Reading and math skills gaps between high-social class and low-social class children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, using scale and theta scores as dependent variables

Model 1 (unadjusted) Model 4 (fully adjusted)
Full sample Restricted sample
Scale scores Theta scores Scale scores Theta scores
Reading Math Reading Math Reading Math Reading Math
By SES Gap in 1998 1.071*** 1.258*** 1.233*** 1.330*** 0.596*** 0.610*** 0.684*** 0.632***
(0.024) (0.022) (0.024) (0.022) (0.031) (0.031) (0.032) (0.031)
Change in gap by 2010 0.098*** -0.008 -0.052 -0.078** 0.080 0.051 -0.016 -0.002
(0.033) (0.032) (0.033) (0.032) (0.052) (0.048) (0.054) (0.050)
By mother’s education Gap in 1998 1.294*** 1.457*** 1.412*** 1.502*** 0.696*** 0.681*** 0.739*** 0.685***
(0.038) (0.036) (0.038) (0.035) (0.058) (0.050) (0.048) (0.044)
Change in gap by 2010 -0.020 -0.154*** -0.135*** -0.218*** -0.075 -0.119* -0.135* -0.182***
(0.051) (0.049) (0.051) (0.048) (0.082) (0.070) (0.075) (0.067)
By number of books Gap in 1998 0.736*** 0.966*** 0.847*** 1.032*** 0.347*** 0.424*** 0.388*** 0.438***
(0.028) (0.027) (0.028) (0.026) (0.034) (0.031) (0.033) (0.031)
Change in gap by 2010 0.083** -0.019 -0.015 -0.088** -0.540*** -0.818*** -0.594*** -0.829***
(0.039) (0.038) (0.039) (0.038) (0.184) (0.188) (0.181) (0.174)
By household income Gap in 1998 1.090*** 1.308*** 1.214*** 1.320*** 0.384*** 0.443*** 0.429*** 0.439***
(0.042) (0.041) (0.042) (0.041) (0.058) (0.060) (0.049) (0.050)
Change in gap by 2010 -0.127** -0.230*** -0.247*** -0.292*** -0.006 -0.060 -0.058 -0.099
(0.060) (0.059) (0.060) (0.059) (0.084) (0.082) (0.076) (0.072)

Notes: Standard errors are in parentheses. Asterisks denote statistical significance: *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1.

Source: ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998-1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.