Table 2

Government costs and benefits of investment in high-quality pre-kindergarten

Program Additional annual taxpayer costs when fully phased in (billions of 2006 dollars) Number of years before government annual budget benefits exceed annual program costs Government budget surplus in 2050 (billions of 2006 dollars) Ratio of government budget benefits to program costs in 2050
Targeted* $8.2 9 $57 3
Universal 33.3 17 96 2

* Targeted to lower-income families

Source: Reproduced from Lynch (2007, Table 2)

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