#### Unadjusted cognitive and noncognitive skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010, using household income as a proxy for socioeconomic status

Gap between top and bottom quintiles in 1998 | Change in gap from 1998 to 2010 | |
---|---|---|

Reading | 1.09 | -0.13 |

Math | 1.31 | -0.23 |

Self-control (by teachers) | 0.42 | 0.05 |

Approaches to learning (by teachers) | 0.60 | -0.13 |

Self-control (by parents) | 0.44 | 0.04 |

Approaches to learning (by parents) | 0.44 | 0.03 |

**Notes:** The gaps are the baseline unadjusted standard deviation scores for high-SES children relative to low-SES children where high-SES children are in households with incomes in the top quintile of the income distribution and low-SES children are in households with incomes in bottom quintile of the income distribution. The gap in 2010 equals the gap in 1998 plus the change in the gap from 1998 to 2010. For statistical significance of these numbers, see Table 8, Model 1.

**Source:** EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)