Other noncognitive skills at the beginning of kindergarten, as reported by teachers, compared with teachers' reports of low socioeconomic status students' skills, by SES quintile

Interpersonal relationships

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.123***
(0.044)
0.130***
(0.045)
0.088**
(0.044)
Middle SES 0.248***
(0.046)
0.250***
(0.047)
0.176***
(0.047)
High-middle SES 0.415***
(0.045)
0.410***
(0.047)
0.319***
(0.046)
High SES 0.461***
(0.047)
0.456***
(0.049)
0.348***
(0.049)

 

Closeness to teacher

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.091**
(0.042)
0.078*
(0.043)
0.046
(0.043)
Middle SES 0.191***
(0.044)
0.168***
(0.046)
0.120***
(0.046)
High-middle SES 0.280***
(0.044)
0.247***
(0.046)
0.192***
(0.046)
High SES 0.324***
(0.046)
0.295***
(0.047)
0.229***
(0.048)

 

Eagerness to learn

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.116***
(0.042)
0.130***
(0.043)
0.092**
(0.043)
Middle SES 0.237***
(0.044)
0.249***
(0.045)
0.189***
(0.046)
High-middle SES 0.430***
(0.044)
0.434***
(0.046)
0.355***
(0.047)
High SES 0.502***
(0.046)
0.502***
(0.047)
0.407***
(0.048)

 

Persistence in completing tasks

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.118***
(0.040)
0.144***
(0.041)
0.116***
(0.041)
Middle SES 0.200***
(0.041)
0.229***
(0.043)
0.177***
(0.043)
High-middle SES 0.392***
(0.041)
0.416***
(0.043)
0.346***
(0.044)
High SES 0.497***
(0.043)
0.512***
(0.046)
0.422***
(0.046)

 

Attention

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.118***
(0.040)
0.141***
(0.040)
0.104***
(0.039)
Middle SES 0.229***
(0.043)
0.254***
(0.045)
0.185***
(0.043)
High-middle SES 0.430***
(0.043)
0.449***
(0.045)
0.360***
(0.044)
High SES 0.534***
(0.044)
0.549***
(0.046)
0.438***
(0.045)

 

Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Model 1 (M1S) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each group, relative to low-SES children. Model 2 (M2S) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for race/ethnicity. Model 3 (M3S) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables D5 and F5.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.