Missing data

1998 2010
Variable Percent missing Percent missing
Race/ethnicity
White 0.2 0.5
Black 0.2 0.5
Hispanic 0.2 0.5
Hispanic English language learner (ELL) 6.6 11.8
Hispanic English speaker 6.6 11.8
Asian 0.2 0.5
Others 0.2 0.5
Socioeconomic status 5.9 11.9
Family composition: Not living with two parents 15.5 26.3
Mother’s education 7.5 42.8
Pre-K care, center-based 16.8 17.4
“Literacy/reading activities” index 15.6 26.4
“Other activities” index 15.6 26.5
Parents’ expectations for children’s educational attainment 16.1 26.5
Number of books 16.3 26.7
Outcomes
Reading 17.7 13.8
Math 13.0 14.2
Self-control (by teachers) 13.8 25.4
Approaches to learning (by teachers) 10.4 18.7
Self-control (by parents) 15.8 27.3
Approaches to learning (by parents) 15.8 27.3

Note: For detailed information about the construction of these variables, see Appendix Table A1.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, kindergarten classes of 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.