### What does the Raise the Wage Act of 2023 do?

The federal minimum hourly wage is just \$7.25 and has not increased in 14 years, the longest period of congressional inaction in the history of the minimum wage. As a result, the real, cost-of-living-adjusted value of the minimum wage has fallen by 30%.

The Raise the Wage Act of 2023, introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate on July 25, 2023, would raise the federal minimum wage to \$17 an hour by 2028. The bill would also gradually raise and then eliminate subminimum wages for tipped workers, workers with disabilities, and youth workers, so that all workers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) would be at the same wage level.

### What would its impact be?

EPI’s analysis shows that a \$17 minimum wage in 2028 would raise the wages of 27,858,000 workers across the country, or about 19% of the workforce. The increases would provide an additional \$86 billion annually in wages for the country’s lowest-paid workers, with the average affected worker who works year-round receiving an extra \$3,100 per year.

### How many workers would benefit in each congressional district?

Table 1 shows the number and shares of workers in each congressional district who would receive wage increases if the Raise the Wage Act of 2023 were enacted into law.

Table 1

#### Summary of effects in 2028 of increasing the minimum wage to \$17 by 2028, by congressional district

Congressional district Total employed Total affected Share affected  Total annual wage change (2023\$, millions)   Average annual wage increase of affected workers (2023\$)
United States 146,831,000 27,858,000 19.0% \$86,352 \$3,100
Alabama – 1 282,000 79,000 28.0% \$355 \$4,510
Alabama – 2 268,000 80,000 29.8% \$350 \$4,376
Alabama – 3 263,000 78,000 29.6% \$330 \$4,238
Alabama – 4 273,000 77,000 28.1% \$315 \$4,113
Alabama – 5 306,000 77,000 25.1% \$313 \$4,067
Alabama – 6 307,000 68,000 22.2% \$283 \$4,155
Alabama – 7 265,000 82,000 31.1% \$367 \$4,460
Alaska 330,000 53,000 16.1% \$100 \$1,876
Arizona – 1 372,000 59,000 16.0% \$58 \$981
Arizona – 2 284,000 49,000 17.5% \$48 \$971
Arizona – 3 356,000 101,000 28.4% \$98 \$965
Arizona – 4 385,000 81,000 21.1% \$76 \$939
Arizona – 5 352,000 53,000 15.1% \$47 \$894
Arizona – 6 307,000 64,000 20.8% \$60 \$943
Arizona – 7 318,000 87,000 27.5% \$83 \$950
Arizona – 8 329,000 62,000 18.8% \$59 \$948
Arizona – 9 318,000 73,000 22.8% \$76 \$1,044
Arkansas – 1 276,000 81,000 29.4% \$283 \$3,485
Arkansas – 2 322,000 81,000 25.1% \$317 \$3,918
Arkansas – 3 337,000 89,000 26.5% \$316 \$3,537
Arkansas – 4 278,000 85,000 30.7% \$299 \$3,502
California – 1 302,000 * * * *
California – 2 345,000 * * * *
California – 3 331,000 * * * *
California – 4 351,000 * * * *
California – 5 333,000 * * * *
California – 6 350,000 * * * *
California – 7 353,000 * * * *
California – 8 357,000 * * * *
California – 9 331,000 * * * *
California – 10 364,000 * * * *
California – 11 393,000 * * * *
California – 12 381,000 * * * *
California – 13 301,000 * * * *
