Low-income and African American children are more likely to have stressful childhoods: Share of kindergartners exposed to frightening or threatening childhood experiences, by family income and by race
|Number of frightening or threatening experiences:||0||1||2||≥ 3|
|By family income|
|% more/less likely||-28%||18%||15%||74%|
|% more/less likely||-31%||45%||29%||21%|
Notes: Data are based on a study sample of 1,007 children who were born between 1998 and 2000 and were age 5 at the time these data were collected (2003–2005).
Data are based on a study sample of 1,007 children who were born between 1998 and 2000 and were age 5 at the time these data were collected (2003–2005). Frightening or threatening experiences include physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, living with someone with substance abuse problems or mental illness, seeing their caregiver treated violently, or having a parent incarcerated.
Source: Manuel E. Jimenez et al., “Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes,” Pediatrics 137, no. 2 (2016), 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-1839, Supplemental Table 6
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