#### Reading and math skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, under unadjusted to fully adjusted models

Reading models | Mathematics models | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 (unadjusted) | 2 | 3 | 4 (fully adjusted) | 1 (unadjusted) | 2 | 3 | 4 (fully adjusted) | |

Gap in 1998 | 1.071*** | 0.846*** | 0.641*** | 0.596*** | 1.258*** | 0.932*** | 0.668*** | 0.610*** |

(0.024) | (0.032) | (0.031) | (0.031) | (0.022) | (0.033) | (0.030) | (0.031) | |

Change in gap by 2010 | 0.098*** | 0.122*** | 0.096* | 0.080 | -0.008 | 0.025 | 0.053 | 0.051 |

(0.033) | (0.046) | (0.051) | (0.052) | (0.032) | (0.045) | (0.047) | (0.048) | |

Controls | ||||||||

Demographics | No | No | Yes | Yes | No | No | Yes | Yes |

Education and engagement | No | No | Yes | Yes | No | No | Yes | Yes |

Parental expectations | No | No | No | Yes | No | No | No | Yes |

School fixed effects | No | Yes | Yes | Yes | No | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Observations | 30,950 | 30,950 | 26,050 | 26,050 | 31,850 | 31,850 | 26,890 | 26,890 |

Adjusted R2 | 0.152 | 0.243 | 0.289 | 0.293 | 0.189 | 0.265 | 0.331 | 0.336 |

**Notes:** Models 1 and 2 use the full sample; Models 3 and 4 use the complete cases sample. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. SES refers to socioeconomic status.

**Source:** EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)