Report | Race and Ethnicity

No relief in 2012 from high unemployment for African Americans and Latinos

Issue Brief #322

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Press release

Even though the U.S. recession officially ended in June 2009, the country’s unemployment rate remains devastatingly high. The situation is particularly dire for many African Americans and Latinos—and is not predicted to improve any time soon.

Among the states with sufficient data for reliable estimates, African American unemployment rates exceeded 10 percent in 24 states and the District of Columbia in the third quarter of 2011, while unemployment rates for Latinos exceeded this symbolic threshold in 14 states. If our political leaders fail to quickly enact bold measures to spur a faster economic recovery, the status quo of high unemployment rates for African Americans and Latinos is likely to persist throughout 2012.

From left, panelists Algernon Austin (EPI Director of the Program on Race, Ethnicity and the Economy), Valerie Rawlston Wilson (National Urban League Policy Institute Economist and Vice President of Research), Tanya Clay House (Lawyer’s Committee for Civil Rights Under Law Director of Public Policy), and Brandon Garrett (Congressional Black Caucus Policy Director) at the EPI event “Hit hard by the recession, left behind in the recovery: Achieving full employment for black workers” on Feb. 16.

This issue brief reviews the unemployment rates by state for whites, Latinos, and African Americans for the third quarter of 2011 and the projected rates for the fourth quarter of 2012. We find:

  • While the white unemployment rate remains high nationally, in each state and the District of Columbia, it is lower than the overall unemployment rate for each state. In the third quarter of 2011, the highest white unemployment rate was in Nevada (11.7 percent), and the lowest was in North Dakota (2.2 percent).
  • In the third quarter of 2011, the states with the highest Latino unemployment rates were in the Northeast: Rhode Island (19.6 percent), Connecticut (18.7 percent), and Pennsylvania (17.5 percent). The lowest rate was in Virginia (4.6 percent).
  • In each state, the black unemployment rate is higher than the overall rate. In the third quarter of 2011, it ranged from a low of 1.4 times the overall state rate in South Carolina to a high of 3.9 times the overall rate in Minnesota.
  • The highest unemployment rate for blacks—27.4 percent—was in Minnesota, where the overall unemployment rate was 7.1 percent. The lowest was in Maryland, which had a black unemployment rate of 11.2 percent, while the overall rate in the state was 7.3 percent.
  • The lowest black unemployment rate of 11.2 percent in Maryland is nearly equal to the highest white unemployment rate of 11.7 percent in Nevada.
  • In the fourth quarter of 2012, the unemployment rate for each race in nearly every state is projected to remain very similar to the level recorded in the third quarter of 2011.

White unemployment rates by state

Nationally, the unemployment rate for whites is lower than the rate for the country as a whole (Table 1). Similarly, the white unemployment rate for each state and the District of Columbia is lower than each state’s overall unemployment rate. (We will consider the District of Columbia a state in this issue brief.) In the third quarter of 2011, the highest white unemployment rates were in Nevada (11.7 percent) and California (10 percent), while the lowest rate was in North Dakota (2.2 percent). Nebraska, South Dakota, the District of Columbia, and North Dakota all had white unemployment rates below 4 percent.

The white unemployment rate for each state in the fourth quarter of 2012 is projected to be very similar to the rate for the third quarter of 2011. Only California is projected to have a change in white unemployment of more than one percentage point, dropping by 1.1 percentage points to 8.9 percent. This would give the state the fourth-highest white unemployment rate in the country, compared with the second-highest today.

Table 1

Unemployment rates for white and all workers, by state (third quarter, 2011, and projected fourth quarter, 2012)

Third quarter, 2011 Fourth quarter, 2012 (projected)
Rank State White All Rank State White All
1 Nevada 11.7% 13.2% 1 Nevada 11.8% 13.4%
2 California 10.0% 12.0% 2 Michigan 9.7% 11.2%
3 Michigan 9.6% 11.1% 3 Oregon 9.1% 9.7%
4 Rhode Island 9.1% 10.6% 4 California 8.9% 10.7%
5 Oregon 8.9% 9.6% 5 Rhode Island 8.7% 10.2%
5 South Carolina 8.9% 11.0% 5 South Carolina 8.7% 10.7%
7 Idaho 8.7% 9.2% 7 Arizona 8.0% 9.5%
8 Kentucky 8.6% 9.6% 7 Tennessee 8.0% 9.5%
9 Washington 8.5% 9.3% 7 Washington 8.0% 8.7%
10 Florida 8.4% 10.7% 10 Idaho 7.9% 8.3%
11 Illinois 8.2% 9.8% 10 Indiana 7.9% 9.0%
11 Tennessee 8.2% 9.8% 10 Illinois 7.9% 9.4%
13 Alabama 7.9% 9.9% 13 North Carolina 7.8% 10.3%
14 Georgia 7.8% 10.2% 13 Kentucky 7.8% 8.6%
14 North Carolina 7.8% 10.3% 15 Georgia 7.5% 9.8%
14 Arizona 7.8% 9.3% 15 Ohio 7.5% 8.8%
14 Ohio 7.8% 9.1% 17 Florida 7.4% 9.5%
18 Indiana 7.6% 8.7% 18 Massachusetts 7.3% 7.7%
18 New Jersey 7.6% 9.4% 19 New Jersey 7.2% 8.9%
20 Missouri 7.5% 8.7% 20 Alabama 7.1% 8.9%
21 Utah 7.3% 7.5% 21 Maine 7.0% 7.5%
22 Maine 7.2% 7.6% 21 Missouri 7.0% 8.2%
23 West Virginia 7.1% 8.1% 23 Pennsylvania 6.7% 8.0%
23 Colorado 7.1% 8.4% 23 Montana 6.7% 7.6%
25 Massachusetts 7.0% 7.4% 23 West Virginia 6.7% 7.7%
25 Connecticut 7.0% 9.0% 23 Delaware 6.7% 8.0%
27 Pennsylvania 6.9% 8.1% 23 Utah 6.7% 6.8%
28 Montana 6.8% 7.7% 28 Connecticut 6.5% 8.4%
28 Delaware 6.8% 8.1% 29 Alaska 6.4% 7.6%
30 Alaska 6.5% 7.6% 30 Colorado 6.3% 7.5%
31 Texas 6.3% 8.5% 30 Mississippi 6.3% 10.4%
31 Mississippi 6.3% 10.5% 32 New York 6.2% 8.2%
31 Wisconsin 6.3% 7.8% 33 Texas 6.1% 8.2%
34 Arkansas 6.2% 8.3% 34 Wyoming 6.0% 6.4%
35 New York 6.1% 8.0% 35 Arkansas 5.8% 7.8%
36 Minnesota 5.9% 7.1% 36 Wisconsin 5.7% 7.2%
37 Vermont 5.7% 5.8% 36 New Mexico 5.7% 7.5%
38 Maryland 5.6% 7.3% 38 Maryland 5.6% 7.3%
39 Iowa 5.5% 6.0% 38 Vermont 5.6% 5.7%
40 Hawaii 5.4% 6.2% 40 Minnesota 5.4% 6.6%
40 Kansas 5.4% 6.6% 41 Iowa 5.3% 5.8%
40 Wyoming 5.4% 5.8% 41 Virginia 5.3% 6.7%
43 New Hampshire 5.1% 5.3% 43 Hawaii 5.1% 5.9%
43 New Mexico 5.1% 6.6% 43 Kansas 5.1% 6.3%
45 Virginia 5.0% 6.3% 45 New Hampshire 4.9% 5.1%
46 Louisiana 4.5% 7.2% 46 Louisiana 4.4% 7.1%
47 Oklahoma 4.3% 5.7% 47 Oklahoma 4.0% 5.3%
48 Nebraska 3.6% 4.2% 48 Nebraska 3.7% 4.3%
48 South Dakota 3.6% 4.7% 49 South Dakota 3.4% 4.5%
50 District of Columbia 3.4% 11.0% 50 District of Columbia 3.2% 10.5%
51 North Dakota 2.2% 3.4% 51 North Dakota 2.4% 3.8%
United States 7.4% 9.1% United States 7.0% 8.7%

Note: States are ranked by highest to lowest white unemployment rate.

Sources: EPI estimates based on data from the Current Population Survey and the Local Area Unemployment Statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and December 2011 projections from Moody’s Economy.com

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Latino unemployment rates by state

In the third quarter of 2011, Northeastern states had the highest Latino unemployment rates, as shown in Table 2. (Note that, as mentioned previously, this analysis is limited to states with sufficient sample size for reliable statistics.) Rhode Island (19.6 percent) topped the list, followed by Connecticut (18.7 percent) and Pennsylvania (17.5 percent). This is surprising considering that the states with the highest overall unemployment rates are Nevada and California—both states in which a fairly large share of the labor force is Latino. Yet Nevada ranks sixth in Latino unemployment, and California ranks fifth. More research is necessary to understand the causes of high unemployment rates for Latinos in the Northeast.

