#### Full regression results of employment growth and right-to-work

(1) | (2) | (3) | (4) | (5) | (6) | (7) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Variable | Model 1 replicates the WVU study | Model 1 with state fixed effects | Model 1 with state fixed effects and corrected RTW states | Model 2 replicates the WVU study | Model 2 with state fixed effects | Model 2 with state fixed effects and corrected RTW states | Model 2 with state fixed effects and robust standard errors |

Right to work | 0.458*** | 0.337 | 0.243 | 0.486*** | 0.510** | 0.129 | 0.510 |

(0.124) | (0.256) | (0.372) | (0.105) | (0.247) | (0.357) | (0.421) | |

Ln (Employment_{t}) |
-0.317*** | -9.455*** | -9.330*** | -0.179*** | -10.092*** | -10.064*** | -10.092*** |

(0.062) | (0.545) | (0.537) | (0.066) | (0.770) | (0.776) | (1.414) | |

State and local government spending per capita (thousands) | -0.048 | -0.211*** | -0.220*** | -0.211 | |||

(0.034) | (0.056) | (0.056) | (0.134) | ||||

Mining share of employment (%) | 0.015 | 0.579*** | 0.588*** | 0.579** | |||

(0.028) | (0.089) | (0.090) | (0.238) | ||||

Manufacturing share of employment (%) | -0.065*** | 0.200*** | 0.201*** | 0.200*** | |||

(0.011) | (0.026) | (0.026) | (0.052) | ||||

Construction share of employment (%) | -0.408*** | -0.172** | -0.154** | -0.172 | |||

(0.047) | (0.076) | (0.076) | (0.125) | ||||

Unemployment rate | -0.172*** | -0.093** | -0.088** | -0.093 | |||

(0.038) | (0.038) | (0.038) | (0.057) | ||||

College degree (%) | -0.002 | 0.016 | 0.014 | 0.016 | |||

(0.014) | (0.020) | (0.020) | (0.031) | ||||

Median income (thousands) | 0.004 | -0.008 | -0.006 | -0.008 | |||

(0.012) | (0.013) | (0.013) | (0.015) | ||||

Poverty rate (%) | -0.007 | 0.044** | 0.045** | 0.044** | |||

(0.019) | (0.019) | (0.019) | (0.020) | ||||

Age 25–44 (%) | -0.052 | 0.350*** | 0.365*** | 0.350** | |||

(0.041) | (0.084) | (0.084) | (0.134) | ||||

Age 45–64 (%) | 0.111*** | 0.477*** | 0.467*** | 0.477** | |||

(0.036) | (0.088) | (0.088) | (0.195) | ||||

Age 65+ (%) | -0.169*** | 0.270*** | 0.284*** | 0.270* | |||

(0.043) | (0.096) | (0.096) | (0.156) | ||||

Population density | -0.001*** | 0.013*** | 0.013*** | 0.013*** | |||

(0.000) | (0.003) | (0.003) | (0.004) | ||||

Cooling degree days (thousands) | 0.441*** | 0.312 | 0.314 | 0.312 | |||

(0.090) | (0.200) | (0.201) | (0.332) | ||||

Constant | 5.453*** | 132.811*** | 131.141*** | 8.882*** | 111.819*** | 111.138*** | 111.819*** |

(0.880) | (7.613) | (7.547) | (1.816) | (11.205) | (11.385) | (22.743) | |

Observations | 1008 | 1008 | 1008 | 1008 | 1008 | 1008 | 1008 |

R-squared | 0.044 | 0.831 | 0.831 | 0.774 | 0.859 | 0.858 | 0.859 |

* indicates statistical significance at the 10% level.

** indicates statistical significance at the 5% level.

*** indicates statistical significance at the 1% level.

**Note:** Standard errors appear in parentheses. "Corrected RTW states" refers to redefining both Texas and Utah as right-to-work states for the entire span of the study period. Table 3 from Deskins et al. (2015) suggests that each of their models included year fixed effects and census division controls but the only way we could replicate their results from Model 1 was by removing year fixed effects and census divisons. For every other regression we run however, we include year fixed effects and either census division controls or state fixed effects, but these controls are not shown in the table. Following Deskins et al. (2015), all models use a lead specification such that dependent variable is year t+3 and right-hand-side variables are for year t.

**Source:** EPI analysis of unpublished data from Deskins, Bowen, and Christiadi (2015)