Employment composition of the pre-pandemic and pandemic workforces, by selected demographic characteristics

Employment Alt-2019 (millions) Alt-2020 (millions) Alt-2021 (millions) Alt-2019–Alt-2020 Alt-2020–Alt-2021 Alt-2019–Alt-2021
All 141.58 130.42 137.01 -7.9% 5.1% -3.2%
Gender  
Male 73.26 67.90 71.08 -7.3% 4.7% -3.0%
Female 68.32 62.52 65.93 -8.5% 5.5% -3.5%
Age  
24 and under 18.92 16.51 18.18 -12.7% 10.1% -3.9%
25–54 91.67 85.22 88.87 -7.0% 4.3% -3.1%
55 and over 30.99 28.68 29.96 -7.4% 4.4% -3.3%
Race/ethnicity  
White 86.32 80.26 83.10 -7.0% 3.5% -3.7%
Black 17.99 16.36 17.37 -9.1% 6.2% -3.5%
Hispanic 25.58 23.17 24.98 -9.4% 7.8% -2.3%
AAPI 10.16 9.29 10.08 -8.6% 8.5% -0.9%
Education  
Less than high school 11.29 9.33 10.36 -17.4% 11.1% -8.2%
High school 36.85 32.69 35.07 -11.3% 7.3% -4.8%
Some college 39.15 35.19 36.17 -10.1% 2.8% -7.6%
College 34.63 33.43 34.91 -3.5% 4.4% 0.8%
Advanced 19.66 19.78 20.50 0.6% 3.6% 4.3%

Notes: AAPI refers to Asian American and Pacific Islander. Race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (i.e., white non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, AAPI non-Hispanic, and Hispanic any race). Data for each 12-month period is the average employment over that period. Percent changes are calculated using unrounded data. Alt-2019 refers to the 12 months before the pandemic (March 2019–February 2020), alt-2020 refers to the initial 12 months of the pandemic (March 2020–February 2021), and alt-2021 refers to the most recent 12 months of the pandemic (March 2021–February 2022).

Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.27 (2022), https://microdata.epi.org.

View the underlying data on epi.org.