California – 14 387,000 * * * *
California – 15 388,000 * * * *
California – 16 369,000 * * * *
California – 17 400,000 * * * *
California – 18 354,000 * * * *
California – 19 368,000 * * * *
California – 20 327,000 * * * *
California – 21 311,000 * * * *
California – 22 300,000 * * * *
California – 23 285,000 * * * *
California – 24 348,000 * * * *
California – 25 300,000 * * * *
California – 26 361,000 * * * *
California – 27 328,000 * * * *
California – 28 350,000 * * * *
California – 29 369,000 * * * *
California – 30 384,000 * * * *
California – 31 370,000 * * * *
California – 32 376,000 * * * *
California – 33 350,000 * * * *
California – 34 379,000 * * * *
California – 35 381,000 * * * *
California – 36 361,000 * * * *
California – 37 366,000 * * * *
California – 38 367,000 * * * *
California – 39 366,000 * * * *
California – 40 372,000 * * * *
California – 41 343,000 * * * *
California – 42 374,000 * * * *
California – 43 356,000 * * * *
California – 44 364,000 * * * *
California – 45 358,000 * * * *
California – 46 382,000 * * * *
California – 47 378,000 * * * *
California – 48 322,000 * * * *
California – 49 350,000 * * * *
California – 50 370,000 * * * *
California – 51 368,000 * * * *
California – 52 355,000 * * * *
Colorado – 1 376,000 51,000 13.7% \$58 \$1,124
Colorado – 2 346,000 54,000 15.6% \$56 \$1,035
Colorado – 3 300,000 54,000 17.9% \$55 \$1,016
Colorado – 4 343,000 44,000 12.7% \$44 \$1,000
Colorado – 5 299,000 46,000 15.4% \$45 \$974
Colorado – 6 345,000 48,000 13.9% \$49 \$1,017
Colorado – 7 332,000 41,000 12.4% \$41 \$1,001
Colorado – 8 339,000 54,000 15.9% \$52 \$970
Connecticut – 1 340,000 8,000 2.3% * *
Connecticut – 2 337,000 14,000 4.1% * *
Connecticut – 3 348,000 9,000 2.5% * *
Connecticut – 4 348,000 10,000 2.9% * *
Connecticut – 5 334,000 9,000 2.7% * *
Delaware 427,000 104,000 24.4% \$251 \$2,412
Florida – 1 293,000 75,000 25.6% \$99 \$1,327
Florida – 2 307,000 82,000 26.7% \$100 \$1,218
Florida – 3 279,000 77,000 27.5% \$92 \$1,202
Florida – 4 312,000 79,000 25.2% \$95 \$1,212
Florida – 5 340,000 66,000 19.4% \$83 \$1,264
Florida – 6 277,000 76,000 27.4% \$91 \$1,192
Florida – 7 329,000 69,000 21.1% \$84 \$1,205
Florida – 8 295,000 70,000 23.7% \$84 \$1,197
Florida – 9 350,000 108,000 30.8% \$131 \$1,218
Florida – 10 342,000 101,000 29.4% \$123 \$1,219
Florida – 11 286,000 76,000 26.5% \$92 \$1,209
Florida – 12 273,000 66,000 24.3% \$76 \$1,143
Florida – 13 310,000 70,000 22.6% \$87 \$1,246
Florida – 14 356,000 82,000 22.9% \$101 \$1,236
Florida – 15 337,000 83,000 24.6% \$100 \$1,208
Florida – 16 315,000 75,000 23.9% \$93 \$1,240
Florida – 17 285,000 77,000 27.0% \$94 \$1,224
Florida – 18 283,000 92,000 32.5% \$111 \$1,212
Florida – 19 293,000 77,000 26.3% \$98 \$1,267
Florida – 20 322,000 92,000 28.6% \$116 \$1,258
Florida – 21 309,000 82,000 26.5% \$101 \$1,231
Florida – 22 317,000 89,000 28.1% \$112 \$1,257
Florida – 23 345,000 80,000 23.2% \$100 \$1,247
Florida – 24 329,000 104,000 31.5% \$133 \$1,285
Florida – 25 362,000 77,000 21.2% \$96 \$1,254
Florida – 26 354,000 111,000 31.2% \$138 \$1,247
