Executive function at the beginning of kindergarten, by race and ethnicity (Hispanic ELL and English), under unadjusted to fully adjusted models

Cognitive flexibility  Working memory
M1R M2R M3R M1R M2R M3R
Black -0.265***
(0.057)
-0.233***
(0.057)
-0.240***
(0.057)
-0.373***
(0.052)
-0.285***
(0.051)
-0.291***
(0.048)
Hispanic ELL -0.383***
(0.062)
-0.283***
(0.064)
-0.077
(0.094)
-0.570***
(0.051)
-0.349***
(0.053)
-0.361***
(0.086)
Hispanic English -0.114***
(0.040)
-0.086**
(0.039)
-0.079**
(0.039)
-0.217***
(0.040)
-0.147***
(0.040)
-0.167***
(0.038)
Asian -0.132***
(0.049)
-0.134***
(0.049)
-0.038
(0.060)
-0.003
(0.063)
-0.009
(0.062)
-0.015
(0.067)
Other -0.102**
(0.044)
-0.089**
(0.043)
-0.090**
(0.044)
0.008
(0.051)
0.047
(0.051)
0.047
(0.050)
Controlling for SES No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Controlling for other variables No No Yes No No Yes
Observations 10,220 10,220 10,220 9,570 9,570 9,570
Adj.R2 0.0809 0.0860 0.0974 0.149 0.176 0.255

Note: Robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p<0.01, ** denotes p<0.05, and * denotes p<0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. ELL stands for English-language learner. English refers to English-language speaker. SES refers to socioeconomic status. See Appendix A, Figure E2, and Table F2.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.