Executive function at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with low socioeconomic status executive function, by SES quintile

Cognitive flexibility

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.144***(0.047) 0.100**(0.048) 0.098**(0.049)
Middle SES 0.264***(0.048) 0.201***(0.049) 0.192***(0.051)
High-middle SES 0.266***(0.047) 0.192***(0.049) 0.182***(0.051)
High SES 0.346***(0.047) 0.272***(0.048) 0.254***(0.051)

Working memory

Unadjusted (M1S) Adjusted by race (M2S) Fully adjusted (M3S)
Low-middle SES 0.201***(0.039) 0.145***(0.040) 0.101***(0.037)
Middle SES 0.399***(0.042) 0.318***(0.043) 0.259***(0.041)
High-middle SES 0.582***(0.043) 0.489***(0.045) 0.416***(0.043)
High SES 0.705***(0.045) 0.608***(0.046) 0.513***(0.045)

Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Model 1 (M1S) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each socioeconomic group, relative to low-SES children. Model 2 (M2S) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for rache/ethnicity. Model 3 (M3S) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables D2 and F2.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

View the underlying data on epi.org.