Table 2

Unemployment rates for Latino and all workers, by state (third quarter, 2011, and projected fourth quarter, 2012)

Third quarter, 2011 Fourth quarter, 2012 (projected)
Rank State Latino All Rank State Latino All
1 Rhode Island 19.6% 10.6% 1 Rhode Island 18.8% 10.2%
2 Connecticut 18.7% 9.0% 2 Connecticut 17.3% 8.4%
3 Pennsylvania 17.5% 8.1% 3 Pennsylvania 17.2% 8.0%
4 Washington 15.3% 9.3% 4 Washington 14.4% 8.7%
5 California 13.7% 12.0% 5 Nevada 13.7% 13.4%
6 Nevada 13.5% 13.2% 6 Arizona 12.8% 9.5%
7 Idaho 12.6% 9.2% 7 Massachusetts 12.3% 7.7%
8 Arizona 12.4% 9.3% 8 California 12.2% 10.7%
9 Florida 12.3% 10.7% 9 Idaho 11.4% 8.3%
10 Colorado 12.1% 8.4% 10 New Jersey 11.3% 8.9%
11 New Jersey 11.9% 9.4% 11 Illinois 11.0% 9.4%
12 Massachusetts 11.8% 7.4% 11 New York 11.0% 8.2%
13 Illinois 11.5% 9.8% 13 Florida 10.9% 9.5%
14 New York 10.7% 8.0% 14 Colorado 10.8% 7.5%
15 North Carolina 9.1% 10.3% 15 New Mexico 9.0% 7.5%
16 Texas 9.0% 8.5% 15 North Carolina 9.0% 10.3%
17 Utah 8.3% 7.5% 17 Texas 8.7% 8.2%
18 Delaware 8.2% 8.1% 18 Delaware 8.1% 8.0%
19 New Mexico 8.0% 6.6% 19 Utah 7.6% 6.8%
20 District of Columbia 7.5% 11.0% 20 District of Columbia 7.2% 10.5%
21 Georgia 6.4% 10.2% 21 Maryland 6.4% 7.3%
22 Maryland 6.3% 7.3% 22 Georgia 6.1% 9.8%
23 Nebraska 5.5% 4.2% 23 Nebraska 5.6% 4.3%
24 Virginia 4.6% 6.3% 24 Virginia 4.9% 6.7%
United States 11.3% 9.1% United States 10.8% 8.7%

Note: States are ranked by highest to lowest Latino unemployment rate, based on states with sufficient data by race for reliable estimates.

Sources: EPI estimates based on data from the Current Population Survey and the Local Area Unemployment Statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and December 2011 projections from Moody’s Economy.com

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While four states had white unemployment rates below 4 percent in the third quarter of 2011, no state had comparably low Latino unemployment rates. The lowest rate was in Virginia, with a Latino unemployment rate of 4.6 percent.

As with whites, the projected Latino state unemployment rates for the fourth quarter of 2012 are very similar to the rates for the third quarter of 2011. The four states with the highest unemployment rates in the third quarter of 2011 are also projected to have the highest rates at the end of 2012, with the rank order of these states projected to remain unchanged. California and Florida are expected to see the largest reductions in Hispanic unemployment, but these decreases will likely not exceed 1.5 percentage points.

African American unemployment rates by state

While the white unemployment rate is consistently lower than the overall state rate, the black rate is consistently higher (as shown in Table 3). Indeed, the lowest black unemployment rate is about equal to the highest white unemployment rate.

In the third quarter of 2011, the unemployment rate for African Americans ranged from a low of 1.4 times the overall state rate in South Carolina to 3.9 times the overall rate in Minnesota.

Blacks in Minnesota experienced the highest unemployment rate in the third quarter of 2011, at 27.4 percent. Four other states had black unemployment rates of more than 20 percent: Michigan (21.8 percent), California (21.3 percent), the District of Columbia (21.1 percent), and Ohio (20.3 percent).

In the third quarter of 2011, the lowest black unemployment rates were in Maryland (11.2 percent) and Virginia (11.6 percent). These states encircle the District of Columbia, the area with the fourth-highest black unemployment rate. This finding suggests that there are significant demographic and economic differences between blacks inside and adjacent to the District of Columbia.

As with whites and Latinos, the projected black unemployment rates for the fourth quarter of 2012 are very similar to the rates for the third quarter of 2011. Most of the changes are within one percentage point in either direction. Again, the largest decline is in California, where the black unemployment rate is projected to decline 2.4 percentage points. Similarly, Florida and Minnesota are projected to see declines of 2 percentage points. But even with these reductions, these three states will all still have black unemployment rates higher than 15 percent, and, in the case of Minnesota, more than 25 percent.

”Table

Black-White Wage Gap Paper

Figure 1

All workers’ wages—regardless of gender, race, or ethnicity—have failed to rise in tandem with productivity: Hourly median wage growth by gender, race, and ethnicity, compared with economy-wide productivity growth, 1979–2014

Year White men White women Black men  Black women  Productivity
1979 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
1980 -2.1% -0.2% -2.0% -1.9% -0.8%
1981 -3.8% -1.6% -3.3% 0.0% 1.4%
1982 -3.9% -0.6% -7.1% -0.8% -0.1%
1983 -5.1% 0.5% -6.6% -1.2% 2.9%
1984 -5.5% 1.0% -5.9% -1.2% 5.6%
1985 -2.6% 1.5% -8.2% 1.4% 7.3%
1986 -2.4% 5.4% -4.5% 3.0% 9.5%
1987 -4.1% 7.8% -5.6% 3.0% 10.1%
1988 -4.5% 8.8% -5.0% 4.0% 11.4%
1989 -5.3% 9.0% -8.9% 6.0% 12.3%
1990 -7.0% 8.9% -9.9% 4.8% 13.9%
1991 -6.6% 9.4% -11.2% 5.3% 14.8%
1992 -7.2% 10.7% -11.8% 5.8% 18.9%
1993 -8.0% 12.1% -11.6% 7.0% 19.3%
1994 -9.0% 12.0% -11.6% 5.2% 20.5%
1995 -8.8% 11.7% -11.3% 4.5% 20.5%
1996 -8.5% 13.9% -12.4% 4.5% 23.4%
1997 -6.3% 14.7% -9.8% 5.6% 25.2%
1998 -3.2% 17.7% -6.9% 11.2% 27.7%
1999 -0.8% 21.2% -3.0% 11.4% 30.7%
2000 -1.1% 21.9% -3.4% 16.1% 33.8%
2001 0.7% 25.6% -0.5% 15.1% 35.9%
2002 0.9% 28.4% -0.3% 18.0% 39.7%
2003 2.6% 29.6% -0.9% 21.4% 44.2%
2004 1.8% 29.3% 1.0% 22.9% 48.1%
2005 0.0% 30.0% -4.7% 15.4% 50.7%
2006 0.0% 30.0% -1.9% 19.6% 51.6%
2007 1.3% 30.5% -3.0% 18.2% 52.7%
2008 0.0% 29.6% -3.1% 16.0% 53.0%
2009 3.6% 31.5% 0.0% 20.8% 56.1%
2010 1.8% 31.6% -1.9% 20.2% 60.7%
2011 -1.4% 30.3% -5.5% 16.9% 60.9%
2012 -2.2% 29.2% -5.9% 14.0% 61.7%
2013 -3.1% 30.6% -4.9% 15.9% 61.9%
2014 -3.1% 30.2% -7.2% 12.8% 62.7%

 

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Note: Race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (i.e., white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic any race).

Source: EPI analysis of unpublished Total Economy Productivity data from Bureau of Labor Statistics Labor Productivity and Costs program, and Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 2

Real wages at the 10th, 50th and 95th percentile by race, 1979–2015

10th percentile 50th percentile 95th percentile
White Black White Black White Black
1979 $9.13 $8.65 $16.80 $13.90 $39.45 $31.13
1989 $7.97 $7.07 $16.82 $13.38 $42.84 $32.56
1995 $8.09 $7.48 $16.81 $13.14 $45.02 $34.14
2000 $9.19 $8.35 $18.19 $14.44 $50.11 $36.17
2007 $9.21 $8.48 $19.03 $14.54 $54.82 $40.05
2015 $9.25 $8.20 $19.01 $14.22 $62.23 $42.65
Percent change
1979–1989 -14.6% -22.3% 0.1% -3.9% 7.9% 4.4%
1989–1995 1.5% 5.5% -0.1% -1.8% 4.8% 4.6%
1995–2000 13.6% 11.6% 8.2% 9.9% 11.3% 5.9%
2000–2007 0.2% 1.5% 4.4% 0.7% 8.6% 9.7%
2007–2015 0.4% -3.4% -0.1% -2.3% 11.9% 6.1%
1979–2015 1.3% -5.5% 11.6% 2.3% 36.6% 27.0%

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 3

Unadjusted and adjusted black-white hourly wage gaps, by gender, 1979—2015

Unadj.-All Men Adj-All FT Men Unadj.-All Women Adj-All FT Women
1979 0.22 0.17 0.06 0.04
1980 0.23 0.18 0.06 0.04
1981 0.23 0.18 0.06 0.04
1982 0.25 0.19 0.08 0.05
1983 0.24 0.18 0.08 0.05
1984 0.24 0.18 0.09 0.06
1985 0.27 0.20 0.08 0.06
1986 0.26 0.19 0.09 0.06
1987 0.26 0.19 0.10 0.05
1988 0.25 0.18 0.09 0.07
1989 0.27 0.20 0.10 0.07
1990 0.27 0.20 0.12 0.08
1991 0.27 0.20 0.11 0.07
1992 0.27 0.21 0.11 0.08
1993 0.26 0.20 0.11 0.08
1994 0.25 0.19 0.12 0.09
1995 0.27 0.20 0.12 0.08
1996 0.28 0.23 0.15 0.10
1997 0.27 0.22 0.15 0.10
1998 0.27 0.20 0.14 0.08
1999 0.27 0.20 0.15 0.08
2000 0.27 0.20 0.14 0.07
2001 0.28 0.22 0.15 0.09
2002 0.29 0.21 0.16 0.10
2003 0.28 0.22 0.14 0.09
2004 0.27 0.21 0.15 0.08
2005 0.29 0.23 0.17 0.10
2006 0.27 0.22 0.15 0.08
2007 0.29 0.23 0.15 0.10
2008 0.30 0.24 0.17 0.10
2009 0.30 0.23 0.16 0.09
2010 0.30 0.21 0.17 0.10
2011 0.29 0.21 0.17 0.11
2012 0.30 0.21 0.18 0.11
2013 0.30 0.22 0.18 0.11
2014 0.30 0.23 0.18 0.11
2015 0.31 0.22 0.19 0.12
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 4

