Externalizing behavioral problems, basic noncognitive skills at the beginning of kindergarten, as reported by teachers, compared with teachers' reports of white students' skills, by race and ethnicity (Hispanic ELL and English)

Unadjusted (M1R) Adjusted by SES (M2R) Fully adjusted (M3R)
Black 0.239***(0.055) 0.192***(0.054) 0.160***(0.052)
Hispanic ELL -0.075(0.060) -0.183***(0.064) -0.040(0.087)
Hispanic English -0.027(0.043) -0.065(0.044) -0.043(0.043)
Asian -0.120**(0.055) -0.113**(0.056)  -0.031(0.065)
Other 0.068(0.059) 0.045(0.059) 0.051(0.058)


Note: ELL stands for English-language learner. English refers to English-language speaker. Model 1 (M1RL) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each group, relative to white children. Model 2 (M2RL) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Model 3 (M3RL) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables E3 and F3.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.