Wages, Incomes, and Wealth

Data Tables: Raising the Minimum Wage to $12 by 2020 Would Lift Wages for 35 Million Workers

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These tables are from Raising the Minimum Wage to $12 by 2020 Would Lift Wages for 35 Million American Workers, a paper by David Cooper of the Economic Policy Institute. State-by-state data on the demographic characteristics of affected workers are available here.

These are corrected versions of tables initially posted on April 23, 2015. A programming error did not correctly account for scheduled changes to state minimum wages in 2019 and 2020. Accounting for those changes doesn’t significantly change the overall picture or the demographic profile of workers affected by the federal minimum-wage bill, but does decrease the estimate of affected workers and the amount of their increased wages, as some workers previously expected to get a raise under the bill will already have higher wages from the increase in their state minimum wage.
Table 1

Estimated effects of a federal minimum-wage increase to $12 in 2020, by step

Size of increase Total estimated workers1 Directly affected2 Indirectly affected3 Total affected Total affected as % of workers Increased wages for directly and indirectly affected4
6/1/2016: $8.00 $0.75  133,198,000 2,546,000  2,870,000 5,416,000 4.1%  $2,088,646,000
6/1/2017: $9.00 $1.00  134,228,000 8,141,000  5,764,000  13,905,000 10.4%  $8,477,746,000
6/1/2018: $10.00 $1.00  135,266,000  13,515,000  8,691,000  22,206,000 16.4%  $14,813,563,000
6/1/2019: $11.00 $1.00  136,313,000  24,640,000  6,472,000  31,112,000 22.8%  $23,154,338,000
6/1/2020: $12.00 $1.00  137,367,000  28,365,000  6,676,000  35,041,000 25.5%  $31,159,044,000
5-year totals: $4.75  137,367,000  28,365,000  6,676,000  35,041,000 25.5%  $79,693,337,000

1 Total estimated workers is estimated from the CPS respondents who were 16 years old or older, employed, but not self-employed, and for whom either a valid hourly wage is reported or one can be imputed from weekly earnings and average weekly hours.  Consequently, this estimate represents the identifiable wage-earning workforce and tends to understate the size of the full workforce.

2 Directly affected workers will see their wages rise, as the new minimum-wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay.

Indirectly affected workers  have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (between the new minimum wage and the new minimum wage plus the dollar amount of the increase in the previous year's minimum wage).  They will receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage.

4 Total annual amount of increased wages for directly and indirectly affected workers.

Note: Assumed annual population growth is 0.77% (U.S. projected average annual growth rate from 2015 to 2020, according to U.S. Census Bureau (2014)). Assumed annual wage growth is 1.24% leading up to the first increase (U.S. annual average of the bottom 20% of wage earners from 2010 to 2014).  In subsequent steps, we assume the CBO's projections for inflation plus 0.2% real wage growth. For example, in year 3, CBO projects growth in the CPI-U of 2.2%, so we assume wage growth of 2.4%.

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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Table 2a

Characteristics of U.S. workers who would be affected by increasing the federal minimum wage to $12 per hour by July 2020, total

