Reading and math skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, using scale and theta scores as dependent variables

Model 1 (unadjusted) Model 4 (fully adjusted)
Full sample Restricted sample
Scale scores Theta scores Scale scores Theta scores
Reading Math Reading Math Reading Math Reading Math
Gap in 1998 1.071*** 1.258*** 1.233*** 1.330*** 0.596*** 0.610*** 0.684*** 0.632***
(0.024) (0.022) (0.024) (0.022) (0.031) (0.031) (0.032) (0.031)
Change in gap by 2010 0.098*** -0.008 -0.052 -0.078** 0.080 0.051 -0.016 -0.002
(0.033) (0.032) (0.033) (0.032) (0.052) (0.048) (0.054) (0.050)
N 30,950 31,850 30,950 31,850 26,050 26,890 26,050 26,890
Adj.R2 0.152 0.189 0.170 0.197 0.293 0.336 0.336 0.353

Notes: Standard errors are in the parentheses. N is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. Asterisks denote statistical significance: *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1.

Source: ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998-1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.