Noncognitive skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, under unadjusted to fully adjusted models

Self-control (reported by teachers) models Approaches to learning (reported by teachers) models
1 (unadjusted) 2 3 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 2 3 4 (fully adjusted)
Gap in 1998 0.394*** 0.304*** 0.217*** 0.182*** 0.630*** 0.630*** 0.493*** 0.435***
(0.025) (0.037) (0.037) (0.038) (0.024) (0.035) (0.036) (0.037)
Change in gap by 2010 -0.009 0.065 0.078 0.085 -0.117*** -0.066 -0.042 -0.043
(0.037) (0.054) (0.060) (0.061) (0.035) (0.053) (0.057) (0.057)
Controls
Demographics No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Education and engagement No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Parental expectations No No No Yes No No No Yes
School fixed effects No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Observations 29,500 29,500 25,080 25,080 31,260 31,260 26,460 26,460
Adjusted R2 0.019 0.117 0.173 0.175 0.040 0.117 0.199 0.204
Self-control (reported by parents) models Approaches to learning (reported by parents) models
1 (unadjusted) 2 3 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 2 3 4 (fully adjusted)
Gap in 1998 0.467*** 0.424*** 0.357*** 0.291*** 0.539*** 0.479*** 0.215*** 0.132***
(0.025) (0.036) (0.039) (0.040) (0.025) (0.032) (0.033) (0.033)
Change in gap by 2010 -0.076** -0.084 -0.032 0.001 0.024 -0.024 0.096* 0.112**
(0.037) (0.054) (0.060) (0.061) (0.036) (0.053) (0.055) (0.056)
Controls
Demographics No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Education and engagement No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Parental expectations No No No Yes No No No Yes
School fixed effects No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Observations 30,400 30,400 27,220 27,220 30,420 30,420 27,240 27,240
Adjusted R2 0.022 0.037 0.075 0.079 0.035 0.057 0.218 0.228

Notes: Models 1 and 2 use the full sample; Models 3 and 4 use the complete cases sample. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. SES refers to socioeconomic status.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.