Working memory executive function at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with white executive function, by race and ethnicity (Hispanic ELL and English)
|Unadjusted (M1R)||Adjusted by SES (M2R)||Fully adjusted (M3R)|
Note: ELL stands for English-language learner. English refers to English-language speaker. Model 1 (M1RL) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation /percentile score for each group, relative to white children. Model 2 (M2RL) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Model 3 (M3RL) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables E2 and F2.
Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)