Florida – 27 369,000 94,000 25.4% \$115 \$1,228
Florida – 28 355,000 95,000 26.7% \$117 \$1,238
Georgia – 1 297,000 92,000 31.1% \$403 \$4,370
Georgia – 2 276,000 88,000 32.0% \$372 \$4,204
Georgia – 3 312,000 83,000 26.6% \$346 \$4,157
Georgia – 4 351,000 90,000 25.7% \$373 \$4,138
Georgia – 5 364,000 83,000 22.8% \$385 \$4,643
Georgia – 6 370,000 64,000 17.3% \$296 \$4,641
Georgia – 7 344,000 83,000 24.2% \$399 \$4,788
Georgia – 8 275,000 89,000 32.6% \$372 \$4,156
Georgia – 9 329,000 88,000 26.9% \$366 \$4,149
Georgia – 10 326,000 90,000 27.7% \$371 \$4,106
Georgia – 11 361,000 84,000 23.2% \$372 \$4,433
Georgia – 12 289,000 91,000 31.5% \$361 \$3,965
Georgia – 13 341,000 90,000 26.4% \$402 \$4,457
Georgia – 14 318,000 85,000 26.6% \$313 \$3,699
Hawaii – 1 354,000 * * * *
Hawaii – 2 330,000 * * * *
Idaho – 1 361,000 89,000 24.5% \$316 \$3,568
Idaho – 2 360,000 99,000 27.5% \$345 \$3,475
Illinois – 1 316,000 65,000 20.7% \$84 \$1,284
Illinois – 2 311,000 71,000 22.9% \$98 \$1,380
Illinois – 3 370,000 78,000 21.0% \$118 \$1,518
Illinois – 4 341,000 83,000 24.2% \$116 \$1,404
Illinois – 5 423,000 56,000 13.3% \$98 \$1,743
Illinois – 6 358,000 57,000 15.9% \$81 \$1,426
Illinois – 7 357,000 77,000 21.5% \$108 \$1,411
Illinois – 8 381,000 71,000 18.6% \$97 \$1,369
Illinois – 9 366,000 57,000 15.5% \$98 \$1,732
Illinois – 10 355,000 67,000 18.8% \$96 \$1,444
Illinois – 11 376,000 65,000 17.2% \$89 \$1,380
Illinois – 12 312,000 67,000 21.5% \$90 \$1,342
Illinois – 13 313,000 67,000 21.4% \$99 \$1,480
Illinois – 14 368,000 84,000 22.9% \$115 \$1,361
Illinois – 15 321,000 67,000 20.7% \$89 \$1,333
Illinois – 16 336,000 69,000 20.6% \$93 \$1,342
Illinois – 17 313,000 71,000 22.6% \$99 \$1,400
Indiana – 1 317,000 80,000 25.4% \$285 \$3,536
Indiana – 2 319,000 80,000 25.3% \$257 \$3,194
Indiana – 3 329,000 79,000 23.9% \$272 \$3,450
Indiana – 4 339,000 80,000 23.5% \$263 \$3,296
Indiana – 5 336,000 73,000 21.9% \$278 \$3,784
Indiana – 6 336,000 75,000 22.2% \$253 \$3,396
Indiana – 7 350,000 93,000 26.6% \$343 \$3,679
Indiana – 8 322,000 81,000 25.3% \$281 \$3,453
Indiana – 9 327,000 79,000 24.1% \$297 \$3,755
Iowa – 1 366,000 98,000 26.9% \$311 \$3,163
Iowa – 2 365,000 99,000 27.3% \$333 \$3,347
Iowa – 3 383,000 89,000 23.3% \$315 \$3,530
Iowa – 4 365,000 100,000 27.5% \$303 \$3,019
Kansas – 1 341,000 98,000 28.8% \$354 \$3,605
Kansas – 2 310,000 84,000 27.0% \$279 \$3,327
Kansas – 3 370,000 64,000 17.3% \$250 \$3,916
Kansas – 4 321,000 81,000 25.3% \$301 \$3,702
Kentucky – 1 282,000 81,000 28.6% \$327 \$4,044
Kentucky – 2 308,000 84,000 27.1% \$341 \$4,077
Kentucky – 3 342,000 84,000 24.5% \$379 \$4,523
Kentucky – 4 331,000 75,000 22.7% \$298 \$3,959
Kentucky – 5 228,000 67,000 29.5% \$267 \$3,975
Kentucky – 6 334,000 93,000 27.7% \$397 \$4,285
Louisiana – 1 343,000 97,000 28.3% \$500 \$5,155
Louisiana – 2 309,000 101,000 32.7% \$554 \$5,480
Louisiana – 3 328,000 105,000 32.2% \$554 \$5,253
Louisiana – 4 279,000 101,000 36.1% \$508 \$5,042
Louisiana – 5 286,000 101,000 35.5% \$504 \$4,966
