#### Reading and math achievement gaps, and principal noncognitive skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 2010–2011, under unadjusted and clustered models

Reading | Mathematics | Self-control (by teachers) | Approaches to learning (by teachers) | Self-control (by parents) | Approaches to learning (by parents) | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 (unadjusted) | 2 (clustered) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 (clustered) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 (clustered) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 (clustered) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 (clustered) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 (clustered) | |

Gap in 2010–2011 | 1.169*** | 0.944*** | 1.250*** | 0.911*** | 0.386*** | 0.363*** | 0.513*** | 0.562*** | 0.391*** | 0.326*** | 0.563*** | 0.460*** |

(0.024) | (0.036) | (0.024) | (0.034) | (0.029) | (0.041) | (0.027) | (0.041) | (0.028) | (0.041) | (0.028) | (0.044) | |

Controls | ||||||||||||

Demographics | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No |

Education and engagement | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No |

Parental expectations | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No | No |

School fixed effects | No | Yes | No | Yes | No | Yes | No | Yes | No | Yes | No | Yes |

Observations | 14,090 | 14,090 | 14,040 | 14,040 | 12,180 | 12,180 | 13,280 | 13,280 | 12,890 | 12,890 | 12,900 | 12,900 |

Adjusted R2 | 0.165 | 0.281 | 0.190 | 0.276 | 0.021 | 0.114 | 0.034 | 0.105 | 0.018 | 0.028 | 0.037 | 0.118 |

**Note:** Using the full sample. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. Sizes may differ from those inferred from Tables 3–6, and from those in García 2015, due to differences in the sample sizes or to rounding.

**Source:** EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)