CBO typically underestimates debt growth near the beginning of a recession: Average budget-year debt error as a percent of GDP

Average Error Near the Beginning of Economic Downturns -5.444
Average Error for Other Projections 0.802
Average Error for All Projections 0.251

Source: EPI analysis of the Congressional Budge Office's September 2019 report on past deficit and debt projection.

View the underlying data on epi.org.