Louisiana – 6 355,000 105,000 29.5% \$540 \$5,145
Maine – 1 315,000 50,000 15.8% \$70 \$1,411
Maine – 2 285,000 56,000 19.8% \$66 \$1,173
Maryland – 1 352,000 63,000 17.8% \$163 \$2,603
Maryland – 2 371,000 58,000 15.5% \$143 \$2,485
Maryland – 3 372,000 46,000 12.3% \$129 \$2,805
Maryland – 4 370,000 52,000 13.9% \$122 \$2,374
Maryland – 5 378,000 44,000 11.6% \$128 \$2,914
Maryland – 6 365,000 44,000 12.1% \$127 \$2,873
Maryland – 7 335,000 65,000 19.5% \$140 \$2,149
Maryland – 8 387,000 16,000 4.2% \$102 \$6,214
Massachusetts – 1 336,000 55,000 16.4% \$90 \$1,631
Massachusetts – 2 373,000 53,000 14.3% \$92 \$1,730
Massachusetts – 3 369,000 60,000 16.3% \$108 \$1,799
Massachusetts – 4 371,000 40,000 10.7% \$67 \$1,690
Massachusetts – 5 395,000 44,000 11.1% \$84 \$1,914
Massachusetts – 6 386,000 49,000 12.6% \$99 \$2,027
Massachusetts – 7 399,000 61,000 15.2% \$116 \$1,900
Massachusetts – 8 402,000 55,000 13.6% \$114 \$2,095
Massachusetts – 9 366,000 54,000 14.8% \$104 \$1,927
Michigan – 1 305,000 74,000 24.1% \$236 \$3,212
Michigan – 2 308,000 74,000 24.1% \$233 \$3,134
Michigan – 3 364,000 83,000 22.8% \$265 \$3,188
Michigan – 4 344,000 77,000 22.4% \$253 \$3,276
Michigan – 5 321,000 67,000 20.9% \$208 \$3,105
Michigan – 6 363,000 65,000 17.9% \$221 \$3,412
Michigan – 7 348,000 71,000 20.5% \$235 \$3,304
Michigan – 8 307,000 75,000 24.5% \$251 \$3,336
Michigan – 9 338,000 65,000 19.1% \$217 \$3,362
Michigan – 10 351,000 69,000 19.8% \$236 \$3,405
Michigan – 11 377,000 63,000 16.8% \$237 \$3,745
Michigan – 12 298,000 73,000 24.4% \$237 \$3,257
Michigan – 13 286,000 79,000 27.8% \$271 \$3,406
Minnesota – 1 338,000 60,000 17.6% \$111 \$1,867
Minnesota – 2 360,000 45,000 12.5% \$71 \$1,565
Minnesota – 3 346,000 31,000 9.1% \$25 \$782
Minnesota – 4 337,000 49,000 14.6% \$55 \$1,113
Minnesota – 5 365,000 51,000 13.9% \$38 \$752
Minnesota – 6 350,000 46,000 13.2% \$72 \$1,552
Minnesota – 7 316,000 53,000 16.8% \$102 \$1,910
Minnesota – 8 303,000 52,000 17.3% \$94 \$1,808
Mississippi – 1 311,000 106,000 34.0% \$485 \$4,595
Mississippi – 2 256,000 100,000 39.1% \$478 \$4,783
Mississippi – 3 303,000 104,000 34.5% \$485 \$4,650
Mississippi – 4 293,000 104,000 35.7% \$550 \$5,261
Missouri – 1 348,000 89,000 25.5% \$219 \$2,467
Missouri – 2 353,000 57,000 16.3% \$137 \$2,397
Missouri – 3 356,000 78,000 21.8% \$186 \$2,391
Missouri – 4 316,000 81,000 25.6% \$195 \$2,408
Missouri – 5 360,000 86,000 23.9% \$224 \$2,605
Missouri – 6 324,000 76,000 23.4% \$173 \$2,280
Missouri – 7 331,000 95,000 28.6% \$230 \$2,421
Missouri – 8 306,000 84,000 27.6% \$188 \$2,233
Montana – 1 232,000 60,000 25.7% \$150 \$2,505
Montana – 2 220,000 53,000 24.2% \$134 \$2,525
Nebraska – 1 319,000 67,000 20.9% \$142 \$2,118
Nebraska – 2 312,000 61,000 19.6% \$156 \$2,540
Nebraska – 3 291,000 65,000 22.5% \$131 \$2,001
Nevada – 1 327,000 99,000 30.3% \$224 \$2,264
Nevada – 2 357,000 83,000 23.2% \$182 \$2,202
Nevada – 3 373,000 104,000 28.0% \$242 \$2,322
Nevada – 4 321,000 94,000 29.3% \$218 \$2,322
New Hampshire – 1 344,000 66,000 19.1% \$226 \$3,434
