#### Noncognitive skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, under unadjusted to fully adjusted models

Self-control (reported by teachers) models | Approaches to learning (reported by teachers) models | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 (unadjusted) | 2 | 3 | 4 (fully adjusted) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 | 3 | 4 (fully adjusted) | |

Gap in 1998 | 0.394*** | 0.304*** | 0.217*** | 0.182*** | 0.630*** | 0.630*** | 0.493*** | 0.435*** |

(0.025) | (0.037) | (0.037) | (0.038) | (0.024) | (0.035) | (0.036) | (0.037) | |

Change in gap by 2010 | -0.009 | 0.065 | 0.078 | 0.085 | -0.117*** | -0.066 | -0.042 | -0.043 |

(0.037) | (0.054) | (0.060) | (0.061) | (0.035) | (0.053) | (0.057) | (0.057) | |

Controls | ||||||||

Demographics | No | No | Yes | Yes | No | No | Yes | Yes |

Education and engagement | No | No | Yes | Yes | No | No | Yes | Yes |

Parental expectations | No | No | No | Yes | No | No | No | Yes |

School fixed effects | No | Yes | Yes | Yes | No | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Observations | 29,500 | 29,500 | 25,080 | 25,080 | 31,260 | 31,260 | 26,460 | 26,460 |

Adjusted R2 | 0.019 | 0.117 | 0.173 | 0.175 | 0.040 | 0.117 | 0.199 | 0.204 |

Self-control (reported by parents) models | Approaches to learning (reported by parents) models | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 (unadjusted) | 2 | 3 | 4 (fully adjusted) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 | 3 | 4 (fully adjusted) | |

Gap in 1998 | 0.467*** | 0.424*** | 0.357*** | 0.291*** | 0.539*** | 0.479*** | 0.215*** | 0.132*** |

(0.025) | (0.036) | (0.039) | (0.040) | (0.025) | (0.032) | (0.033) | (0.033) | |

Change in gap by 2010 | -0.076** | -0.084 | -0.032 | 0.001 | 0.024 | -0.024 | 0.096* | 0.112** |

(0.037) | (0.054) | (0.060) | (0.061) | (0.036) | (0.053) | (0.055) | (0.056) | |

Controls | ||||||||

Demographics | No | No | Yes | Yes | No | No | Yes | Yes |

Education and engagement | No | No | Yes | Yes | No | No | Yes | Yes |

Parental expectations | No | No | No | Yes | No | No | No | Yes |

School fixed effects | No | Yes | Yes | Yes | No | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Observations | 30,400 | 30,400 | 27,220 | 27,220 | 30,420 | 30,420 | 27,240 | 27,240 |

Adjusted R2 | 0.022 | 0.037 | 0.075 | 0.079 | 0.035 | 0.057 | 0.218 | 0.228 |

**Notes:** Models 1 and 2 use the full sample; Models 3 and 4 use the complete cases sample. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. SES refers to socioeconomic status.

**Source:** EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)