How various work characteristics are associated with mandatory overtime work

Coefficient estimate
Pay status
Salaried (ref.)
Hourly -0.211*
Other -0.017
Annual earnings
<$22,500 (ref.)
$22,500–$39,999 0.240*
$40,000–$49,999 0.120
$50,000–$59,999 0.081
Over $60,000 -0.105
Years in the job 0.0047
Weekly hours of work 0.014***
Ability to take time off of work -0.213***
Ability to change starting and ending times of work -0.184***
Too much work to do everything well -0.0373
Must work very fast 0.127*
Not enough staff to get all work done 0.107*
Observations n=3,711

Note: Asterisks denote tested significant at ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05. The table shows the association between the variables and respondents who answered “yes” to the question, “When you work extra hours on your main job, is it mandatory (required by your employer)?”

Source: General Social Survey Quality of Worklife Supplement (NIOSH), pooled years 2002, 2006, and 2010

View the underlying data on