Category Estimated workforce Directly affected Indirectly affected Total affected Percentage of the total affected Share of this category that is affected
Total 137,367,000  28,365,000  6,676,000 35,041,000 100.0% 25.5%
Sex
Female 66,234,000  15,855,000  3,719,000 19,574,000 55.9% 29.6%
Male 71,133,000  12,511,000  2,957,000 15,468,000 44.1% 21.7%
Age
Under 20 4,650,000 3,481,000 272,000 3,753,000 10.7% 80.7%
20 or older 132,718,000  24,885,000  6,404,000 31,289,000 89.3% 23.6%
Less than 25 18,827,000  10,201,000  1,498,000 11,699,000 33.4% 62.1%
25 to 39 46,012,000 8,213,000  2,272,000 10,485,000 29.9% 22.8%
40 to 54 44,583,000 5,854,000  1,654,000 7,508,000 21.4% 16.8%
55+ 27,945,000 4,096,000  1,252,000 5,348,000 15.3% 19.1%
Race or ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 88,590,000  14,938,000  3,689,000 18,627,000 53.2% 21.0%
Black or African American 15,543,000 4,522,000 879,000 5,401,000 15.4% 34.7%
Hispanic of any race 22,534,000 6,959,000  1,568,000 8,527,000 24.3% 37.8%
Asian or other race/ethnicity 10,700,000 1,946,000 540,000 2,486,000 7.1% 23.2%
Family status
Married parent 36,334,000 4,546,000  1,311,000 5,857,000 16.7% 16.1%
Single parent 10,548,000 3,113,000 737,000 3,850,000 11.0% 36.5%
Married, no kids 37,457,000 5,016,000  1,542,000 6,558,000 18.7% 17.5%
Unmarried, no kids 53,028,000  15,690,000  3,086,000 18,776,000 53.6% 35.4%
Working moms 23,222,000 5,098,000  1,250,000 6,348,000 18.1% 27.3%
Single moms 7,705,000 2,481,000 573,000 3,054,000 8.7% 39.6%
Working dads 23,660,000 2,561,000 798,000 3,359,000 9.6% 14.2%
Single dads 2,843,000 632,000 164,000 796,000 2.3% 28.0%
Family annual income level
Less than $20,000 13,708,000 6,420,000  1,097,000 7,517,000 21.5% 54.8%
$20,000–$39,999 26,523,000 7,953,000  2,034,000 9,987,000 28.5% 37.7%
$40,000–$59,999 24,076,000 4,814,000  1,244,000 6,058,000 17.3% 25.2%
$60,000–$74,999 16,411,000 2,702,000 680,000 3,382,000 9.7% 20.6%
$75,000–$99,999 19,852,000 2,711,000 688,000 3,399,000 9.7% 17.1%
$100,000–$149,999 21,162,000 2,353,000 582,000 2,935,000 8.4% 13.9%
$150,000 or more 15,636,000 1,412,000 352,000 1,764,000 5.0% 11.3%
Work hours
Part time (< 19 hours per week) 7,463,000 3,921,000 490,000 4,411,000 12.6% 59.1%
Mid time (20–34 hours per week) 19,436,000 9,120,000  1,390,000 10,510,000 30.0% 54.1%
Full time (35+ hours per week) 110,469,000  15,325,000  4,796,000 20,121,000 57.4% 18.2%
Education level
Less than high school 11,954,000 5,956,000 906,000 6,862,000 19.6% 57.4%
High school 37,167,000 9,993,000  2,366,000 12,359,000 35.3% 33.3%
Some college, no degree 26,069,000 7,172,000  1,673,000 8,845,000 25.2% 33.9%
Associate degree 14,622,000 2,451,000 701,000 3,152,000 9.0% 21.6%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 47,555,000 2,792,000  1,029,000 3,821,000 10.9% 8.0%
 Total est. # of children  Child has directly affected parent Child has indirectly affected parent  Total children with affected parents  % of all children
Children with at least one affected parent 77,411,000  14,054,000  3,463,000 17,517,000 22.6%
Average share of family income
earned by affected worker
Share of affected workers who are sole providers of their family’s income
All affected 54.3% 23.7%
Parents affected 63.1% 31.4%

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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Table 2b

Characteristics of U.S. workers who would be affected by increasing the federal minimum wage to $12 per hour by July 2020, white non-Hispanic only

Category Estimated workforce Total affected Percentage of the total affected Share of this category that is affected
Total     88,590,000      18,627,000 100.0% 21.0%
Sex
Female     42,954,000      10,940,000 58.7% 25.5%
Male     45,636,000        7,687,000 41.3% 16.8%
Age
Under 20       3,047,000        2,443,000 13.1% 80.2%
20 or older     85,543,000      16,184,000 86.9% 18.9%
Less than 25     11,407,000        6,743,000 36.2% 59.1%
25 to 39     27,260,000        4,713,000 25.3% 17.3%
40 to 54     29,055,000        3,726,000 20.0% 12.8%
55+     20,869,000        3,445,000 18.5% 16.5%
Family status
Married parent     23,198,000        2,761,000 14.8% 11.9%
Single parent       4,995,000        1,456,000 7.8% 29.1%
Married, no kids     27,370,000        3,954,000 21.2% 14.4%
Unmarried, no kids     33,026,000      10,456,000 56.1% 31.7%
Working moms     13,794,000        2,939,000 15.8% 21.3%
Single moms       3,504,000        1,166,000 6.3% 33.3%
Working dads     14,399,000        1,278,000 6.9% 8.9%
Single dads       1,492,000           289,000 1.6% 19.4%
Family annual income level
Less than $20,000       6,196,000        3,018,000 16.2% 48.7%
$20,000–$39,999     13,702,000        4,556,000 24.5% 33.3%
$40,000–$59,999     15,261,000        3,387,000 18.2% 22.2%
$60,000–$74,999     11,106,000        2,011,000 10.8% 18.1%
$75,000–$99,999     14,418,000        2,309,000 12.4% 16.0%
$100,000–$149,999     15,959,000        2,040,000 11.0% 12.8%
$150,000 or more     11,948,000        1,306,000 7.0% 10.9%
Work hours
Part time (< 19 hours per week)       5,261,000        2,937,000 15.8% 55.8%
Mid time (20–34 hours per week)     12,211,000        5,963,000 32.0% 48.8%
Full time (35+ hours per week)     71,118,000        9,727,000 52.2% 13.7%
Education level
Less than high school       4,301,000        2,491,000 13.4% 57.9%
High school     23,012,000        6,616,000 35.5% 28.8%
Some college, no degree     16,530,000        5,071,000 27.2% 30.7%
Associate degree     10,280,000        1,938,000 10.4% 18.9%
Bachelor’s degree or higher     34,466,000        2,510,000 13.5% 7.3%
Average share of family income earned by affected worker Share of affected workers who are sole providers of their family’s income
All affected 47.1% 17.5%
Parents affected 53.7% 21.7%