Unadjusted and adjusted men’s black-white hourly wage gaps, by experience, 1979—2015

Adj.-FT New Entrants Adj.- FT Experienced
1979 0.11 0.19
1980 0.13 0.18
1981 0.13 0.18
1982 0.13 0.20
1983 0.12 0.17
1984 0.14 0.16
1985 0.18 0.19
1986 0.16 0.19
1987 0.16 0.19
1988 0.16 0.20
1989 0.17 0.21
1990 0.15 0.22
1991 0.15 0.22
1992 0.14 0.24
1993 0.14 0.26
1994 0.16 0.22
1995 0.15 0.23
1996 0.17 0.26
1997 0.16 0.25
1998 0.12 0.22
1999 0.13 0.22
2000 0.14 0.20
2001 0.15 0.21
2002 0.14 0.22
2003 0.14 0.26
2004 0.12 0.23
2005 0.17 0.23
2006 0.15 0.22
2007 0.15 0.24
2008 0.15 0.24
2009 0.15 0.26
2010 0.16 0.23
2011 0.14 0.24
2012 0.16 0.22
2013 0.15 0.25
2014 0.19 0.25
2015 0.19 0.24
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 5

Unadjusted and adjusted women’s black-white hourly wage gaps, by experience, 1979—2015

Adj.-FT New Entrants Adj.- FT Experienced
1979 0.04 0.02
1980 0.03 0.03
1981 0.05 0.02
1982 0.07 0.03
1983 0.06 0.02
1984 0.08 0.03
1985 0.08 0.05
1986 0.08 0.05
1987 0.07 0.05
1988 0.07 0.07
1989 0.08 0.09
1990 0.09 0.10
1991 0.08 0.07
1992 0.10 0.08
1993 0.05 0.12
1994 0.10 0.12
1995 0.07 0.09
1996 0.10 0.13
1997 0.08 0.13
1998 0.06 0.12
1999 0.05 0.11
2000 0.04 0.08
2001 0.04 0.12
2002 0.05 0.12
2003 0.05 0.10
2004 0.05 0.11
2005 0.06 0.10
2006 0.04 0.10
2007 0.06 0.11
2008 0.08 0.10
2009 0.05 0.10
2010 0.07 0.10
2011 0.07 0.10
2012 0.09 0.11
2013 0.09 0.11
2014 0.10 0.12
2015 0.11 0.13
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 6

Adjusted hourly gender wage gaps relative to White men by race and gender, 1979—2015

All White Women All Black Women All Black Men
1979 0.38 0.42 0.17
1980 0.37 0.41 0.18
1981 0.36 0.40 0.18
1982 0.34 0.40 0.19
1983 0.33 0.38 0.18
1984 0.32 0.38 0.18
1985 0.32 0.38 0.20
1986 0.31 0.37 0.19
1987 0.31 0.36 0.19
1988 0.30 0.37 0.18
1989 0.28 0.35 0.20
1990 0.27 0.35 0.20
1991 0.26 0.32 0.20
1992 0.24 0.32 0.21
1993 0.23 0.31 0.20
1994 0.23 0.32 0.19
1995 0.24 0.32 0.20
1996 0.24 0.34 0.23
1997 0.24 0.33 0.22
1998 0.24 0.32 0.20
1999 0.24 0.32 0.20
2000 0.25 0.32 0.20
2001 0.24 0.33 0.22
2002 0.23 0.33 0.21
2003 0.23 0.32 0.22
2004 0.23 0.31 0.21
2005 0.22 0.32 0.23
2006 0.23 0.31 0.22
2007 0.23 0.32 0.23
2008 0.23 0.32 0.24
2009 0.23 0.32 0.23
2010 0.22 0.32 0.21
2011 0.21 0.32 0.21
2012 0.22 0.34 0.21
2013 0.22 0.33 0.22
2014 0.21 0.32 0.23
2015 0.23 0.34 0.22
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 7

Adjusted New Entrant Men’s Black-White Hourly Wage Gaps, by Educational Attainment, 1979–2014

HS Graduate College Graduate College or More
1979
1980 0.1494838333 0.0883070667 0.0403211667
1981 0.1558043667 0.0896156000 0.0500890000
1982 0.1440018000 0.1106726000 0.0805164667
1983 0.1423579667 0.1253085667 0.1031582333
1984 0.1533326667 0.1500285333 0.1333138000
1985 0.1734035667 0.1604769333 0.1440012667
1986 0.1683114000 0.1756143000 0.1660601000
1987 0.1570060333 0.1804266000 0.1697810000
1988 0.1545680000 0.1935470000 0.1873686333
1989 0.1593505000 0.1850993667 0.1799273667
1990 0.1649764333 0.1740751333 0.1809998333
1991 0.1635316000 0.1448550667 0.1573935333
1992 0.1570621000 0.1223045333 0.1348865667
1993 0.1482962000 0.1212898333 0.1353440667
1994 0.1394881667 0.1231013667 0.1430433333
1995 0.1453730333 0.1644477333 0.1730489667
1996 0.1490692667 0.1840763000 0.1876230333
1997 0.1360632000 0.1980201667 0.1917334333
1998 0.1221484000 0.1746903333 0.1737941333
1999 0.1126184333 0.1705178333 0.1627566333
2000 0.1342761667 0.1588340000 0.1455488333
2001 0.1418630667 0.1473633000 0.1406449667
2002 0.1339777333 0.1457531667 0.1442012333
2003 0.1276216000 0.1349957000 0.1446760333
2004 0.1356585333 0.1581881000 0.1551487333
2005 0.1516975333 0.1419042667 0.1338009333
2006 0.1495679333 0.1755142667 0.1645005333
2007 0.1393353667 0.1792557333 0.1746711333
2008 0.1356867333 0.1934067000 0.1925480000
2009 0.1433269000 0.1802342333 0.1815788667
2010 0.1421218000 0.1688011667 0.1692503667
2011 0.1472972667 0.1647616667 0.1663220333
2012 0.1350903667 0.1558481000 0.1577541667
2013 0.1532754333 0.1700825000 0.1679662333
2014  0.1638029  0.1798005  0.1782324333
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Note: Wage gaps reflect a 3-year moving average.

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 8

Adjusted Experienced Men’s Black-White Hourly Wage Gaps, by Educational Attainment, 1979–2014

HS Graduate College Graduate College or More
1979
1980 0.163371000 0.236838933 0.197054767
1981 0.163516933 0.247580733 0.219127900
1982 0.175562800 0.232071600 0.222019367
1983 0.171949233 0.161373900 0.180149833
1984 0.178245167 0.117271900 0.130286300
1985 0.180699933 0.146155033 0.145617267
1986 0.196925033 0.183770800 0.172633567
1987 0.204423700 0.218035567 0.218719833
1988 0.212152633 0.218379067 0.217036200
1989 0.210261667 0.239584733 0.240700600
1990 0.211274867 0.275529800 0.261294333
1991 0.211520133 0.288709867 0.284440833
1992 0.225619133 0.304941367 0.299826867
1993 0.221642667 0.289825333 0.284965167
1994 0.220023800 0.293504133 0.278575433
1995 0.223975167 0.269218333 0.261310333
1996 0.223554833 0.273649667 0.280287233
1997 0.209539033 0.279127133 0.293648867
1998 0.183217500 0.294316067 0.288890467
1999 0.182134333 0.285487967 0.264810933
2000 0.195472467 0.274933367 0.248413800
2001 0.204767133 0.251288033 0.251389633
2002 0.212076900 0.283424500 0.290216267
2003 0.202760567 0.290991633 0.304580400
2004 0.199147633 0.329610867 0.326824833
2005 0.193720000 0.292857667 0.289751300
2006 0.195665733 0.310460033 0.303125100
2007 0.205744733 0.298863767 0.290008333
2008 0.206871067 0.321604400 0.317388767
2009 0.217283267 0.297649967 0.295282533
2010 0.220810967 0.274045400 0.284995367
2011 0.221770133 0.239368433 0.250865000
2012 0.226175033 0.230269367 0.245978467
2013 0.214846467 0.258661533 0.256384900
2014  0.2106258  0.2827844  0.272318566
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Note: Wage gaps reflect a 3-year moving average.

