The lowest-earning workers without a college degree make twice as much in manufacturing as in other industries: Average annual earnings of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing workers without a four-year college degree and in the 10th percentile of earnings, by race and ethnicity, 2019

Manufacturing Nonmanufacturing
White   $19,000  $7,536
Black  $12,400  $6,000
Hispanic  $12,500  $6,009
AAPI  $15,000  $5,001

Notes: AAPI refers to Asian American/Pacific Islander. Race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (i.e., white non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, AAPI non-Hispanic, and Hispanic any race). Earnings refers to pre-tax wage and salary income, including any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata (Flood et al. 2021). Manufacturing category encompasses CPS occupational codes 1070–3990. Nonmanufacturing encompasses all other codes.

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