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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Table 2c

Characteristics of U.S. workers who would be affected by increasing the federal minimum wage to $12 per hour by July 2020, black only

Category Estimated workforce Total affected Percentage of the total affected Share of this category that is affected
Total      15,543,000   5,401,000 100.0% 34.7%
Sex
Female        8,471,000   3,114,000 57.7% 36.8%
Male        7,072,000   2,287,000 42.3% 32.3%
Age
Under 20           442,000     366,000 6.8% 82.8%
20 or older      15,101,000   5,035,000 93.2% 33.3%
Less than 25        2,192,000   1,565,000 29.0% 71.4%
25 to 39        5,413,000   1,926,000 35.7% 35.6%
40 to 54        5,214,000   1,226,000 22.7% 23.5%
55+        2,724,000     684,000 12.7% 25.1%
Family status
Married parent        2,863,000     635,000 11.8% 22.2%
Single parent        2,301,000   1,000,000 18.5% 43.5%
Married, no kids        2,900,000     689,000 12.8% 23.8%
Unmarried, no kids        7,479,000   3,076,000 57.0% 41.1%
Working moms        3,148,000   1,170,000 21.7% 37.2%
Single moms        1,911,000     852,000 15.8% 44.6%
Working dads        2,016,000     466,000 8.6% 23.1%
Single dads           390,000     149,000 2.8% 38.2%
Family annual income level
Less than $20,000        2,710,000   1,669,000 30.9% 61.6%
$20,000–$39,999        4,162,000   1,702,000 31.5% 40.9%
$40,000–$59,999        2,861,000     822,000 15.2% 28.7%
$60,000–$74,999        1,742,000     452,000 8.4% 25.9%
$75,000–$99,999        1,575,000     306,000 5.7% 19.4%
$100,000–$149,999        1,561,000     313,000 5.8% 20.1%
$150,000 or more           932,000     136,000 2.5% 14.6%
Work hours
Part time (< 19 hours per week)           670,000     476,000 8.8% 71.0%
Mid time (20–34 hours per week)        2,322,000   1,566,000 29.0% 67.4%
Full time (35+ hours per week)      12,551,000   3,359,000 62.2% 26.8%
Education level
Less than high school        1,146,000     735,000 13.6% 64.1%
High school        4,938,000   2,144,000 39.7% 43.4%
Some college, no degree        3,784,000   1,562,000 28.9% 41.3%
Associate degree        1,683,000     515,000 9.5% 30.6%
Bachelor’s degree or higher        3,992,000     445,000 8.2% 11.1%
Average share of family income earned by affected worker Share of affected workers who are sole providers of their family’s income
All affected 64.4% 33.7%
Parents affected 71.9% 42.5%

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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Table 2d

Characteristics of U.S. workers who would be affected by increasing the federal minimum wage to $12 per hour by July 2020, Hispanic of any race only

