Wal-Mart – China goods trade and U.S. job displacement, 2001–2013
|U.S. total||Wal-Mart||U.S. total||Wal-Mart||U.S. total||Wal-Mart|
|Goods trade with China ($ billions, nominal)|
|U.S. domestic exports*||18.0||0.1||114.0||1.0||96.0||0.9|
|U.S. imports for consumption||102.1||11.4||438.2||49.1||336.1||37.6|
|U.S. trade balance||-84.1||-11.4||-324.2||-48.1||-240.1||-36.7|
|Wal-Mart share of U.S. imports||11.2%|
|U.S. trade-related jobs supported and displaced (thousands of jobs)|
|U.S. domestic exports–jobs supported||161.4||0.5||767.5||6.5||606.1||6.1|
|U.S. imports for consumption–jobs displaced||1,127.7||126.3||4,890.9||547.8||3,763.2||421.5|
|U.S. trade balance–net jobs displaced||966.3||125.8||4,123.4||541.3||3,157.1||415.4|
|Wal-Mart share of U.S. Job loss||13.2%|
*Domestic exports are goods produced in the United States and exclude foreign exports (re-exports), i.e., goods produced in other countries and shipped through the United States. Total exports as reported by the U.S. International Trade Commission include re-exports. Total exports were estimated to be $121.7 billion in 2013, and U.S. re-exports to China represent 6.33 percent of total exports. The employment estimates shown here are based on domestic exports only. See Scott and Kimball (2014), "Methodology" Appendix and endnotes 5 and 6 there for additional details on data sources and models used. This analysis assumes job gains and losses due to Wal-Mart trade are proportional to the shares of trade in each year for domestic exports and imports for consumption.
Source: Author's analysis of U.S. Census Bureau (2013), U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC 2014), Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2014), BLS-EP 2014a, BLS-EP 2014b, and Scott and Kimball (2014).