New Hampshire – 2 324,000 59,000 18.1% \$183 \$3,127
New Jersey – 1 343,000 63,000 18.3% \$135 \$2,149
New Jersey – 2 325,000 74,000 22.7% \$173 \$2,334
New Jersey – 3 354,000 52,000 14.6% \$103 \$1,995
New Jersey – 4 315,000 54,000 17.3% \$105 \$1,926
New Jersey – 5 367,000 46,000 12.7% \$85 \$1,833
New Jersey – 6 369,000 62,000 16.9% \$119 \$1,912
New Jersey – 7 368,000 51,000 13.9% \$104 \$2,027
New Jersey – 8 381,000 90,000 23.6% \$150 \$1,660
New Jersey – 9 360,000 76,000 21.2% \$127 \$1,665
New Jersey – 10 330,000 71,000 21.6% \$113 \$1,586
New Jersey – 11 357,000 49,000 13.7% \$87 \$1,773
New Jersey – 12 363,000 56,000 15.6% \$92 \$1,637
New Mexico – 1 331,000 81,000 24.6% \$267 \$3,279
New Mexico – 2 285,000 90,000 31.7% \$277 \$3,067
New Mexico – 3 274,000 75,000 27.3% \$210 \$2,803
New York – 1 375,000 50,000 13.2% \$55 \$1,109
New York – 2 399,000 69,000 17.4% \$76 \$1,090
New York – 3 368,000 49,000 13.3% \$59 \$1,203
New York – 4 383,000 58,000 15.2% \$65 \$1,109
New York – 5 353,000 67,000 19.1% \$73 \$1,086
New York – 6 345,000 70,000 20.4% \$120 \$1,700
New York – 7 374,000 67,000 18.0% \$93 \$1,383
New York – 8 314,000 63,000 20.0% \$69 \$1,092
New York – 9 338,000 64,000 19.1% \$70 \$1,093
New York – 10 358,000 54,000 15.2% \$79 \$1,450
New York – 11 326,000 52,000 15.9% \$65 \$1,245
New York – 12 379,000 19,000 5.1% \$27 \$1,409
New York – 13 341,000 87,000 25.6% \$109 \$1,245
New York – 14 314,000 80,000 25.5% \$116 \$1,447
New York – 15 298,000 95,000 32.0% \$108 \$1,130
New York – 16 367,000 60,000 16.2% \$77 \$1,289
New York – 17 346,000 52,000 14.9% \$58 \$1,130
New York – 18 355,000 60,000 16.9% \$76 \$1,270
New York – 19 341,000 64,000 18.7% \$65 \$1,011
New York – 20 362,000 56,000 15.4% \$59 \$1,053
New York – 21 323,000 57,000 17.8% \$61 \$1,055
New York – 22 332,000 58,000 17.4% \$64 \$1,113
New York – 23 326,000 56,000 17.1% \$59 \$1,052
New York – 24 332,000 60,000 18.1% \$58 \$968
New York – 25 362,000 62,000 17.2% \$64 \$1,022
New York – 26 342,000 64,000 18.7% \$66 \$1,039
North Carolina – 1 292,000 103,000 35.1% \$419 \$4,082
North Carolina – 2 370,000 74,000 20.0% \$328 \$4,427
North Carolina – 3 274,000 100,000 36.5% \$429 \$4,284
North Carolina – 4 334,000 94,000 28.1% \$396 \$4,226
North Carolina – 5 297,000 92,000 31.0% \$369 \$4,003
North Carolina – 6 328,000 99,000 30.1% \$437 \$4,433
North Carolina – 7 301,000 97,000 32.1% \$417 \$4,311
North Carolina – 8 310,000 86,000 27.8% \$354 \$4,106
North Carolina – 9 274,000 90,000 32.9% \$378 \$4,198
North Carolina – 10 311,000 91,000 29.3% \$352 \$3,854
North Carolina – 11 297,000 90,000 30.1% \$401 \$4,479
North Carolina – 12 355,000 98,000 27.5% \$421 \$4,312
North Carolina – 13 337,000 85,000 25.2% \$372 \$4,371
North Carolina – 14 380,000 91,000 24.0% \$393 \$4,312
North Dakota 367,000 66,000 18.0% \$224 \$3,404
Ohio – 1 361,000 79,000 21.9% \$256 \$3,226
Ohio – 2 305,000 73,000 24.0% \$211 \$2,896
Ohio – 3 389,000 95,000 24.5% \$282 \$2,962
Ohio – 4 344,000 80,000 23.3% \$222 \$2,774
Ohio – 5 348,000 88,000 25.4% \$249 \$2,820
