Basic noncognitive skills at the beginning of kindergarten, as reported by teachers, compared with teachers' reports of low socioeconomic status achievement, by SES quintile (Approaches to learning - teacher)

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.148***(0.040) 0.172***(0.042) 0.132***(0.040)
Middle SES 0.278***(0.043) 0.305***(0.044) 0.230***(0.043)
High-middle SES 0.512***(0.043) 0.531***(0.045) 0.432***(0.043)
High SES 0.618***(0.044) 0.632***(0.046) 0.507***(0.045)

Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Model 1 (M1S) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each socioeconomic group, relative to low-SES. Model 2 (M2S) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for race/ethnicity. Model 3 (M3S) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables D3 and F3.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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