Union wage premium for subgroups

Subgroup Percent union Union wage premium*
Occupation
White collar (1997) 11.6%  2.2%
Blue collar (1997) 20.8  23.3
Education
College (1997) 10.4%  5.1%
High school (1997) 23.6  20.8
All (1992, 1993, 1996) n.a.  24.5
High school or less n.a.  35.5
 Wage distribution Estimated union wage premium
Study 1 Study 2 Study 3
Bottom fifth 4.9% 17.2% 20.6% 24.2%
Second fifth 8.9 21.8 16.8 34.6
Middle fifth 14.0 20.6 13.7 30.8
Fourth fifth 20.3 15.5 10.7 24.5
Top fifth 19.1 12.4 6.1 6.1
Average effect 19.0% 11.9% n.a.
Percent bottom 40% to top 40% 35% 140 223 193%

* Percent by which the wages of those covered by collective bargaining agreements exceed wages of comparable nonunion workers

Source: Mishel and Walters (2003, Table 2.3a); Gunderson (2003, Table 5.1 and Appendix C); and premium estimates by fifth from: 1) Gittleman and Pierce (2007), 2) Schmitt (2008), and 3) Card, Lemieux, and Riddell (2002). Union coverage by fifth from Schmitt (2008)

View the underlying data on epi.org.