Estimated hourly wage penalty for part-time work by gender and race/ethnicity: How much less part-time workers earn than full-time workers (in %)

Part-time wage penalty
All -19.8%***
By race/ethnicity
White -20.7%***
Black -20.2%***
Hispanic -14.2%***
By gender
Female -15.9%***
Male -25.8%***
By gender and race/ethnicity
White male -28.1%***
White female -16.4%***
Black male -24.6%***
Black female -17.2%***
Hispanic male -16.9%***
Hispanic female -12.3%***

Notes:  Part time is defined as usually working less than 35 hours per week on the primary job. The symbols *, **, and *** indicate that the wage penalty is significantly different from zero at the 0.10 level, 0.05 level, and 0.01 level, respectively, using heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors. Standard errors are available upon request from the authors. Regressions include controls for age (5), education (16), years (16), industry (13), occupation (10), and state (51).

Source: Author's analysis of 2003–2018 Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-ORG) microdata.

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