Executive function at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with low socioeconomic status executive function, by SES quintile (Cognitive flexibility)
|Unadjusted (M1S)||Adjusted by race (M2S)||Fully adjusted (M3S)|
Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Model 1 (M1S) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each socioeconomic group, relative to low-SES children. Model 2 (M2S) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for rache/ethnicity. Model 3 (M3S) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables D2 and F2.
Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)