Category Estimated workforce Total affected Percentage of the total affected Share of this category that is affected
Total       22,534,000   8,527,000 100.0% 37.8%
Sex
Female         9,647,000   4,179,000 49.0% 43.3%
Male       12,887,000   4,348,000 51.0% 33.7%
Age
Under 20            832,000     675,000 7.9% 81.1%
20 or older       21,703,000   7,853,000 92.1% 36.2%
Less than 25         3,862,000   2,556,000 30.0% 66.2%
25 to 39         9,193,000   3,122,000 36.6% 34.0%
40 to 54         6,880,000   2,026,000 23.8% 29.4%
55+         2,599,000     823,000 9.7% 31.7%
Family status
Married parent         6,806,000   2,005,000 23.5% 29.5%
Single parent         2,660,000   1,207,000 14.2% 45.4%
Married, no kids         4,428,000   1,383,000 16.2% 31.2%
Unmarried, no kids         8,641,000   3,933,000 46.1% 45.5%
Working moms         4,332,000   1,822,000 21.4% 42.1%
Single moms         1,860,000     891,000 10.4% 47.9%
Working dads         5,134,000   1,389,000 16.3% 27.1%
Single dads            800,000     316,000 3.7% 39.5%
Family annual income level
Less than $20,000         3,867,000   2,368,000 27.8% 61.2%
$20,000–$39,999         6,684,000   3,011,000 35.3% 45.0%
$40,000–$59,999         4,320,000   1,420,000 16.7% 32.9%
$60,000–$74,999         2,325,000     643,000 7.5% 27.7%
$75,000–$99,999         2,364,000     512,000 6.0% 21.7%
$100,000–$149,999         1,930,000     394,000 4.6% 20.4%
$150,000 or more         1,043,000     180,000 2.1% 17.3%
Work hours
Part time (< 19 hours per week)            989,000     660,000 7.7% 66.7%
Mid time (20–34 hours per week)         3,471,000   2,227,000 26.1% 64.2%
Full time (35+ hours per week)       18,074,000   5,640,000 66.1% 31.2%
Education level
Less than high school         5,792,000   3,230,000 37.9% 55.8%
High school         7,066,000   2,800,000 32.8% 39.6%
Some college, no degree         4,096,000   1,569,000 18.4% 38.3%
Associate degree         1,805,000     512,000 6.0% 28.4%
Bachelor’s degree or higher         3,775,000     416,000 4.9% 11.0%
Average share of family income earned by affected worker Share of affected workers who are sole providers of their family’s income
All affected 64.2% 32.0%
Parents affected 71.5% 39.9%

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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Table 2e

Characteristics of U.S. workers who would be affected by increasing the federal minimum wage to $12 per hour by July 2020, Asian or other race only

Category Estimated workforce Total affected Percentage of the total affected Share of this category that is affected
Total      10,700,000   2,486,000 100.0% 23.2%
Sex
Female        5,162,000   1,341,000 53.9% 26.0%
Male        5,538,000   1,145,000 46.1% 20.7%
Age
Under 20          329,000      269,000 10.8% 81.8%
20 or older      10,371,000   2,217,000 89.2% 21.4%
Less than 25        1,366,000      836,000 33.6% 61.2%
25 to 39        4,146,000      724,000 29.1% 17.5%
40 to 54        3,434,000      530,000 21.3% 15.4%
55+        1,753,000      396,000 15.9% 22.6%
Family status
Married parent        3,467,000      456,000 18.3% 13.2%
Single parent          592,000      187,000 7.5% 31.6%
Married, no kids        2,759,000      532,000 21.4% 19.3%
Unmarried, no kids        3,882,000   1,311,000 52.7% 33.8%
Working moms        1,949,000      416,000 16.7% 21.3%
Single moms          430,000      146,000 5.9% 34.0%
Working dads        2,110,000      227,000 9.1% 10.8%
Single dads          162,000        42,000 1.7% 25.9%
Family annual income level
Less than $20,000          935,000      462,000 18.6% 49.4%
$20,000–$39,999        1,976,000      718,000 28.9% 36.3%
$40,000–$59,999        1,634,000      429,000 17.3% 26.3%
$60,000–$74,999        1,237,000      275,000 11.1% 22.2%
$75,000–$99,999        1,495,000      273,000 11.0% 18.3%
$100,000–$149,999        1,711,000      187,000 7.5% 10.9%
$150,000 or more        1,713,000      142,000 5.7% 8.3%
Work hours
Part time (< 19 hours per week)          543,000      337,000 13.6% 62.1%
Mid time (20–34 hours per week)        1,432,000      754,000 30.3% 52.7%
Full time (35+ hours per week)        8,725,000   1,395,000 56.1% 16.0%
Education level
Less than high school          715,000      405,000 16.3% 56.6%
High school        2,151,000      799,000 32.1% 37.1%
Some college, no degree        1,660,000      644,000 25.9% 38.8%
Associate degree          854,000      187,000 7.5% 21.9%
Bachelor’s degree or higher        5,321,000      450,000 18.1% 8.5%
Average share of family income earned by affected worker Share of affected workers who are sole providers of their family’s income
All affected 52.3% 19.7%
Parents affected 60.1% 25.4%

