Reductions in skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children after accounting for missingness and covariates, 1998 and 2010

Year Reduction Change in reduction from 1998 to 2010 (in percentage points)
Reading 1998 45.5%
2010 42.9% -2.6
Math 1998 52.6%
2010 48.6% -4.1
Self-control (reported by teachers) 1998 50.8%
2010 32.6% -18.1
Approaches to learning (reported by teachers) 1998 28.3%
2010 20.3% -8
Self-control (reported by parents) 1998 35.3%
2010 34.3% -1.1
Approaches to learning (reported by parents) 1998 73.5%
2010 56.0% -17.5

Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Declining values from 1998 to 2010 indicate that factors such as early literacy activities and other controls were not as effective at shrinking SES-based gaps in 2010 as they were in 1998.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.