Most older Hispanic and Black workers who retire before age 65 do so involuntarily: Share of retired older workers who retired involuntarily, by race, ethnicity, and age (2014–2018 pooled data)

Involuntary retirement rate
White 51.6%
Black 60.8%
Hispanic 60.2%
White 44.8%
Black 52.5%
Hispanic 39.0%

Notes: The sample includes individuals who reported being retired in the current survey but working in the previous one. Involuntary retirement is defined as retirement preceded by poor health or disability (including poor mental health or stress); by a layoff, business closure, or ownership change; or by changes in working conditions or compensation. Hispanic refers to Hispanic of any race while white and Black refer to non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic Blacks.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) and Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA) analysis of Health and Retirement Study data (RAND 2022; University of Michigan 2022).

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