Cumulative gains in NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA mathematics scores, 2000–2011 (standard deviations)
Note: The data points for the LTT NAEP and TIMSS in 2008/2009 are constructed by linear interpolation.
Source: Authors' analysis of National Center for Education Statistics’ NAEP Data Explorer; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (Mullis et al. 2001, Mullis et al. 2004, Mullis et al. 2008, Mullis et al. 2012); and OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2001, 2004, 2007, 2010a)
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