Cognitive flexibility executive function at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with white executive function, by race and ethnicity (Hispanic ELL and English)

Unadjusted (M1R) Adjusted by SES (M2R) Fully adjusted (M3R)
Black -0.265***(0.057) -0.233***(0.057) -0.240***(0.057) 
Hispanic ELL -0.383***(0.062) -0.283***(0.064) -0.077(0.094)
Hispanic English -0.114***(0.040) -0.086**(0.039) -0.079**(0.039) 
Asian -0.132***(0.049) -0.134***(0.049)  -0.038(0.060)
Other -0.102**(0.044) -0.089**(0.043) -0.090**(0.044) 


Note: ELL stands for English-language learner. English refers to English-language speaker. Model 1 (M1RL) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation /percentile score for each group, relative to white children. Model 2 (M2RL) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Model 3 (M3RL) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables E2 and F2.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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