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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Table 2f

Characteristics of U.S. workers who would be affected by increasing the federal minimum wage to $12 per hour by July 2020, women of color only

Category Estimated workforce Total affected Percentage of the total affected Share of this category that is affected
Total     23,280,000   8,634,000 100.0% 37.1%
Age
Under 20         818,000     677,000 7.8% 82.8%
20 or older     22,462,000   7,957,000 92.2% 35.4%
Less than 25       3,598,000   2,478,000 28.7% 68.9%
25 to 39       8,546,000   2,859,000 33.1% 33.5%
40 to 54       7,574,000   2,183,000 25.3% 28.8%
55+       3,563,000   1,114,000 12.9% 31.3%
Family status
Married parent       5,227,000   1,520,000 17.6% 29.1%
Single parent       4,201,000   1,888,000 21.9% 44.9%
Married, no kids       4,652,000   1,362,000 15.8% 29.3%
Unmarried, no kids       9,200,000   3,863,000 44.7% 42.0%
Working moms       9,428,000   3,408,000 39.5% 36.1%
Single moms       4,201,000   1,888,000 21.9% 44.9%
Family annual income level
Less than $20,000       3,915,000   2,493,000 28.9% 63.7%
$20,000–$39,999       6,058,000   2,749,000 31.8% 45.4%
$40,000–$59,999       4,067,000   1,377,000 15.9% 33.9%
$60,000–$74,999       2,464,000     730,000 8.5% 29.6%
$75,000–$99,999       2,523,000     601,000 7.0% 23.8%
$100,000–$149,999       2,479,000     443,000 5.1% 17.9%
$150,000 or more       1,775,000     241,000 2.8% 13.6%
Work hours
Part time (< 19 hours per week)       1,411,000     937,000 10.9% 66.4%
Mid time (20–34 hours per week)       4,394,000   2,754,000 31.9% 62.7%
Full time (35+ hours per week)     17,476,000   4,944,000 57.3% 28.3%
Education level
Less than high school       2,809,000   1,955,000 22.6% 69.6%
High school       6,306,000   3,007,000 34.8% 47.7%
Some college, no degree       4,878,000   2,131,000 24.7% 43.7%
Associate degree       2,428,000     781,000 9.0% 32.2%
Bachelor’s degree or higher       6,859,000     760,000 8.8% 11.1%
Average share of family income earned by affected worker Share of affected workers who are sole providers of their family’s income
All affected 61.2% 30.1%
Parents affected 68.5% 38.3%

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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Table 3

Estimated effects of a federal minimum-wage increase to $12 by July 2020, fully phased-in, by state

