Summary of association between cognitive and noncognitive skills at kindergarten entry and selected early educational practices, fully adjusted differences (Model 4)

Reading Math Self-control  (reported by teachers) Approaches to learning (reported by teachers) Self-control (reported by parents) Approaches to learning (reported by parents)
Correlations between selected practices and skills measured at kindergarten entry in 1998
Center-based pre-K 0.106*** 0.097*** -0.125*** -0.001 -0.006 0.018
(0.016) (0.015) (0.018) (0.018) (0.019) (0.016)
Number of books 0.012*** 0.016*** 0.004** 0.008*** 0.002 0.006***
(0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002)
Reading/literacy 0.166*** 0.068*** 0.010 0.030* 0.143*** 0.315***
(0.016) (0.015) (0.018) (0.016) (0.018) (0.017)
Other activities -0.115*** -0.036*** 0.047*** 0.033** 0.046*** 0.292***
(0.015) (0.014) (0.017) (0.016) (0.017) (0.016)
Correlations between parents’ expectations about their children’s highest level of educational attainment and skills measured at kindergarten entry in 1998
Two or more years of college/vocational school 0.029 0.066** 0.072* 0.115*** 0.180*** 0.136***
(0.025) (0.026) (0.042) (0.037) (0.038) (0.033)
Bachelor’s degree 0.114*** 0.172*** 0.141*** 0.211*** 0.272*** 0.228***
(0.023) (0.023) (0.036) (0.032) (0.036) (0.030)
Master’s degree or more 0.160*** 0.220*** 0.120*** 0.219*** 0.254*** 0.377***
(0.026) (0.025) (0.039) (0.034) (0.036) (0.033)
Changes from 1998 to 2010 in the correlations between selected practices and skills measured at kindergarten entry
Center-based pre-K -0.005 -0.036 0.060* -0.010 -0.020 0.010
(0.025) (0.025) (0.032) (0.031) (0.031) (0.026)
Number of books 0.002 -0.001 0.001 0.002 -0.002 0.004
(0.003) (0.002) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.002)
Reading/literacy 0.018 0.008 0.015 0.014 -0.079*** -0.173***
(0.025) (0.024) (0.031) (0.028) (0.030) (0.027)
Other activities -0.008 -0.016 0.031 0.020 0.218*** 0.265***
(0.025) (0.024) (0.029) (0.028) (0.029) (0.025)
Changes from 1998 to 2010 in the correlations between parents’ expectations about their children’s highest level of educational attainment and skills measured at kindergarten entry
Two or more years of college/vocational school 0.121** 0.106* 0.201** 0.204*** -0.030 0.151**
(0.055) (0.059) (0.081) (0.072) (0.084) (0.066)
Bachelor’s degree 0.139*** 0.103** 0.136* 0.174*** -0.084 0.100
(0.048) (0.051) (0.070) (0.063) (0.078) (0.061)
Master’s degree or more 0.186*** 0.117** 0.140* 0.189*** -0.041 0.076
(0.052) (0.054) (0.074) (0.066) (0.081) (0.063)
Observations 26,050 26,890 25,080 26,460 27,220 27,240
Adj.R2 0.293 0.336 0.175 0.204 0.079 0.228

Notes: The robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.