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 9

Adjusted New Entrant Women’s Black-White Hourly Wage Gaps, by Educational Attainment, 1979–2014

HS Graduate College Graduate College or More
1979
1980 0.046640166667 0.050289766667 0.030052733333
1981 0.054765366667 0.070329333333 0.040704700000
1982 0.061346733333 0.083225266667 0.050028666667
1983 0.060690000000 0.085980533333 0.060401400000
1984 0.061730400000 0.077396800000 0.055034733333
1985 0.068133200000 0.081227500000 0.069606933333
1986 0.067056600000 0.112046966667 0.092190500000
1987 0.065504533333 0.125136133333 0.100238433333
1988 0.069170700000 0.126632100000 0.101012533333
1989 0.076284900000 0.114551733333 0.096820366667
1990 0.078602600000 0.104940066667 0.105619666667
1991 0.074621333333 0.118367166667 0.126319366667
1992 0.071208900000 0.094739466667 0.102083766667
1993 0.080532533333 0.095686866667 0.097848633333
1994 0.072841500000 0.074513400000 0.078575700000
1995 0.075975566667 0.098424300000 0.103795166667
1996 0.065266166667 0.094181233333 0.101933166667
1997 0.070229533333 0.085879200000 0.086334800000
1998 0.058103966667 0.068512533333 0.062556266667
1999 0.048106233333 0.063252266667 0.050596033333
2000 0.034228133333 0.069177300000 0.054574233333
2001 0.039229800000 0.055345000000 0.049064400000
2002 0.033341066667 0.042385066667 0.044134833333
2003 0.039755700000 0.029973466667 0.040637633333
2004 0.038998266667 0.056555266667 0.066153333333
2005 0.037505033333 0.063517200000 0.074987000000
2006 0.033285866667 0.082026800000 0.085792966667
2007 0.047013933333 0.067540800000 0.075910166667
2008 0.047801133333 0.065571766667 0.068244366667
2009 0.038397633333 0.066191400000 0.080921666667
2010 0.021902733333 0.066351366667 0.081928700000
2011 0.028827900000 0.088195833333 0.102940600000
2012 0.037671566667 0.102115233333 0.102339000000
2013 0.036868666667 0.110497366667 0.115845700000
2014  0.061468733333  0.10686826667  0.12307226667
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Note: Wage gaps reflect a 3-year moving average.

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 10

Adjusted Experienced Women’s Black-White Hourly Wage Gaps, by Educational Attainment, 1979–2014

HS Graduate College Graduate College or More
1979
1980 0.0191438666667 -0.0103646666667 -0.0312442000000
1981 0.0236784333333 -0.0010086000000 -0.0277075000000
1982 0.0258507666667 -0.0224744666667 -0.0325861333333
1983 0.0311090333333 0.0136593666667 -0.0081986000000
1984 0.0390989333333 0.0234324000000 0.0077020666667
1985 0.0448022333333 0.0582300333333 0.0364025333333
1986 0.0578094666667 0.0458256666667 0.0293726333333
1987 0.0721101333333 0.0566362000000 0.0324655000000
1988 0.0949053333333 0.0420694000000 0.0223262333333
1989 0.1051844333333 0.0713223333333 0.0498470000000
1990 0.0937361333333 0.0709608333333 0.0523966666667
1991 0.0873211000000 0.0945340333333 0.0667722000000
1992 0.0970910666667 0.0809948666667 0.0619334000000
1993 0.1150449333333 0.1065779666667 0.0849191000000
1994 0.1186101666667 0.0994193333333 0.0693077333333
1995 0.1156102666667 0.1251041333333 0.0894172000000
1996 0.1200040666667 0.1334793000000 0.1064851333333
1997 0.1212072666667 0.1436102666667 0.1353850333333
1998 0.1149223666667 0.1264963666667 0.1352435333333
1999 0.0893300333333 0.1138479333333 0.1184654333333
2000 0.0865890666667 0.1156675333333 0.1205393666667
2001 0.0931227333333 0.1224119000000 0.1169508000000
2002 0.1025572333333 0.1198149333333 0.1180066333333
2003 0.0930364000000 0.1259141666667 0.1238841333333
2004 0.0806921666667 0.1182076666667 0.1109101000000
2005 0.0963259333333 0.1148142666667 0.1004580000000
2006 0.1083658666667 0.1161166000000 0.0903746666667
2007 0.1129012000000 0.1213808000000 0.1017797333333
2008 0.0943038666667 0.1374512333333 0.1282599666667
2009 0.0820808666667 0.1213983666667 0.1263531333333
2010 0.0809049333333 0.1145565666667 0.1216983333333
2011 0.0907575333333 0.0974229666667 0.1099183666667
2012 0.1116277000000 0.0986813000000 0.1100170000000
2013 0.1263383333333 0.0984052333333 0.1084275333333
2014  0.1306809000000  0.1042963000000  0.105976800000
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Note: Wage gaps reflect a 3-year moving average.

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 1

Total Percent Change Decompositions with marginal contributions

New Entrant

Men

Women

 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 5.77 0.25 -3.78 2.31 3.98 3.20 5.33 6.28 -4.91 1.44 7.58 10.00
Total Observables 1.04 1.38 -2.04 0.74 1.55 1.21 1.14 5.53 -0.66 0.43 3.17 8.91
Quantities -1.34 0.20 -1.97 1.19 0.27 -1.53 1.68 4.76 -1.08 0.89 2.37 7.68
Education -1.77 0.21 -1.06 -0.47 1.00 -1.98 0.83 3.64 -0.50 1.16 1.14 6.25
 Experience 0.33 0.10 -0.33 1.39 -0.91 0.91 0.28 0.98 0.22 -0.61 1.09 1.61
Region & Metro 0.10 -0.11 -0.58 0.26 0.18 -0.46 0.57 0.14 -0.81 0.35 0.14 -0.17
Prices 2.37 1.18 -0.07 -0.45 1.28 2.74 -0.54 0.78 0.42 -0.47 0.80 1.24
Education 2.87 0.75 0.33 -0.15 0.52 2.90 1.08 0.85 0.30 0.10 1.03 2.78
 Experience 0.11 0.43 -0.31 0.05 0.34 0.42 -1.17 0.19 0.01 0.04 -0.07 -0.29
Region & Metro -0.61 -0.01 -0.08 -0.35 0.41 -0.58 -0.46 -0.27 0.11 -0.61 -0.16 -1.25
Total Unobservables 4.73 -1.13 -1.74 1.58 2.43 1.99 4.19 0.75 -4.26 1.02 4.41 1.09
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 3.72 -0.64 -2.27 0.99 1.28 -0.13 3.90 0.46 -4.41 0.90 3.40 -0.45
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 1.01 -0.49 0.53 0.58 1.14 2.12 0.29 0.29 0.15 0.12 1.02 1.54

Experienced

Men

Women

 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 2.55 2.06 -1.79 2.55 -0.33 4.08 2.32 5.70 -0.76 1.72 2.70 10.82
Total Observables 1.88 -0.11 -0.80 -0.50 0.76 -0.48 1.76 1.41 -0.56 0.84 0.75 3.28
Quantities -1.09 -2.22 -0.86 -0.45 -0.15 -5.05 1.14 0.19 -0.75 1.06 0.16 1.14
Education -1.33 -2.23 -0.15 -0.73 -0.52 -4.77 -0.28 0.03 0.51 0.40 -0.47 0.79
 Experience 0.00 0.16 -0.14 -0.05 0.09 -0.01 0.71 0.08 -0.63 0.33 0.31 0.17
Region & Metro 0.24 -0.15 -0.57 0.34 0.28 -0.27 0.71 0.08 -0.63 0.33 0.31 0.17
Prices 2.97 2.12 0.06 -0.06 0.91 4.57 0.62 1.22 0.19 -0.22 0.59 2.14
Education 2.74 2.18 0.23 0.22 0.21 4.65 1.16 2.38 -0.21 0.49 -0.06 3.68
 Experience -0.09 0.18 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.21 -0.27 -0.58 0.20 -0.35 0.33 -0.77
Region & Metro 0.33 -0.24 -0.20 -0.28 0.70 -0.29 -0.27 -0.58 0.20 -0.35 0.33 -0.77
Total Unobservables 0.67 2.17 -0.99 3.05 -1.08 4.56 0.56 4.29 -0.20 0.88 1.95 7.54
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -1.41 2.57 -1.19 2.21 -2.84 1.56 0.17 3.97 -0.18 0.44 1.00 5.80
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 2.09 -0.40 0.20 0.84 1.76 3.00 0.39 0.33 -0.01 0.44 0.95 1.74

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 2

Real Average Hourly Wages and Percent Change in Real Average Hourly Wages by Gender, Race and Potential Experience, 1979, 1985, 1996, 2000 and 2014 (2014 dollars)

 New Entrants (0 – 10 years potential experience) Experienced (11-20 years potential experience)
   Men Women Men Women
White Black White Black White Black White Black
Average hourly wage
1979        19.63        16.81        14.56        14.13        25.93        19.91        16.35        15.47
1985        18.89        14.48        15.32        13.77        26.00        19.66        17.90        16.18
1996        18.03        13.84        16.33        13.61        25.32        17.66        20.07        16.41
2000        20.64        16.37        17.85        15.12        28.18        20.62        21.75        18.04
2014        20.85        15.07        19.34        15.54        29.02        20.42        24.47        19.78
Percent Change
1979-1985 -3.8% -13.9% 5.2% -2.6% 0.3% -1.2% 9.5% 4.6%
1996-2000 14.4% 18.3% 9.3% 11.1% 11.3% 16.8% 8.3% 9.9%
2000-2014 1.0% -8.0% 8.4% 2.8% 3.0% -1.0% 12.5% 9.7%

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 3

New Entrant White-Black Wage Decompositions by Gender and Educational Attainment, 1979–2014

