Reading achievement at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with white achievement, by race and ethnicity (Hispanic ELL and English)

 Unadjusted (M1R) Adjusted by SES (M2R) Fully adjusted (M3R)
Black -0.235***(0.045) -0.114***(0.043) -0.069*(0.042)
Hispanic ELL -0.661***(0.047) -0.369***(0.047) -0.200***(0.074)
Hispanic English -0.222***(0.036) -0.124***(0.035) -0.083**(0.034)
Asian 0.319***(0.058) 0.301***(0.056) 0.373***(0.062)
Other -0.003(0.047) 0.053(0.045) 0.060(0.044)


Note: ELL stands for English-language learner. English refers to English-language speaker. Model 1 (M1RL) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each group, relative to white children. Model 2 (M2RL) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Model 3 (M3RL) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables E1 and F1.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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