Reading and math achievement at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with white achievement, by race and ethnicity (Hispanic ELL and English)

Reading Math
 M1R  M2R  M3R  M1R M2R M3R
Black -0.235***
(0.045)
-0.114***
(0.043)
-0.069*
(0.042)
-0.386***
(0.042)
-0.271***
(0.041)
-0.236***
(0.039)
Hispanic ELL -0.661***
(0.047)
-0.369***
(0.047)
-0.200***
(0.074)
-0.688***
(0.044)
-0.408***
(0.045)
-0.256***
(0.070)
Hispanic English -0.222***
(0.036)
-0.124***
(0.035)
-0.083**
(0.034)
-0.291***
(0.036)
-0.198***
(0.035)
-0.155***
(0.033)
Asian 0.319***
(0.058)
0.301***
(0.056)
0.373***
(0.062)
0.200***
(0.054)
0.183***
(0.052)
0.267***
(0.059)
Other -0.003
(0.047)
0.053
(0.045)
0.060
(0.044)
-0.060
(0.046)
-0.008
(0.045)
0.006
(0.043)
Controlling for SES  No Yes Yes  No Yes Yes
Controlling for other variables No No Yes No No Yes
Observations 10,240 10,240 10,240 10,220 10,220 10,220
Adj.R2 0.231 0.286 0.339 0.247 0.297 0.362

Note: Robust standard errors are in parentheses. For statistical significance, *** denotes p<0.01, ** denotes p<0.05, and * denotes p<0.1. The number of observations is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10. ELL stands for English-language learner. English refers to English-language speaker. SES refers to socioeconomic status. See Appendix A, Figure E1, and Table F1.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.