Ohio – 6 319,000 88,000 27.4% \$258 \$2,949
Ohio – 7 363,000 75,000 20.5% \$218 \$2,925
Ohio – 8 351,000 80,000 22.8% \$243 \$3,030
Ohio – 9 340,000 87,000 25.6% \$271 \$3,113
Ohio – 10 342,000 89,000 26.1% \$270 \$3,030
Ohio – 11 339,000 98,000 29.0% \$314 \$3,197
Ohio – 12 337,000 86,000 25.4% \$244 \$2,840
Ohio – 13 348,000 90,000 25.8% \$277 \$3,082
Ohio – 14 343,000 83,000 24.2% \$251 \$3,022
Ohio – 15 362,000 80,000 22.1% \$240 \$2,998
Oklahoma – 1 352,000 104,000 29.6% \$443 \$4,251
Oklahoma – 2 301,000 106,000 35.1% \$430 \$4,070
Oklahoma – 3 320,000 114,000 35.5% \$488 \$4,290
Oklahoma – 4 329,000 104,000 31.7% \$440 \$4,212
Oklahoma – 5 363,000 108,000 29.7% \$478 \$4,428
Oregon – 1 329,000 7,000 2.1% * *
Oregon – 2 263,000 40,000 15.3% \$26 \$650
Oregon – 3 338,000 3,000 0.9% * *
Oregon – 4 280,000 41,000 14.7% \$25 \$600
Oregon – 5 308,000 19,000 6.3% \$12 \$605
Oregon – 6 310,000 30,000 9.7% \$19 \$629
Pennsylvania – 1 367,000 60,000 16.5% \$249 \$4,123
Pennsylvania – 2 315,000 85,000 27.1% \$386 \$4,530
Pennsylvania – 3 348,000 88,000 25.3% \$368 \$4,168
Pennsylvania – 4 367,000 58,000 15.8% \$245 \$4,221
Pennsylvania – 5 347,000 66,000 19.1% \$276 \$4,164
Pennsylvania – 6 367,000 72,000 19.7% \$312 \$4,326
Pennsylvania – 7 352,000 77,000 22.0% \$306 \$3,957
Pennsylvania – 8 322,000 75,000 23.4% \$279 \$3,712
Pennsylvania – 9 317,000 70,000 21.9% \$250 \$3,597
Pennsylvania – 10 348,000 75,000 21.5% \$295 \$3,943
Pennsylvania – 11 363,000 82,000 22.5% \$297 \$3,645
Pennsylvania – 12 348,000 72,000 20.7% \$295 \$4,104
Pennsylvania – 13 316,000 73,000 23.1% \$268 \$3,689
Pennsylvania – 14 316,000 70,000 22.1% \$266 \$3,823
Pennsylvania – 15 305,000 75,000 24.4% \$264 \$3,547
Pennsylvania – 16 314,000 73,000 23.3% \$284 \$3,880
Pennsylvania – 17 354,000 62,000 17.5% \$249 \$4,038
Rhode Island – 1 247,000 43,000 17.5% \$95 \$2,200
Rhode Island – 2 255,000 41,000 16.0% \$95 \$2,317
South Carolina – 1 310,000 77,000 24.9% \$356 \$4,606
South Carolina – 2 317,000 82,000 25.8% \$345 \$4,225
South Carolina – 3 290,000 79,000 27.4% \$316 \$3,983
South Carolina – 4 332,000 87,000 26.1% \$373 \$4,303
South Carolina – 5 302,000 81,000 26.9% \$332 \$4,086
South Carolina – 6 300,000 87,000 29.1% \$378 \$4,321
South Carolina – 7 274,000 90,000 33.0% \$417 \$4,609
South Dakota 401,000 96,000 23.8% \$250 \$2,619
Tennessee – 1 290,000 90,000 31.0% \$385 \$4,282
Tennessee – 2 333,000 88,000 26.3% \$384 \$4,384
Tennessee – 3 315,000 85,000 27.0% \$361 \$4,233
Tennessee – 4 331,000 91,000 27.6% \$389 \$4,267
Tennessee – 5 357,000 79,000 22.1% \$347 \$4,397
Tennessee – 6 332,000 89,000 26.7% \$371 \$4,174
Tennessee – 7 333,000 84,000 25.3% \$367 \$4,354
Tennessee – 8 303,000 80,000 26.6% \$329 \$4,083
Tennessee – 9 321,000 99,000 30.9% \$422 \$4,254
Texas – 1 302,000 88,000 29.0% \$371 \$4,240
Texas – 2 331,000 67,000 20.3% \$325 \$4,840
Texas – 3 361,000 62,000 17.2% \$290 \$4,672
Texas – 4 359,000 73,000 20.4% \$327 \$4,476
Texas – 5 338,000 90,000 26.7% \$406 \$4,497
Texas – 6 336,000 91,000 27.0% \$399 \$4,388
