.53%
66 Oregon 3 11,300 383,300 2.95%
149 Oregon 4 7,000 309,000 2.27%
165 Oregon 5 7,100 326,700 2.17%
266 Pennsylvania 1 4,800 273,300 1.76%
364 Pennsylvania 2 3,500 273,100 1.28%
108 Pennsylvania 3 7,900 317,700 2.49%
178 Pennsylvania 4 7,300 342,900 2.13%
189 Pennsylvania 5 6,600 316,800 2.08%
136 Pennsylvania 6 8,500 362,300 2.35%
194 Pennsylvania 7 7,000 339,700 2.06%
124 Pennsylvania 8 8,600 357,800 2.40%
226 Pennsylvania 9 5,800 304,800 1.90%
172 Pennsylvania 10 6,700 312,500 2.14%
240 Pennsylvania 11 6,100 329,300 1.85%
146 Pennsylvania 12 7,600 331,900 2.29%
220 Pennsylvania 13 6,500 339,000 1.92%
248 Pennsylvania 14 5,900 323,200 1.83%
115 Pennsylvania 15 8,400 343,800 2.44%
198 Pennsylvania 16 6,700 327,700 2.04%
154 Pennsylvania 17 7,000 312,600 2.24%
157 Pennsylvania 18 7,700 345,000 2.23%
105 Rhode Island 1 6,300 250,900 2.51%
93 Rhode Island 2 6,900 260,300 2.65%
358 South Carolina 1 3,900 299,800 1.30%
245 South Carolina 2 5,600 305,600 1.83%
48 South Carolina 3 8,600 264,500 3.25%
83 South Carolina 4 8,400 301,000 2.79%
62 South Carolina 5 8,200 275,200 2.98%
287 South Carolina 6 4,200 253,500 1.66%
179 South Carolina 7 5,700 269,400 2.12%
382 South Dakota 1 5,000 415,600 1.20%
160 Tennessee 1 6,600 297,600 2.22%
295 Tennessee 2 5,300 327,200 1.62%
133 Tennessee 3 7,000 297,000 2.36%
94 Tennessee 4 8,300 314,500 2.64%
92 Tennessee 5 9,400 353,400 2.66%
183 Tennessee 6 6,400 304,500 2.10%
81 Tennessee 7 8,000 285,800 2.80%
224 Tennessee 8 5,700 299,200 1.91%
227 Tennessee 9 5,800 305,300 1.90%
334 Texas 1 4,300 297,700 1.44%
20 Texas 2 15,600 364,600 4.28%
9 Texas 3 20,600 371,200 5.55%
238 Texas 4 5,600 299,300 1.87%
232 Texas 5 5,700 300,800 1.89%
145 Texas 6 8,000 348,800 2.29%
60 Texas 7 11,400 376,300 3.03%
269 Texas 8 5,400 309,200 1.75%
180 Texas 9 6,900 326,400 2.11%
12 Texas 10 17,300 342,600 5.05%
408 Texas 11 3,000 308,800 0.97%
73 Texas 12 9,700 337,500 2.87%
397 Texas 13 3,400 309,000 1.10%
393 Texas 14 3,400 303,300 1.12%
406 Texas 15 2,800 280,900 1.00%
214 Texas 16 5,500 281,300 1.96%
19 Texas 17 14,100 329,300 4.28%
17 Texas 18 13,900 306,400 4.54%
409 Texas 19 3,000 310,700 0.97%
383 Texas 20 3,700 311,400 1.19%
164 Texas 21 7,900 361,200 2.19%
258 Texas 22 6,300 352,500 1.79%
381 Texas 23 3,500 289,700 1.21%
51 Texas 24 12,500 388,600 3.22%
29 Texas 25 11,800 302,200 3.90%
138 Texas 26 8,600 368,300 2.34%
340 Texas 27 4,300 305,600 1.41%
413 Texas 28 2,500 266,300 0.94%
234 Texas 29 5,500 292,900 1.88%
187 Texas 30 6,100 292,300 2.09%
4 Texas 31 36,800 323,000 11.39%
34 Texas 32 13,200 360,900 3.66%
44 Texas 33 9,500 283,900 3.35%
411 Texas 34 2,300 242,200 0.95%
175 Texas 35 6,800 318,200 2.14%
368 Texas 36 3,700 291,900 1.27%
219 Utah 1 6,000 312,400 1.92%
193 Utah 2 6,300 305,700 2.06%
116 Utah 3 7,600 311,200 2.44%
173 Utah 4 7,100 331,500 2.14%
106 Vermont Statewide 8,200 327,300 2.51%
332 Virginia 1 5,100 352,400 1.45%
359 Virginia 2 4,400 339,800 1.29%
384 Virginia 3 3,800 320,100 1.19%
297 Virginia 4 5,300 327,900 1.62%
230 Virginia 5 6,000 316,100 1.90%
284 Virginia 6 5,700 339,900 1.68%
267 Virginia 7 6,400 364,600 1.76%
396 Virginia 8 4,700 423,700 1.11%
114 Virginia 9 7,300 298,400 2.45%
141 Virginia 10 8,700 376,400 2.31%
311 Virginia 11 6,200 400,900 1.55%
59 Washington 1 10,100 332,300 3.04%
379 Washington 2 3,900 318,900 1.22%
57 Washington 3 8,700 284,500 3.06%
433 Washington 4 1,500 284,500 0.53%
341 Washington 5 4,100 291,500 1.41%
391 Washington 6 3,100 275,500 1.13%
177 Washington 7 8,100 380,000 2.13%
370 Washington 8 4,000 318,000 1.26%
225 Washington 9 6,500 341,400 1.90%
205 Washington 10 5,800 291,300 1.99%
312 West Virginia 1 4,000 258,700 1.55%
374 West Virginia 2 3,300 266,900 1.24%
412 West Virginia 3 2,100 223,000 0.94%
109 Wisconsin 1 8,500 342,500 2.48%
231 Wisconsin 2 7,400 390,000 1.90%
76 Wisconsin 3 10,000 353,500 2.83%
152 Wisconsin 4 6,900 308,000 2.24%
80 Wisconsin 5 10,400 370,600 2.81%
89 Wisconsin 6 9,500 353,600 2.69%
150 Wisconsin 7 7,600 338,400 2.25%
147 Wisconsin 8 8,300 362,800 2.29%
432 Wyoming Statewide 1,700 290,000 0.59%
Total* 3,157,100 140,399,600 2.25%
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*Subcategory and overall totals may vary slightly due to rounding.

