Reading and math skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, under unadjusted to fully adjusted models

Reading models Mathematics models
1 (unadjusted) 2 3 4 (fully adjusted) 1 (unadjusted) 2 3 4 (fully adjusted)
Gap in 1998 1.071*** 0.846*** 0.641*** 0.596*** 1.258*** 0.932*** 0.668*** 0.610***
(0.024) (0.032) (0.031) (0.031) (0.022) (0.033) (0.030) (0.031)
Change in gap by 2010 0.098*** 0.122*** 0.096* 0.080 -0.008 0.025 0.053 0.051
(0.033) (0.046) (0.051) (0.052) (0.032) (0.045) (0.047) (0.048)
Controls
Demographics No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Education and engagement No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Parental expectations No No No Yes No No No Yes
School fixed effects No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Observations 30,950 30,950 26,050 26,050 31,850 31,850 26,890 26,890
Adjusted R2 0.152 0.243 0.289 0.293 0.189 0.265 0.331 0.336

Notes: Models 1 and 2 use the full sample; Models 3 and 4 use the complete cases sample. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p < 0.01, ** denotes p < 0.05, and * denotes p < 0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. SES refers to socioeconomic status.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.