Texas – 7 401,000 101,000 25.2% \$496 \$4,897
Texas – 8 346,000 79,000 22.7% \$376 \$4,778
Texas – 9 340,000 100,000 29.5% \$459 \$4,574
Texas – 10 335,000 87,000 26.0% \$394 \$4,519
Texas – 11 321,000 89,000 27.9% \$416 \$4,651
Texas – 12 356,000 82,000 22.9% \$370 \$4,536
Texas – 13 340,000 101,000 29.8% \$463 \$4,577
Texas – 14 312,000 76,000 24.2% \$362 \$4,785
Texas – 15 310,000 114,000 36.9% \$545 \$4,770
Texas – 16 330,000 116,000 35.2% \$511 \$4,398
Texas – 17 323,000 92,000 28.4% \$395 \$4,304
Texas – 18 336,000 102,000 30.4% \$470 \$4,593
Texas – 19 331,000 106,000 32.1% \$485 \$4,572
Texas – 20 363,000 121,000 33.2% \$583 \$4,831
Texas – 21 356,000 90,000 25.3% \$440 \$4,889
Texas – 22 353,000 71,000 20.0% \$314 \$4,448
Texas – 23 329,000 97,000 29.5% \$441 \$4,532
Texas – 24 361,000 73,000 20.3% \$344 \$4,694
Texas – 25 347,000 86,000 24.8% \$389 \$4,522
Texas – 26 395,000 78,000 19.7% \$371 \$4,773
Texas – 27 331,000 96,000 29.1% \$439 \$4,567
Texas – 28 320,000 113,000 35.2% \$499 \$4,426
Texas – 29 318,000 113,000 35.5% \$498 \$4,411
Texas – 30 358,000 102,000 28.4% \$449 \$4,405
Texas – 31 340,000 77,000 22.7% \$349 \$4,515
Texas – 32 375,000 98,000 26.1% \$449 \$4,582
Texas – 33 363,000 113,000 31.0% \$486 \$4,316
Texas – 34 296,000 126,000 42.6% \$564 \$4,474
Texas – 35 372,000 114,000 30.5% \$556 \$4,901
Texas – 36 310,000 81,000 26.2% \$397 \$4,883
Texas – 37 426,000 78,000 18.4% \$378 \$4,830
Texas – 38 364,000 78,000 21.4% \$381 \$4,893
Utah – 1 354,000 75,000 21.1% \$235 \$3,139
Utah – 2 346,000 79,000 22.9% \$246 \$3,098
Utah – 3 341,000 85,000 24.8% \$254 \$3,006
Utah – 4 343,000 71,000 20.6% \$205 \$2,902
Vermont 292,000 46,000 15.7% \$74 \$1,606
Virginia – 1 356,000 67,000 18.7% \$173 \$2,593
Virginia – 2 348,000 71,000 20.5% \$207 \$2,914
Virginia – 3 331,000 85,000 25.8% \$219 \$2,569
Virginia – 4 350,000 84,000 24.1% \$208 \$2,466
Virginia – 5 332,000 79,000 23.6% \$183 \$2,329
Virginia – 6 344,000 82,000 24.0% \$220 \$2,669
Virginia – 7 374,000 73,000 19.5% \$196 \$2,698
Virginia – 8 407,000 51,000 12.5% \$162 \$3,204
Virginia – 9 291,000 68,000 23.5% \$154 \$2,253
Virginia – 10 399,000 62,000 15.6% \$176 \$2,823
Virginia – 11 394,000 54,000 13.7% \$162 \$3,012
Washington – 1 357,000 * * * *
Washington – 2 328,000 * * * *
Washington – 3 316,000 * * * *
Washington – 4 316,000 * * * *
Washington – 5 312,000 * * * *
Washington – 6 303,000 * * * *
Washington – 7 422,000 * * * *
Washington – 8 344,000 * * * *
Washington – 9 350,000 * * * *
Washington – 10 319,000 * * * *
West Virginia – 1 309,000 84,000 27.2% \$317 \$3,774
West Virginia – 2 375,000 98,000 26.0% \$363 \$3,715
Wisconsin – 1 338,000 80,000 23.7% \$270 \$3,374
Wisconsin – 2 374,000 70,000 18.7% \$240 \$3,422
Wisconsin – 3 335,000 75,000 22.5% \$268 \$3,548
Wisconsin – 4 328,000 91,000 27.9% \$348 \$3,808
Wisconsin – 5 362,000 62,000 17.1% \$221 \$3,565
Wisconsin – 6 344,000 70,000 20.3% \$234 \$3,357
Wisconsin – 7 330,000 73,000 22.0% \$233 \$3,208
Wisconsin – 8 344,000 73,000 21.1% \$250 \$3,438
Wyoming 260,000 65,000 24.9% \$278 \$4,288

