#### Reading and math skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, using scale and theta scores as dependent variables

Model 1 (unadjusted) | Model 4 (fully adjusted) | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Full sample | Restricted sample | |||||||

Scale scores | Theta scores | Scale scores | Theta scores | |||||

Reading | Math | Reading | Math | Reading | Math | Reading | Math | |

Gap in 1998 | 1.071*** | 1.258*** | 1.233*** | 1.330*** | 0.596*** | 0.610*** | 0.684*** | 0.632*** |

(0.024) | (0.022) | (0.024) | (0.022) | (0.031) | (0.031) | (0.032) | (0.031) | |

Change in gap by 2010 | 0.098*** | -0.008 | -0.052 | -0.078** | 0.080 | 0.051 | -0.016 | -0.002 |

(0.033) | (0.032) | (0.033) | (0.032) | (0.052) | (0.048) | (0.054) | (0.050) | |

N | 30,950 | 31,850 | 30,950 | 31,850 | 26,050 | 26,890 | 26,050 | 26,890 |

Adj.R2 | 0.152 | 0.189 | 0.170 | 0.197 | 0.293 | 0.336 | 0.336 | 0.353 |

**Notes:** Standard errors are in the parentheses. N is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. Asterisks denote statistical significance: *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1.

**Source:** ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998-1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)