Math achievement at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with white achievement, by race and ethnicity (Hispanic ELL and English)

Unadjusted (M1R) Adjusted by SES (M2R) Fully adjusted (M3R)
Black -0.386***(0.042) -0.271***(0.041) -0.236***(0.039)
Hispanic ELL -0.688***(0.044) -0.408***(0.045) -0.256***(0.070)
Hispanic English -0.291***(0.036) -0.198***(0.035) -0.155***(0.033)
Asian 0.200***(0.054) 0.183***(0.052) 0.267***(0.059)
Other -0.060(0.046) -0.008(0.045) 0.006(0.043)

Note: ELL stands for English-language learner. English refers to English-language speaker. Model 1 (M1RL) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each group, relative to white children. Model 2 (M2RL) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Model 3 (M3RL) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables E1 and F1.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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