Reading and math achievement gaps, and principal noncognitive skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 2010–2011, under unadjusted and clustered models

Reading Mathematics Self-control (by teachers) Approaches to learning (by teachers) Self-control (by parents) Approaches to learning (by parents)
1 (unadjusted) 2 (clustered) 1 (unadjusted) 2 (clustered) 1 (unadjusted) 2 (clustered) 1 (unadjusted) 2 (clustered) 1 (unadjusted) 2 (clustered) 1 (unadjusted) 2 (clustered)
Gap in 2010–2011 1.169*** 0.944*** 1.250*** 0.911*** 0.386*** 0.363*** 0.513*** 0.562*** 0.391*** 0.326*** 0.563*** 0.460***
(0.024) (0.036) (0.024) (0.034) (0.029) (0.041) (0.027) (0.041) (0.028) (0.041) (0.028) (0.044)
Controls
Demographics No No No No No No No No No No No No
Education and engagement No No No No No No No No No No No No
Parental expectations No No No No No No No No No No No No
School fixed effects No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Observations 14,090 14,090 14,040 14,040 12,180 12,180 13,280 13,280 12,890 12,890 12,900 12,900
Adjusted R2 0.165 0.281 0.190 0.276 0.021 0.114 0.034 0.105 0.018 0.028 0.037 0.118

Note: Using the full sample. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. Sizes may differ from those inferred from Tables 3–6, and from those in García 2015, due to differences in the sample sizes or to rounding.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.