High School Only
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 5.01 -3.29 -3.43 3.78 2.91 -0.08 3.18 1.54 -4.93 -0.31 3.74 -1.83
Total Observables 1.98 -0.69 -1.78 2.57 0.15 0.87 0.51 0.79 -0.56 0.28 0.96 1.35
Quantities 2.19 -1.50 -1.48 2.47 -1.40 -0.65 1.88 0.81 -1.15 -0.29 1.21 0.60
Experience (Age) 2.30 -1.13 -0.89 2.13 -1.31 0.35 1.35 0.70 -0.41 -0.49 1.58 1.26
Region & Metro -0.11 -0.37 -0.59 0.34 -0.10 -1.00 0.53 0.11 -0.75 0.20 -0.37 -0.66
Prices -0.21 0.82 -0.30 0.10 1.55 1.52 -1.37 -0.02 0.60 0.57 -0.25 0.75
Experience (Age) -0.04 0.25 0.18 -0.19 0.42 0.56 -0.94 0.30 0.12 0.14 -0.02 0.24
Region & Metro -0.17 0.57 -0.48 0.28 1.13 0.96 -0.43 -0.31 0.48 0.43 -0.23 0.51
Total Unobservables 3.03 -2.61 -1.65 1.21 2.77 -0.95 2.66 0.75 -4.37 -0.59 2.78 -3.18
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 2.17 -1.18 -2.16 0.53 2.46 -1.40 2.09 0.77 -4.32 -0.64 2.47 -3.62
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.87 -1.42 0.51 0.68 0.31 0.44 0.58 -0.01 -0.05 0.05 0.31 0.45
Bachelor’s Degree Only
 Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 7.73 -0.05 -1.31 0.67 3.71 4.89 6.56 -0.14 -5.78 0.00 5.86 -1.83
Total Observables -2.11 0.95 -0.39 -1.06 2.30 -0.39 -0.32 1.20 -0.79 -1.66 1.26 -1.16
Quantities -0.69 1.60 -0.43 -0.02 1.77 2.06 -0.64 2.37 -1.22 -0.61 0.69 0.50
Experience (Age) -2.04 1.78 0.25 -0.26 0.56 1.58 -1.71 2.56 -0.22 -0.45 0.01 1.45
Region & Metro 1.34 -0.18 -0.68 0.24 1.21 0.48 1.08 -0.19 -1.01 -0.16 0.68 -0.96
Prices -1.41 -0.65 0.04 -1.05 0.53 -2.44 0.31 -1.17 0.43 -1.05 0.57 -1.66
Experience (Age) -0.33 0.07 0.20 -0.24 0.19 0.03 -0.15 -1.30 0.71 -0.12 0.01 -0.79
Region & Metro -1.08 -0.72 -0.16 -0.81 0.34 -2.47 0.46 0.13 -0.28 -0.93 0.56 -0.87
Total Unobservables 9.84 -1.00 -0.92 1.74 1.41 5.28 6.89 -1.33 -4.99 1.67 4.60 -0.67
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 8.94 -1.12 -1.48 1.44 -0.12 2.57 6.53 -1.81 -5.03 1.56 3.41 -2.33
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.89 0.12 0.57 0.30 1.53 2.71 0.36 0.47 0.04 0.11 1.18 1.67
Bachelor’s Degree or higher
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 12.54 2.99 -4.31 0.84 2.40 6.08 6.56 3.44 -7.95 0.62 6.82 0.82
Total Observables -1.61 1.56 -1.15 -1.55 0.80 -2.01 0.16 1.33 -1.01 -2.94 1.56 -2.51
Quantities -1.14 1.91 -1.41 0.09 0.00 -0.12 -0.05 1.90 -1.78 -0.95 0.69 -1.03
Education -0.90 0.17 -0.34 -0.47 -0.42 -1.56 0.99 -0.17 -0.59 -0.44 -0.62 -1.52
Experience (Age) -1.52 1.48 -0.33 0.34 -0.40 0.80 -1.84 2.07 -0.09 -0.56 0.59 1.18
Region & Metro 1.29 0.27 -0.75 0.22 0.83 0.64 0.80 0.01 -1.10 0.05 0.72 -0.69
Prices -0.47 -0.35 0.26 -1.64 0.80 -1.88 0.21 -0.57 0.77 -2.00 0.87 -1.48
Education 0.92 0.18 -0.15 0.14 -0.19 0.51 -0.12 0.26 0.01 -0.25 0.06 -0.01
Experience (Age) -0.45 0.07 0.18 -0.33 0.33 -0.08 -0.15 -0.82 0.45 -0.02 0.00 -0.45
Region & Metro -0.94 -0.61 0.23 -1.45 0.66 -2.31 0.48 0.00 0.30 -1.72 0.81 -1.02
Total Unobservables 14.15 1.43 -3.16 2.39 1.61 8.09 6.41 2.11 -6.94 3.57 5.26 3.33
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 14.09 1.36 -3.63 2.15 0.06 6.04 6.24 1.78 -7.08 3.58 3.76 1.76
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.07 0.07 0.48 0.24 1.55 2.05 0.16 0.33 0.14 -0.01 1.50 1.57

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 4

Experienced White-Black Wage Decompositions by Gender and Educational Attainment, 1979–2015

High School Only
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 2.32 1.19 -2.85 3.01 -0.23 2.12 1.09 5.28 -1.86 1.82 3.64 8.86
Total Observables 0.55 0.50 -0.78 -0.07 1.14 0.35 0.70 0.24 -0.10 0.12 0.77 1.11
Quantities 0.08 0.04 -0.52 0.12 0.38 -0.28 0.77 0.06 -0.35 0.06 0.08 0.06
Experience (Age) -0.23 0.32 -0.13 -0.13 0.12 0.01 -0.11 0.02 0.02 -0.04 -0.05 -0.07
Region & Metro 0.31 -0.28 -0.39 0.25 0.26 -0.30 0.88 0.04 -0.37 0.10 0.13 0.14
Prices 0.47 0.46 -0.27 -0.19 0.76 0.64 -0.07 0.17 0.26 0.06 0.69 1.04
Experience (Age) 0.19 0.26 -0.02 0.03 -0.11 0.36 -0.03 0.52 -0.08 0.33 0.00 0.93
Region & Metro 0.28 0.21 -0.25 -0.22 0.87 0.28 -0.04 -0.35 0.33 -0.27 0.69 0.11
Total Unobservables 1.76 0.69 -2.07 3.08 -1.37 1.77 0.39 5.04 -1.76 1.69 2.88 7.75
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -0.40 1.85 -2.02 2.54 -2.94 0.61 -0.27 4.72 -1.47 1.32 1.92 6.39
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 2.17 -1.17 -0.05 0.54 1.57 1.16 0.67 0.33 -0.29 0.38 0.95 1.36
Bachelor’s Degree Only
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 2.88 1.31 -0.29 2.57 -1.31 5.07 4.65 2.15 -1.16 1.01 1.75 5.57
Total Observables 1.58 -1.39 -0.41 0.19 1.51 -0.40 0.57 -1.40 -0.34 -0.32 1.71 -1.33
Quantities 0.66 -0.87 -0.25 0.25 0.70 -0.39 0.78 -0.77 -0.64 0.20 0.57 -0.91
Experience (Age) -0.43 -0.51 0.27 -0.03 0.18 -0.37 0.04 -0.40 0.35 0.00 -0.12 -0.03
Region & Metro 1.09 -0.37 -0.53 0.28 0.52 -0.02 0.74 -0.38 -0.99 0.20 0.69 -0.88
Prices 0.92 -0.52 -0.16 -0.07 0.82 -0.01 -0.20 -0.62 0.29 -0.52 1.14 -0.42
Experience (Age) 0.16 -0.17 0.00 0.10 0.09 0.05 0.12 -0.30 0.21 -0.02 0.18 0.08
Region & Metro 0.76 -0.35 -0.15 -0.17 0.72 -0.06 -0.32 -0.33 0.08 -0.50 0.96 -0.50
Total Unobservables 1.31 2.70 0.12 2.38 -2.82 5.47 4.07 3.55 -0.82 1.33 0.04 6.90
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -0.75 2.55 -0.58 1.33 -4.98 0.63 4.62 3.10 -0.90 1.02 -0.66 5.67
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 2.06 0.15 0.71 1.05 2.16 4.84 -0.54 0.45 0.08 0.31 0.70 1.23
Bachelor’s Degree or higher
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Wage gap 7.80 5.09 -2.48 3.60 -3.48 8.97 4.48 4.31 -0.17 -0.07 1.91 8.33
Total Observables 0.60 0.36 -0.16 -0.33 -0.57 -0.25 1.04 -0.81 -0.42 -0.98 0.79 -1.86
Quantities 0.36 -0.13 0.08 -0.50 -0.55 -0.83 1.13 -0.67 -0.69 -0.03 -0.25 -1.46
Education 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.28 0.27 0.94 -0.16 -0.73 0.92
Experience (Age) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.28 -0.27 -0.94 0.16 0.73 -0.92
Region & Metro 0.36 -0.13 0.08 -0.50 -0.55 -0.83 1.13 -0.67 -0.69 -0.03 -0.25 -1.46
Prices 0.24 0.49 -0.24 0.17 -0.02 0.58 -0.09 -0.14 0.27 -0.95 1.04 -0.40
Education 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.07 0.26 -0.34 1.03 -1.00 0.49
Experience (Age) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 -0.26 0.34 -1.03 1.00 -0.49
Region & Metro 0.24 0.49 -0.24 0.17 -0.02 0.58 -0.09 -0.14 0.27 -0.95 1.04 -0.40
Total Unobservables 7.20 4.73 -2.32 3.93 -2.91 9.22 3.44 5.12 0.25 0.91 1.12 10.20
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 6.62 4.43 -2.82 3.22 -4.77 5.81 4.04 4.98 0.08 0.65 0.32 9.27
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.59 0.30 0.51 0.71 1.86 3.41 -0.61 0.14 0.17 0.26 0.80 0.94

