Math achievement at the beginning of kindergarten, compared with low socioeconomic status achievement, by SES quintile

Unadjusted (M1S) 
Low-middle SES 0.240***(0.032)
Middle SES 0.504***(0.035)
High-middle SES 0.710***(0.036)
High SES 0.957***(0.039)

Note: SES refers to socioeconomic status. Model 1 (M1S) shows the baseline unadjusted standard deviation score for each socioeconomic group, relative to low-SES children. Model 2 (M2S) shows each group's relative performance after controlling for race/ethnicity. Model 3 (M3S) shows relative performance after adjusting for all family and child characteristics, pre-K schooling, and enrichment activities with parents. See Appendix A and Tables D1 and F1.

Source: EPI analysis of ECLS-K, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (National Center for Education Statistics)

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