Notes: Affected workers are workers who would receive wage increases because they are directly affected (otherwise earning less than \$15 per hour in 2025) or indirectly affected (earning just slightly above \$17 in 2028). Asterisks ( * ) denote districts either where sufficient data are not available or where few, if any, workers are likely to be affected by a change in the federal minimum wage because the prevailing state or local minimum wage will already be \$17 or higher by 2028. For data on the at-large congressional district for the District of Columbia, see Table 2 in The Impact of the Raise the Wage Act of 2023, which provides data on impacts in every state and D.C. The values reflect the result of the proposed change in the federal minimum wage and wage changes resulting from scheduled state and local minimum wage laws are accounted for in the simulation. Totals may not sum due to rounding. See the methodology at https://www.epi.org/publication/minimum-wage-simulation-model-technical-methodology/ for details.

Source: Economic Policy Institute Minimum Wage Simulation Model using data from the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and Congressional Budget Office. For national and state-level estimates, see Ben Zipperer, The Impact of the Raise the Wage Act of 2023, July 25, 2023.

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### Why are workers in some states less likely to be affected?

In summer 2023, 19 states and localities implemented minimum wage increases based on state, local, or municipal laws that already set the minimum wage higher than the federal standard. In total, 30 states and the District of Columbia have a minimum wage above the federal minimum, and many more localities have minimum wages above their state minimum wage. Workers in most of these states will still benefit from a \$17 federal minimum wage, but the effect is muted because low-wage workers in those states have already seen wage increases above the federal minimum.

California, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, and Washington all have state- or municipality-level minimum wage laws that will set minimum wages close to, or above, the Raise the Wage Act’s proposal of \$17 by 2028. Because of this, only a small number of workers in those states would be directly affected by the federal policy as state/local laws will have already raised the wages of low-wage workers in those jurisdictions. Because of the smaller impacted population, more detailed impact estimates are unavailable for those states. (Cells for which data are unavailable are marked with * in Table 1.)

### Why is it critical that the Raise the Wage Act be passed?

As EPI’s state-by-state minimum wage tracker shows, raising the federal minimum wage is critical to protect workers (especially in the South) who have been left behind. A higher federal minimum wage can build on existing state-level standards and lock in the wage gains made by low-wage workers in the economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.

### Assumptions and documentation for EPI’s Minimum Wage Simulation Model

• The estimates are for the year 2028, when the policy’s regular minimum wage is \$17 and the tipped minimum wage is \$15.
• The underlying wage distribution is based on the 2022 Current Population Survey.
• The underlying geographic data is based on the 2015–2019 American Community Survey (ACS), reweighted to match 2019 ACS-based gender-specific employment counts of congressional districts for the 118th Congress.
• The simulation assumes nominal wage growth will be at a 5.0% annual rate between 2022 and 2023, and at an annual rate of 0.5% plus projected CPI growth in subsequent years.
• The simulation accounts for estimated effects of projected state and local minimum wages between 2023 and 2028.
• To read more about the EPI Minimum Wage Simulation Model, see the description in Cooper, Mokhiber, and Zipperer (2019).

See related work on Minimum Wage | Tipped minimum wage

See more work by Ben Zipperer