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 5

High School Graduate New Entrant White-Black Wage Decompositions by Region and Gender, 1979-2015

Panel A: Northeast  
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 6.50 2.18 3.23 0.06 -5.82 7.13 1.70 -1.74 1.43 8.36 -6.13 7.62
Total Observables 2.37 -0.09 0.21 0.17 -1.12 0.90 3.30 1.22 4.25 -2.99 -1.94 4.33
Quantities 2.15 -0.21 -0.34 0.85 -2.43 -0.10 2.69 1.00 1.16 -1.85 -0.93 1.35
Experience (Age) 2.15 -0.21 -0.34 0.85 -2.43 -0.10 1.75 0.67 1.45 -1.63 -0.67 1.33
Division & Metro 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.94 0.33 -0.29 -0.22 -0.26 0.01
Prices 0.22 0.13 0.55 -0.67 1.32 1.00 0.60 0.22 3.09 -1.15 -1.01 2.99
Experience (Age) 0.22 0.13 0.55 -0.67 1.32 1.00 -0.59 -0.19 -0.23 0.77 1.25 0.85
Division & Metro 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.20 0.41 3.32 -1.91 -2.26 2.13
Total Unobservables 4.13 2.27 3.02 -0.12 -4.70 6.22 -1.60 -2.96 -2.82 11.36 -4.19 3.29
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 3.43 2.69 2.81 -0.54 -4.40 5.75 -2.94 -3.38 -2.42 10.88 -3.97 2.23
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.70 -0.42 0.21 0.42 -0.30 0.48 1.34 0.42 -0.40 0.47 -0.22 1.06
Panel B: Midwest    
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 13.01 2.64 -4.60 8.16 3.91 15.60 1.61 6.79 -0.62 -2.09 2.87 7.29
Total Observables 3.75 1.04 -1.56 4.87 2.62 8.59 -1.38 3.26 -2.32 1.92 3.84 5.41
Quantities (Experience/Age) 4.65 -0.54 -2.00 3.40 -1.17 2.29 -0.11 3.48 -3.93 2.17 0.33 1.50
Experience (Age) 4.38 -1.41 -1.46 2.87 -1.26 1.13 1.38 0.93 -3.11 2.83 -0.19 0.77
Division & Metro 0.27 0.87 -0.54 0.53 0.09 1.16 -1.50 2.54 -0.81 -0.67 0.52 0.73
Prices (Experience/Age) -0.90 1.58 0.45 1.47 3.79 6.31 -1.27 -0.22 1.61 -0.25 3.50 3.91
Experience (Age) 0.06 0.41 0.34 -0.78 0.94 0.60 -0.54 0.28 -0.02 -0.05 -0.17 -0.12
Division & Metro -0.96 1.17 0.11 2.25 2.86 5.70 -0.73 -0.50 1.63 -0.20 3.68 4.02
Total Unobservables 9.26 1.59 -3.04 3.29 1.28 7.01 2.99 3.53 1.70 -4.01 -0.97 1.88
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 8.16 3.43 -3.44 2.06 2.29 7.21 2.92 3.54 2.05 -4.48 -1.26 1.51
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 1.10 -1.84 0.40 1.23 -1.00 -0.21 0.07 0.00 -0.35 0.47 0.29 0.37
Panel C: South
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 3.42 -5.54 -3.05 2.60 4.64 -3.53 2.31 2.34 -8.08 -1.19 5.50 -5.90
Total Observables 0.55 -0.26 -1.05 1.73 0.18 0.72 -0.09 1.54 -0.99 -0.71 2.41 0.97
Quantities (Experience/Age) 1.82 -0.10 -1.55 2.10 -1.12 0.50 1.03 1.92 -1.07 -1.44 2.33 0.91
Experience (Age) 1.66 -0.06 -1.08 1.85 -1.14 0.82 0.68 1.18 0.10 -1.63 2.61 1.47
Division & Metro 0.15 -0.04 -0.47 0.25 0.02 -0.32 0.35 0.74 -1.18 0.19 -0.28 -0.55
Prices (Experience/Age) -1.27 -0.16 0.50 -0.37 1.30 0.23 -1.12 -0.38 0.08 0.73 0.07 0.06
Experience (Age) -0.26 0.27 0.01 0.05 0.29 0.45 -0.73 0.03 -0.12 0.14 0.43 -0.04
Division & Metro -1.01 -0.42 0.50 -0.42 1.01 -0.22 -0.39 -0.41 0.20 0.59 -0.36 0.10
Total Unobservables 2.87 -5.29 -2.00 0.87 4.46 -4.26 2.40 0.80 -7.09 -0.48 3.10 -6.87
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 2.25 -3.83 -3.51 0.80 3.50 -5.62 1.78 0.42 -7.15 -0.52 2.77 -7.97
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.62 -1.46 1.51 0.07 0.96 1.36 0.62 0.38 0.06 0.03 0.33 1.10
Panel D: West
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap -9.02 3.56 -5.98 10.11 6.66 8.10 -1.02 12.76 -4.72 -0.89 10.92 13.89
Total Observables -2.13 -3.21 2.08 5.25 2.26 6.01 -2.87 -0.46 3.65 0.04 3.16 5.28
Quantities (Experience/Age) 2.39 -6.73 2.80 3.38 -0.10 1.10 2.29 -1.49 1.04 0.38 0.74 1.71
Experience (Age) 2.08 -6.27 3.21 1.98 -0.25 0.26 2.10 0.03 -0.38 0.65 -0.55 1.01
Division & Metro 0.32 -0.46 -0.41 1.39 0.15 0.84 0.20 -1.52 1.41 -0.27 1.30 0.71
Prices (Experience/Age) -4.52 3.52 -0.72 1.88 2.36 4.91 -5.16 1.03 2.61 -0.34 2.41 3.56
Experience (Age) 0.53 -0.22 0.82 -0.46 0.88 1.12 -1.52 1.04 1.44 -1.34 2.06 2.18
Division & Metro -5.05 3.75 -1.54 2.34 1.48 3.78 -3.63 -0.01 1.17 1.00 0.35 1.38
Total Unobservables -6.89 6.77 -8.06 4.85 4.40 2.09 1.85 13.22 -8.36 -0.93 7.76 8.61
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -7.35 8.23 -7.93 4.19 3.80 2.67 1.23 14.52 -8.76 -1.24 7.49 8.80
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.45 -1.46 -0.13 0.66 0.60 -0.59 0.62 -1.30 0.40 0.30 0.28 -0.19

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 6

High School Graduate Experienced White-Black Wage Decompositions by Region and Gender, 1979-2015

