Change over time in teacher credentials: Share of teachers without various credentials, by type of credential, 2011–2012 and 2015–2016

2011–2012 2015–2016
Not fully certified 8.4% 8.8%
Did not take traditional route into teaching 14.3% 17.1%
Inexperienced (5 years experience or less) 20.3% 22.4%
Novice teacher (2 years experience or less) 6.8% 9.4%
No educational background in subject of main assignment 31.1% 31.5%

Notes: Data are for teachers in public noncharter schools. According to research and to the U.S. Department of Education, highly qualified teachers have the following four credentials: They are fully certified (with a regular, standard state certificate or advanced professional certificate versus not having completed all the steps); they took a traditional route into teaching (participated in a traditional certification program versus an alternative certification program, the latter of which is defined in the teacher survey questionnaire as “a program that was designed to expedite the transition of nonteachers to a teaching career, for example, a state, district, or university alternative certification program”); they are experienced (have more than 5 years of experience); and they have a background in the subject of main assignment, i.e., they have a bachelor's or master's degree in the main teaching assignment field (general education, special education, or subject-matter specific degree) versus having no educational background in the subject of main assignment.

Source: 2011–2012 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS)  and 2015–2016 National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) microdata from the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)

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