State  Estimated wage-earning population  Directly affected  Indirectly affected  Total affected  Share of state workforce Total wage increase for directly and indirectly affected workers  Average total increase in annual income for affected workers
United States 137,367,000  28,365,000  6,676,000  35,041,000 25.5% $79,693,337,000 $2,300
Alabama 1,972,000 492,000 97,000 589,000 29.9% $1,626,600,000 $2,800
Alaska 321,000 26,000 24,000 50,000 15.6% $42,661,000 $800
Arizona 2,710,000 636,000 143,000 779,000 28.7% $1,760,314,000 $2,300
Arkansas 1,157,000 325,000 58,000 383,000 33.1% $999,562,000 $2,600
California 15,808,000 2,716,000  1,075,000 3,791,000 24.0% $4,123,717,000 $1,100
Colorado 2,429,000 394,000 94,000 488,000 20.1% $1,010,738,000 $2,100
Connecticut 1,632,000 271,000 59,000 330,000 20.2% $363,609,000 $1,100
Delaware 403,000 80,000 20,000 100,000 24.8% $211,521,000 $2,100
District of Columbia 340,000 n/a n/a n/a
Florida 8,406,000 1,902,000 353,000 2,255,000 26.8% $5,734,670,000 $2,500
Georgia 4,104,000 1,043,000 168,000 1,210,000 29.5% $3,659,438,000 $3,000
Hawaii 596,000 124,000 21,000 145,000 24.3% $177,188,000 $1,200
Idaho 671,000 177,000 30,000 207,000 30.8% $577,820,000 $2,800
Illinois 5,740,000 1,231,000 223,000 1,454,000 25.3% $3,504,000,000 $2,400
Indiana 2,927,000 733,000 123,000 855,000 29.2% $2,400,665,000 $2,800
Iowa 1,525,000 336,000 77,000 412,000 27.0% $1,050,892,000 $2,500
Kansas 1,344,000 305,000 68,000 373,000 27.8% $999,302,000 $2,700
Kentucky 1,794,000 436,000 99,000 535,000 29.8% $1,528,313,000 $2,900
Louisiana 1,916,000 468,000 93,000 561,000 29.3% $1,650,552,000 $2,900
Maine 591,000 130,000 25,000 155,000 26.2% $367,929,000 $2,400
Maryland 2,733,000 462,000 92,000 554,000 20.3% $659,495,000 $1,200
Massachusetts 3,172,000 68,000 459,000 527,000 16.6% $122,439,000 $200
Michigan 4,210,000 931,000 189,000 1,120,000 26.6% $2,212,337,000 $2,000
Minnesota 2,659,000 440,000 113,000 553,000 20.8% $737,488,000 $1,300
Mississippi 1,075,000 287,000 53,000 340,000 31.6% $1,108,815,000 $3,300
Missouri 2,676,000 605,000 108,000 713,000 26.6% $1,917,625,000 $2,700
Montana 433,000 107,000 24,000 131,000 30.3% $280,153,000 $2,100
Nebraska 917,000 186,000 52,000 238,000 26.0% $357,534,000 $1,500
Nevada 1,228,000 298,000 64,000 362,000 29.5% $983,415,000 $2,700
New Hampshire 655,000 115,000 26,000 141,000 21.5% $327,545,000 $2,300
New Jersey 4,033,000 690,000 137,000 827,000 20.5% $1,744,157,000 $2,100
New Mexico 797,000 198,000 36,000 234,000 29.4% $666,459,000 $2,900
New York 8,422,000 1,547,000 328,000 1,875,000 22.3% $3,563,101,000 $1,900
North Carolina 4,114,000 1,141,000 194,000 1,335,000 32.5% $3,993,754,000 $3,000
North Dakota 368,000 63,000 18,000 81,000 22.0% $196,271,000 $2,400
Ohio 5,188,000 1,095,000 249,000 1,343,000 25.9% $2,980,908,000 $2,200
Oklahoma 1,533,000 339,000 75,000 414,000 27.0% $1,202,714,000 $2,900
Oregon 1,624,000 273,000 83,000 357,000 22.0% $516,006,000 $1,400
Pennsylvania 5,769,000 1,162,000 240,000 1,402,000 24.3% $3,496,215,000 $2,500
Rhode Island 474,000 92,000 16,000 108,000 22.8% $208,215,000 $1,900
South Carolina 1,971,000 506,000 89,000 595,000 30.2% $1,737,731,000 $2,900
South Dakota 380,000 81,000 20,000 102,000 26.8% $163,666,000 $1,600
Tennessee 2,624,000 689,000 122,000 812,000 30.9% $2,389,551,000 $2,900
Texas 11,724,000 2,919,000 526,000 3,445,000 29.4% $10,239,937,000 $3,000
Utah 1,292,000 275,000 69,000 344,000 26.6% $834,767,000 $2,400
Vermont 299,000 43,000 12,000 55,000 18.4% $51,511,000 $900
Virginia 3,833,000 725,000 150,000 875,000 22.8% $2,351,019,000 $2,700
Washington 3,045,000 417,000 136,000 554,000 18.2% $654,366,000 $1,200
West Virginia 719,000 190,000 30,000 220,000 30.6% $436,777,000 $2,000
Wisconsin 2,748,000 548,000 106,000 654,000 23.8% $1,622,497,000 $2,500
Wyoming 267,000 49,000 11,000 60,000 22.5% $147,377,000 $2,400

Note: Total estimated workers is estimated from the CPS respondents who were 16 years old or older, employed, but not self-employed, and for whom either a valid hourly wage is reported or one can be imputed from weekly earnings and average weekly hours.  Consequently, this estimate represents the identifiable wage-earning workforce and tends to understate the size of the full workforce. Directly affected workers will see their wages rise because the new minimum wage rate will exceed their current hourly pay. Indirectly affected workers  have a wage rate just above the new minimum wage (modeled as workers with wages between the new minimum wage and the new minimum wage plus the dollar amount of the increase in the previous year's minimum wage).  They will receive a raise as employer pay scales are adjusted upward to reflect the new minimum wage.

Source: EPI analysis of Raise the Wage Act using Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata, 2014

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