Panel A: Northeast 
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 1.12 5.73 4.48 -0.05 -0.96 13.50 2.81 6.64 -0.21 6.81 -0.67 17.48
Total Observables 1.89 1.26 0.83 -1.48 0.63 2.21 1.80 1.80 -0.36 0.53 0.09 3.30
Quantities 0.53 0.35 0.01 -1.44 0.66 -0.71 0.89 0.61 -0.51 -0.76 0.06 -0.48
Experience (Age) -0.06 -0.04 0.19 -0.20 0.04 -0.03 -0.20 -0.06 0.05 0.12 -0.15 -0.03
Division & Metro 0.59 0.39 -0.18 -1.23 0.61 -0.69 1.08 0.66 -0.56 -0.88 0.21 -0.45
Prices 1.37 0.91 0.82 -0.04 -0.03 2.92 0.92 1.19 0.15 1.29 0.02 3.78
Experience (Age) 0.42 0.10 0.08 -0.07 0.14 0.43 0.36 0.56 -0.04 0.51 0.21 1.57
Division & Metro 0.95 0.81 0.75 0.03 -0.16 2.49 0.56 0.63 0.19 0.78 -0.18 2.20
Total Unobservables -0.78 4.47 3.65 1.43 -1.59 11.29 1.01 4.84 0.15 6.28 -0.76 14.18
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -2.46 4.89 4.03 0.67 -3.08 9.68 0.96 4.25 0.59 5.74 -1.83 12.73
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 1.68 -0.42 -0.38 0.76 1.49 1.62 0.05 0.59 -0.44 0.54 1.07 1.45
Panel B: Midwest 
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 1.86 7.45 1.22 3.68 4.41 19.19 -4.15 12.82 1.38 2.17 8.59 23.75
Total Observables -1.24 2.50 0.64 1.72 2.20 6.91 -0.61 1.63 1.03 1.04 0.57 4.87
Quantities (Experience/Age) -0.30 1.67 -0.25 -0.12 0.08 1.46 0.13 0.85 0.11 -0.21 -0.22 0.86
Experience (Age) -0.33 0.38 0.16 -0.56 0.27 0.00 -0.26 0.02 0.26 -0.21 -0.01 0.01
Division & Metro 0.02 1.29 -0.41 0.44 -0.18 1.46 0.39 0.83 -0.15 -0.01 -0.21 0.85
Prices (Experience/Age) -0.94 0.82 0.89 1.84 2.12 5.45 -0.74 0.79 0.92 1.25 0.79 4.01
Experience (Age) 0.42 0.13 -0.05 0.20 -0.21 0.42 0.43 0.46 -0.31 0.82 -0.38 1.14
Division & Metro -1.35 0.69 0.94 1.64 2.33 5.04 -1.17 0.32 1.23 0.43 1.17 2.87
Total Unobservables 3.10 4.95 0.57 1.96 2.21 12.28 -3.54 11.19 0.35 1.13 8.02 18.88
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 1.38 6.00 0.93 1.37 1.11 11.84 -3.46 10.94 0.74 0.96 7.12 18.43
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 1.73 -1.05 -0.36 0.59 1.10 0.44 -0.08 0.25 -0.39 0.17 0.90 0.45
Panel C: South
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 1.58 -0.47 -5.96 3.76 -1.04 -4.34 1.04 4.12 -4.44 1.31 2.60 2.39
Total Observables 0.47 0.41 -0.47 -0.39 0.93 0.11 1.15 0.81 -0.57 -0.02 0.53 1.02
Quantities (Experience/Age) 0.50 0.25 -0.61 0.12 0.31 0.00 0.70 0.71 -0.70 -0.25 0.38 0.11
Experience (Age) -0.25 0.06 -0.09 -0.03 -0.02 -0.24 -0.24 -0.04 -0.03 0.03 -0.07 -0.22
Division & Metro 0.75 0.19 -0.52 0.15 0.33 0.24 0.94 0.74 -0.67 -0.28 0.45 0.32
Prices (Experience/Age) -0.03 0.16 0.14 -0.52 0.63 0.11 0.45 0.10 0.13 0.23 0.15 0.91
Experience (Age) 0.43 0.37 -0.05 -0.02 0.00 0.57 0.04 0.76 -0.18 0.25 0.12 1.09
Division & Metro -0.46 -0.21 0.19 -0.50 0.63 -0.46 0.41 -0.65 0.31 -0.02 0.04 -0.17
Total Unobservables 1.11 -0.88 -5.49 4.15 -1.98 -4.45 -0.11 3.31 -3.87 1.34 2.07 1.36
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -1.34 0.71 -5.92 3.64 -3.87 -6.09 -1.57 2.79 -3.69 0.77 1.58 -0.75
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 2.45 -1.59 0.44 0.51 1.89 1.65 1.46 0.52 -0.18 0.57 0.49 2.11
Panel D: West
Men Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap -3.16 1.86 0.51 7.18 -1.46 9.69 -1.02 12.76 -4.72 -0.89 10.92 13.89
Total Observables -3.43 2.25 -1.66 3.63 1.04 3.91 -2.87 -0.46 3.65 0.04 3.16 5.28
Quantities (Experience/Age) -0.42 0.45 -0.88 2.06 -0.06 1.64 2.29 -1.49 1.04 0.38 0.74 1.71
Experience (Age) -0.42 0.52 -0.46 0.08 0.25 0.03 -0.14 -0.12 0.04 -0.01 0.03 -0.15
Division & Metro 0.00 -0.07 -0.42 1.97 -0.31 1.61 2.43 -1.37 1.00 0.40 0.71 1.87
Prices (Experience/Age) -3.01 1.80 -0.78 1.57 1.10 2.27 -5.16 1.03 2.61 -0.34 2.41 3.56
Experience (Age) 0.04 0.09 -0.01 -0.03 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.04 0.22 0.21 0.83
Division & Metro -3.05 1.71 -0.77 1.61 0.88 2.06 -5.37 0.81 2.57 -0.56 2.20 2.73
Total Unobservables 0.27 -0.39 2.18 3.54 -2.50 5.78 1.85 13.22 -8.36 -0.93 7.76 8.61
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -1.75 0.73 2.47 3.03 -3.59 5.29 1.23 14.52 -8.76 -1.24 7.49 8.80
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 2.02 -1.12 -0.29 0.52 1.09 0.49 0.62 -1.30 0.40 0.30 0.28 -0.19

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 11

Adjusted Men’s Black-White Hourly Wage Gaps by Region, 1980–2014

Northeast Midwest South West
1980 0.12 0.09 0.18 0.15
1981 0.14 0.11 0.18 0.14
1982 0.14 0.10 0.18 0.13
1983 0.14 0.10 0.17 0.12
1984 0.14 0.10 0.18 0.14
1985 0.16 0.12 0.19 0.14
1986 0.15 0.14 0.20 0.16
1987 0.14 0.15 0.20 0.14
1988 0.16 0.17 0.20 0.13
1989 0.17 0.17 0.20 0.14
1990 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.14
1991 0.19 0.17 0.20 0.16
1992 0.19 0.18 0.20 0.17
1993 0.18 0.17 0.20 0.19
1994 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.19
1995 0.20 0.21 0.19 0.18
1996 0.21 0.22 0.19 0.20
1997 0.18 0.21 0.19 0.22
1998 0.17 0.18 0.17 0.24
1999 0.16 0.17 0.16 0.21
2000 0.19 0.17 0.16 0.21
2001 0.20 0.19 0.16 0.18
2002 0.23 0.19 0.17 0.19
2003 0.22 0.18 0.17 0.18
2004 0.22 0.19 0.18 0.20
2005 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.19
2006 0.21 0.20 0.18 0.20
2007 0.23 0.18 0.18 0.21
2008 0.23 0.20 0.19 0.22
2009 0.24 0.19 0.19 0.23
2010 0.22 0.19 0.19 0.21
2011 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.19
2012 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.19
2013 0.19 0.21 0.20 0.21
2014 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.21
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Note: Data reflect 3-year moving average.

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 12

Adjusted Women’s Black-White Hourly Wage Gaps by Region, 1980–2014

Northeast Midwest South West
1980 0.02 -0.01 0.05 -0.01
1981 0.03 0.00 0.06 -0.03
1982 0.03 0.00 0.07 -0.02
1983 0.04 0.00 0.07 -0.01
1984 0.04 -0.01 0.07 0.03
1985 0.05 0.00 0.08 0.03
1986 0.06 -0.01 0.08 0.03
1987 0.06 0.01 0.09 0.01
1988 0.08 0.02 0.09 0.01
1989 0.09 0.04 0.10 0.02
1990 0.07 0.05 0.10 0.04
1991 0.05 0.04 0.10 0.05
1992 0.05 0.03 0.10 0.04
1993 0.08 0.04 0.11 0.04
1994 0.08 0.05 0.10 0.04
1995 0.10 0.07 0.10 0.04
1996 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.05
1997 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.07
1998 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.07
1999 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.05
2000 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.05
2001 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.05
2002 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.06
2003 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.06
2004 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
2005 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.07
2006 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.07
2007 0.10 0.06 0.06 0.09
2008 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.08
2009 0.11 0.07 0.07 0.08
2010 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06
2011 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.07
2012 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.07
2013 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.09
2014 0.09 0.11 0.10 0.09
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Note: Data reflect 3-year moving average.

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 7

Men’s White-Black Wage Decompositions for Construction and Manufacturing Industries by Potential Experience, 1979–2014

New Entrant Men, Manufacturing New Entrant Men, Construction
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 11.38 4.04 -8.64 3.91 0.30 3.14 1.95 -6.80 -1.10 1.80 -5.15 -9.88
Total Observables 4.49 3.90 -5.40 3.18 -3.89 0.87 -0.30 -3.10 -0.98 0.65 -0.17 -4.68
Quantities 1.27 4.40 -6.64 4.69 -4.43 -0.31 -3.75 -2.08 -1.68 1.73 -0.83 -5.14
Education -0.29 3.02 -3.46 2.04 -1.76 0.09 -2.55 -1.24 -0.34 0.68 -1.19 -3.13
Experience (Age) 0.77 1.45 -2.28 2.79 -3.23 0.45 -0.15 -0.23 0.24 0.02 0.88 0.54
Division & Metro 0.78 -0.07 -0.90 -0.14 0.55 -0.85 -1.05 -0.61 -1.57 1.04 -0.52 -2.55
Prices 3.22 -0.50 1.24 -1.51 0.54 1.18 3.45 -1.02 0.70 -1.08 0.66 0.46
Education 3.26 0.32 0.71 -0.59 0.74 2.73 0.41 -0.41 0.80 -0.13 0.81 1.17
Experience (Age) -0.05 0.11 0.00 0.41 -0.07 0.59 0.68 0.83 0.31 -1.01 0.09 0.59
Division & Metro 0.02 -0.92 0.53 -1.34 -0.13 -2.13 2.37 -1.44 -0.41 0.05 -0.24 -1.30
Total Unobservables 6.89 0.14 -3.24 0.73 4.19 2.28 2.25 -3.69 -0.13 1.15 -4.99 -5.21
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 5.68 0.54 -3.38 0.17 2.56 0.28 1.67 -2.18 -0.82 1.79 -7.09 -5.09
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 1.21 -0.40 0.15 0.56 1.62 1.99 0.57 -1.51 0.70 -0.64 2.11 -0.12
  Experienced Men, Manufacturing Experienced Men, Construction
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15  1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 5.76 1.55 -2.17 3.84 -1.24 5.68 1.00 0.86 -3.80 0.57 0.38 -3.02
Total Observables 3.83 -0.18 -1.39 0.96 -1.34 0.05 1.43 -1.66 -1.54 -2.19 -0.14 -6.44
Quantities 0.70 -1.19 -1.86 0.43 -1.68 -4.29 -1.79 -1.55 -1.93 -0.66 0.04 -6.39
Education -0.03 -1.47 -1.19 0.77 -2.25 -3.95 -2.28 -1.33 0.24 -2.18 0.34 -4.96
Experience (Age) -0.25 0.25 0.02 -0.14 -0.02 0.03 0.24 -0.11 -1.08 0.76 -0.15 -0.72
Division & Metro 0.99 0.04 -0.69 -0.20 0.58 -0.37 0.24 -0.11 -1.08 0.76 -0.15 -0.72
Prices 3.12 1.01 0.47 0.53 0.34 4.34 3.22 -0.12 0.39 -1.53 -0.19 -0.05
Education 2.06 1.75 0.42 0.61 -0.10 4.48 -1.02 3.41 1.28 0.83 -0.55 6.31
Experience (Age) 0.07 0.13 -0.07 0.19 0.03 0.35 2.12 -1.77 -0.45 -1.18 0.18 -3.18
Division & Metro 0.98 -0.86 0.13 -0.26 0.41 -0.49 2.12 -1.77 -0.45 -1.18 0.18 -3.18
Total Unobservables 1.94 1.72 -0.79 2.88 0.10 5.64 -0.42 2.52 -2.26 2.75 0.52 3.43
“Quantities” (Discrimination) -0.46 1.78 -0.71 2.42 -2.86 2.29 -1.43 3.78 -2.82 2.64 -1.84 2.11
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 2.40 -0.06 -0.08 0.46 2.97 3.35 1.00 -1.26 0.56 0.12 2.36 1.31

