Voter turnout in elections is higher in states with greater levels of union representation: Average voter turnout in top and bottom 10 states by average union density, 1989–2020

Top 10 states by union representation Bottom 10 states by union representation
Midterm election turnout 45.9% 40.7%
General election turnout 61.7% 57.7%

Note: Top 10 states with the highest share of union workers are New York, Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, Michigan, New Jersey, Illinois, California, Rhode Island, and Minnesota. Bottom 10 states with the lowest share of union workers are South Dakota, Louisiana, Arizona, Mississippi, Virginia, Arkansas, Georgia, Texas, South Carolina, and North Carolina.

Source: EPI analysis of 1989–2020 Current Population Survey, Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-ORG) data for all workers ages 16 and older; United States Elections Project, State Turnout Rates, 1986–2020.

View the underlying data on