Union wage premium by demographic group, 2011

 Demographic group Percent
union*
Union premium**
Dollars Percent
Total 13.0% $1.24 13.6%
Men 13.5 2.21 17.3
Women 12.5 0.67 9.1
White 13.3% $0.76 10.9%
Men 14.1 1.79 14.9
Women 12.5 0.18 7.0
Black 15.0% $2.60 17.3%
Men 15.8 3.05 20.3
Women 14.4 2.25 14.8
Hispanic 10.8% $3.44 23.1%
Men 10.8 4.77 29.3
Women 10.7 2.06 15.7
Asian 11.1% $1.54 14.7%
Men 9.9 1.53 16.6
Women 12.4 1.61 12.9
New immigrants (less than 10 years)
Men 5.4% $0.49 16.0%
Women 7.0 2.74 16.2
Other immigrants (more than 10 years)
Men 10.4% $2.13 16.7%
Women 12.7 0.57 8.8

* Union member or covered by a collective bargaining agreement

** Regression-adjusted hourly wage advantage of being in a union, controlling for experience, education, region, industry, occupation, race/ethnicity, and marital status

Source: Author's analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata

View the underlying data on epi.org.