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Table 8

Women’s White-Black Wage Decompositions for the Education & Health Industry by Potential Experience, 1979–2015

New Entrant Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 2.48 4.89 -4.81 0.30 6.72 4.71
Total Observables 0.75 3.10 0.36 -1.05 2.85 5.12
Quantities 0.87 1.20 -0.22 -0.53 1.17 1.64
Education 1.35 1.11 0.07 -0.79 -0.44 0.87
Experience (Age) -0.53 0.73 0.08 -0.46 1.43 1.03
Division & Metro 0.05 -0.64 -0.37 0.73 0.18 -0.27
Prices -0.12 1.90 0.58 -0.52 1.68 3.48
Education 1.64 2.57 -0.33 -0.04 1.15 4.15
Experience (Age) -1.02 0.07 0.04 0.40 -0.32 -0.04
Division & Metro -0.75 -0.74 0.87 -0.89 0.85 -0.63
Total Unobservables 1.73 1.79 -5.17 1.35 3.86 -0.41
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 0.98 0.57 -4.69 1.11 2.78 -2.55
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) 0.75 1.22 -0.49 0.24 1.09 2.13
Experienced Women
 1979-85  1985-96  1996-00  2000-07  2007-15  1979-15
Total Percent Change in Wage gap 1.08 8.97 -2.50 2.08 0.93 11.19
Total Observables 0.35 1.99 0.06 0.20 -0.07 2.93
Quantities -0.52 -0.73 -0.61 1.04 -1.00 -1.32
Education -1.44 0.06 -0.17 0.32 -1.33 -1.28
Experience (Age) 0.07 0.01 -0.08 0.04 -0.02 -0.03
Division & Metro 0.85 -0.80 -0.36 0.69 0.35 -0.01
Prices 0.87 2.73 0.66 -0.84 0.93 4.26
Education 1.37 3.19 -0.40 -0.27 0.29 3.87
Experience (Age) -0.13 0.17 0.19 -0.03 -0.07 0.34
Division & Metro -0.37 -0.63 0.86 -0.54 0.72 0.05
Total Unobservables 0.72 6.98 -2.55 1.88 0.99 8.26
“Quantities” (Discrimination) 0.75 6.21 -2.42 1.45 0.05 6.41
“Prices” (Wage Inequality) -0.03 0.77 -0.13 0.43 0.94 1.85

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 13

Percent Change in New Entrant Men Wage Gaps, 1979–2015

Total observables Total unobservables Total
 1979–1985 1.04% 4.73% 0
 1985–1996 1.38% -1.13% 0
 1996–2000 -2.04% -1.74% 0
 2000–2007 0.74% 1.58% 0
 2007–2015 1.55% 2.43% 0
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Note: *  signifies total net change labels where the change is measured imprecisely

Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 14

Percent Change in New Entrant Women Wage Gaps, 1979–2015

Total observables Total Unobservables Total
 1979–1985 1.14% 4.19% 0
 1985–1996 5.53% 0.74% 0
 1996–2000 -0.66% -4.26% 0
 2000–2007 0.43% 1.02% 0
 2007–2015 3.17% 4.41% 0
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 15

Percent Change in Experienced Male Wage Gaps, 2009–2015

Total observables Total Unobservables Total
 1979–1985 1.88% 0.67% 0
 1985–1996 -0.11% 2.17% 0
 1996–2000 -0.80% -0.99% 0
 2000–2007 -0.50% 3.05% 0
 2007–2015 0.76% -1.08% 0
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 16

Percent Change in Experienced Women Wage Gaps, 2009–2015

Total observables Total Unobservables Total
 1979–1985 1.76% 0.56% 0
 1985–1996 1.41% 4.29% 0
 1996–2000 -0.56% -0.20% 0
 2000–2007 0.84% 0.88% 0
 2007–2015 0.75% 1.95% 0
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 17

Percent change in wage gaps by gender and experience, 1979–2015

Total observables Total unobservables Total
New Entrants Men 1.21 1.99 0
New Entrants Women 8.91 1.09 0
Experienced Men -0.48 4.56 0
Experienced Women 3.28 7.54 0
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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Figure 18

Percent change in men wage gaps by education and experience, 1979–2015

Total observables Total unobservables Total
New Entrant Men, High School Only 0.87 -0.95 0
New Entrant Men, Bachelor’s Degree Only -0.39 5.28 0
New Entrant Men, Bachelor’s Degree or higher -2.01 8.09 0
Experienced Men, High School Only 0.35 1.77 0
Experienced Men, Bachelor’s Degree Only -0.40 5.47 0
Experienced Men, Bachelor’s Degree or higher -0.25 9.22 0
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Figure 19

Percent change in women wage gaps by education and experience, 1979–2015

Total observables Total unobservables Total
New Entrant Women, High School Only 1.35 -3.18 0
New Entrant Women, Bachelor’s Degree Only -1.16 -0.67 0
New Entrant Women, Bachelor’s Degree or higher -2.51 3.33 0
Experienced Women, High School Only 1.11 7.75 0
Experienced Women, Bachelor’s Degree Only -1.33 6.90 0
Experienced Women, Bachelor’s Degree or higher -1.86 10.20 0
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Source: EPI analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

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States with unemployment rates of 10 percent or higher by race

Despite small positive signs, the nation remains in a period of very high unemployment. While all groups are experiencing significant economic hardship, the burden of high unemployment is not spread uniformly by race. Figure A shows the states where whites, Latinos, and blacks have unemployment rates of 10 percent or higher. In the third quarter of 2011, whites experienced this level of unemployment only in California and Nevada. Latinos, however, had unemployment rates at or above 10 percent in 14 states, while this was the case for blacks in 25 states. Blacks also have the misfortune of having unemployment rates above 20 percent in five states.

Figure A

States with white, Latino, and black unemployment rates of 10% or higher, third quarter, 2011, and projected fourth quarter, 2012

(Red highlighting indicates an unemployment rate over 20%)

Note: Based on states with sufficient data by race for reliable estimates

Sources: EPI estimates based on data from the Current Population Survey and the Local Area Unemployment Statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and December 2011 projections from Moody’s Economy.com

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In the fourth quarter of 2012, the unemployment rate for each race in nearly every state is projected to remain very similar to the level recorded in the third quarter of 2011. The white unemployment rate in California is projected to fall from 10 percent in the third quarter of 2011 to 8.9 percent in the fourth quarter of 2012, dropping it out of the 10-percent-or-above states for whites in Figure A.

For Latinos and African Americans, the states with unemployment rates of 10 percent or higher in the third quarter of 2011 are projected to have similarly high unemployment rates at the end of 2012.

However, the states with black unemployment rates above 20 percent are projected to change slightly by the fourth quarter of 2012. The black unemployment rate in California is projected to decline from 21.3 percent in the third quarter of 2011 to 18.9 percent in the fourth quarter of 2012. For blacks, the rate in Ohio is also expected to fall below 20 percent, while the rate in Indiana is projected to rise above 20 percent; however, in both states, the change is too small to be considered meaningful.

Conclusion

EPI economist Heidi Shierholz noted recently that “even at January’s growth rate, it would still take until 2019 to get back to full employment.” Current projections show that state unemployment rates by race will remain largely unchanged throughout 2012. To avoid this scenario, Congress should pass the American Jobs Act to help accelerate the rate of economic recovery.

This issue brief is supported by a grant from the Open Society Foundations

Methodology

The unemployment rate estimates in this issue brief are based on the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The overall state unemployment rate is taken directly from the LAUS. CPS six-month ratios are applied to LAUS data to calculate the rates by race and ethnicity. For each state subgroup, we calculate the unemployment rate using the past six months of CPS data. We then find the ratio of this subgroup rate to the state unemployment rate using the same period of CPS data. This gives us an estimate of how the subgroup compares to the state overall.

For our projections, we use the same method but modify it slightly. We find the subgroup state ratios from the most recent six months of data, and then multiply this ratio by the projected state unemployment rate for a given quarter.

In many states, the sample size of these subgroups is not large enough to create an accurate estimate of their unemployment rate. We only report data for groups which had, on average, a sample size of at least 700 in the labor force for each six-month period.

Reference

Shierholz, Heidi. 2012. “U.S. Labor Market Starts 2012 with Solid Positive Signs but Fewer Jobs than It Had 11 Years Ago.” Economic Policy Institute Economic Indicators, February 3. http://www.epi.org/publication/labor-market-starts-2012-solid-positive/


See related work on Race and Ethnicity

See more work by Algernon Austin