Approaches to learning (parents), at the beginning of kindergarten, as reported by parents, by SES quintile, under unadjusted to fully adjusted models

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.265***(0.041) 0.202***(0.043) 0.151***(0.040)
Middle SES 0.321***(0.043) 0.243***(0.045) 0.175***(0.043)
High-middle SES 0.419***(0.044) 0.339***(0.047) 0.259***(0.044)
High SES 0.492***(0.045) 0.416***(0.048) 0.302***(0.046)


Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Model 1 (M1S) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each group, relative to low-SES children. Model 2 (M2S) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for race/ethnicity. Model 3 (M3S) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables D4 and F4.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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