Cognitive and noncognitive skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children using mother's educational attainment as a proxy for socioeconomic status (SES), under unadjusted and fully adjusted models

Reading Math Self-control  (reported by teachers) Approaches to learning (reported by teachers) Self-control (reported by parents) Approaches to learning (reported by parents)
1 (unadjusted) 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 4 (fully adjusted)
Gap in 1998 1.294*** 0.696*** 1.457*** 0.681*** 0.317*** 0.076 0.638*** 0.409*** 0.471*** 0.254*** 0.655*** 0.221***
(0.038) (0.058) (0.036) (0.050) (0.039) (0.048) (0.038) (0.042) (0.039) (0.049) (0.039) (0.045)
Change in gap by 2010 -0.020 -0.075 -0.154*** -0.119* -0.099* 0.046 -0.237*** -0.141* -0.136** -0.093 -0.084 -0.004
(0.051) (0.082) (0.049) (0.070) (0.055) (0.081) (0.053) (0.074) (0.053) (0.080) (0.053) (0.070)
Controls
Demographics No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Education and engagement No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Parental expectations No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
School fixed effects No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Observations 26,660 23,880 27,570 24,710 25,790 23,170 27,200 24,380 27,280 25,040 27,290 25,050
Adjusted R2 0.134 0.282 0.166 0.328 0.009 0.172 0.029 0.199 0.017 0.079 0.032 0.223

Notes: Model 1 uses the full sample; Model 4 uses the complete cases sample. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.