#### Unadjusted cognitive and noncognitive skills gaps between high-SES and low-SES children at the beginning of kindergarten in 1998 and change in gaps by the beginning of kindergarten in 2010

Gap between high-SES (fifth) and low-SES (first) quintiles in 1998 | Change in gap from 1998 to 2010 | |
---|---|---|

Reading | 1.07 | 0.10 |

Math | 1.26 | -0.01 |

Self-control (by teachers) | 0.39 | -0.01 |

Approaches to learning (by teachers) | 0.63 | -0.12 |

Self-control (by parents) | 0.47 | -0.08 |

Approaches to learning (by parents) | 0.54 | 0.02 |

**Notes:** SES refers to socioeconomic status. The gaps are the baseline unadjusted standard deviation scores for high-SES children relative to low-SES children. The gap in 2010 equals the gap in 1998 plus the change in the gap from 1998 to 2010. For example, the gap in approaches to learning as reported by teachers in 2010 is 0.51 sd (0.63 – 0.12). For statistical significance of these numbers, see Tables 3 and 4, Model 1.

**Source:** EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)