Share of workers with various shift types, by pay status, income, occupation, and industry

Irregular Split/rotating Regular Test
All (n=4,641) 10% 7% 83%
Pay status (and share of total) ***
    Salaried (37%) 8 4 88
    Hourly (53%) 6 10 84
    Other (10%) 30 6 64
Respondent income (share of total) ***
    <$22,500 (37%) 11 9 80
     $22,500–$39,999 (31%) 7 6 87
     $40,000–$49,999 (10%) 8 4 88
     $50,000–$59,999 (9%) 6 6 88
     Over $60,000 (13%) 9 7 84
Types of occupation (share of total) ***
     Executive/admin/management (15%) 9 4 87
     Professional specialty (19%) 11 5 84
     Technicians (4%) 8 11 81
     Sales occupations (11%) 15 10 75
     Admin support (clerical) (13%) 4 5 91
     Service occupations  (16%) 10 14 76
     Farming/precision production (11%) 8 3 89
     Operators/laborers (11%) 10 9 81
Types of industry (share of total)
     Agriculture/forestry 19 4 70
     Mining 6 6 88
     Construction 9 1 90
     Manufacturing-nondurables 4 8 88
     Manufacturing-durables 4 4 92
     Transportation/communications 12 7 81
     Wholesale trade 8 4 88
     Retail trade 12 15 73
     Finance/insurance/real estate 12 3 85
     Business/repair services 15 6 80
     Personal services 17 13 70
     Entertainment/recreation 15 14 71
     Professional services 7 5 88
     Public administration 7 12 81
Working hours (mean) 43 43.4a 41.2a **
     Work family conflict (mean) (1: Never to 4: Often) 2.6b 2.5a 2.2ab
     Work stress (mean) (1: Never to 5: Always) 3.2 3.1 3.1

Note: Asterisks denote tested significant at ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05. "Regular" shift includes day, afternoon, and night shifts. Chi-square was conducted to test group differences across categorical variables; ANOVA was conducted to examine group differences across continuous variables (work-family conflict and work stress). Based on post-hoc ANOVA test, work-family conflict is more frequent for both those on irregular and split-rotating shifts, while workers on regular schedules have shorter hours than those on split-rotating shifts and less work-family conflict than both those on irregular and split-rotating schedules. The GSS occupational classification is OCC80 and the industry classification is IND80. Respondent income is in inflation-adjusted constant (year 2000) dollars.

Source: General Social Survey Quality of Worklife Supplement (NIOSH), pooled years 2002, 2006, and 2010

View the underlying data on epi.org.