Source: Authors' analysis of U.S. Census Bureau (2013), U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC 2014), Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2014b), and BLS Employment Projections program (BLS-EP 2014a and 2014b). For a more detailed explanation of data sources and computations, see the appendix.

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Proponents of China’s entry into the WTO, including former President Bill Clinton, frequently claimed that it would create jobs in the United States, increase U.S. exports, and improve the trade deficit with China. But the reality of U.S. trade with China failed to achieve those benchmarks. Exports to China have increased somewhat since 2001, but imports have increased two-and-a-half times as much, leading to growing trade deficits and net job losses. The new EPI report China Trade, Outsourcing and Jobs estimates both the jobs supported by increased exports (of which there were about 600,000) and the jobs displaced by growing imports (3.8 million). The 3.2 million jobs lost is the net cost of growing U.S. trade deficits with China between 2001 and 2013.

Last week, President Obama announced plans to ask Congress to renew “fast track” trade promotion authority in order to finalize the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade and investment deal. Members of Congress would be well advised to remember that previous trade and investment deals negotiated under fast track have led to growing trade deficits and job losses. The United States has growing trade deficits with all 11 TPP partner countries, which sets the stage for yet more trade-related job losses if the TPP is finalized. Growing trade deficits and millions of jobs lost to China stand as a stark reminder of the risks at stake in negotiating yet another, gigantic, job-destroying trade and investment deal.

See more work by Robert E. Scott