Basic noncognitive skills at the beginning of kindergarten, as reported by teachers, compared with teachers' reports of low socioeconomic status achievement, by SES quintile (Externalizing behavioral problems)

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES -0.000(0.046) -0.030(0.048) 0.016(0.046)
Middle SES -0.111**(0.050) -0.147***(0.052) -0.066(0.050)
High-middle SES -0.218***(0.048) -0.250***(0.051) -0.150***(0.049)
High SES -0.284***(0.049) -0.313***(0.052) -0.191***(0.051)

Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Model 1 (M1S) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each socioeconomic group, relative to low-SES. Model 2 (M2S) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for race/ethnicity. Model 3 (M3S) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables D3 and F3.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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